Karuppan Muthukumar

Anna University, Chennai, Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India

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Publications (40)78.84 Total impact

  • Balasubramani Ramprakash, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the production of biohydrogen from rice mill wastewater. The acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis operating conditions were optimized, for better reducing sugar production. The effect of pH and fermentation time on biohydrogen production from acid and enzymatic hydrolyzed rice mill wastewater was investigated, using Enterobacter aerogenes and Citrobacter ferundii. The enzymatic hydrolysis produced the maximum reducing sugar (15.8 g/L) compared to acid hydrolysis (14.2 g/L). The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes and C. ferundii, fitted well with the Logistic equation. The hydrogen yields of 1.74 mol H2/mol reducing sugar, and 1.40 mol H2/mol reducing sugar, were obtained from the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained from E. aerogenes compared to C. ferundii, and the optimum pH for better hydrogen production was found to be in the range from 6.5 to 7.0. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction obtained was around 71.8% after 60 h of fermentation.
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 09/2014; 39(27):14613–14621. · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • S.R. Vijayalakshmidevi, Karuppan Muthukumar
    Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 01/2014;
  • Zerihun Demrew Yigezu, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the utilization of metal oxides for the biofuel production from vegetable oil. The physical and chemical properties of the diesel-like products obtained, and the influence of reaction variables on the product distribution were investigated. Six different metal oxides (Co3O4, KOH, MoO3, NiO, V2O5, and ZnO) were employed as catalysts and the results indicated that the metal oxides are suitable for catalyzing the conversion of oil into organic liquid products (OLPs). The maximum conversion (87.6%) was obtained with V2O5 at 320 °C in 40 min whereas a minimum conversion (55.1%) was obtained with MoO3 at 390 °C in 30 min. The physical characteristics of the product obtained (density, specific gravity, higher heat value, flash point and kinematic viscosity), were in line with ASTM D6751 (B100) standards. The hydrocarbons majorly present in the product were found to be methyl and ethyl esters. Furthermore, OLPs obtained were distilled and separated into four components. The amount of light hydrocarbons, gasoline, kerosene and heavy oil like components obtained were 18.73%, 33.62%, 24.91% and 90.93%, respectively.
    Energy Conversion and Management 01/2014; 84:326–333. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Arjunan Babuponnusami, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in the disposal of refractory organics demands for newer technologies for the complete mineralization of these wastewaters. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute a promising technology for the treatment of such wastewaters and this study presents a general review on such processes developed to decolorize and/or degrade organic pollutants. Fundamentals and main applications of typical methods such as Fenton, electro-Fenton, photo-Fenton, sono-Fenton, sono-photo-Fenton, sono-electro-Fenton and photo-electro-Fenton are discussed. This review also highlights the application of nano-zero valent iron in treating refractory compounds.
    Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 01/2014; 2(1):557–572.
  • Senthilnathan Nachiappan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the treatment of a high strength pharmaceutical wastewater by sono-Fenton-sorption (SFS). Better results were observed with SFS compared to individual processes and the maximum chemical oxygen demand reduction observed after 180 min of treatment with SFS, sono-Fenton and sono-sorption was 71.9, 48.4, and 43.75%, respectively. The effect of parameters such as initial concentration, dosage of Fenton's reagent, sorbent dosage, and pattern of addition of iron on the performance of SFS was analyzed. The SS and SFS were found to fit well with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Fourier transformed infrared studies of effluent and sorbent before and after treatment confirmed the oxidative degradation of pharmaceutical effluent. Toxicity of the effluent was considerably reduced after the treatment and the electrical energy consumption was significantly reduced, when sonolysis was coupled with sorption and Fenton's process (SFS).
    CLEAN - Soil Air Water 11/2013; · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • S R Vijayalakshmidevi, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the biodegradation of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye, using a novel microorganism isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment. The organism responsible for degradation was identified as Ochrobactrum sp JN214485 by 16S rRNA analysis. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature, pH, immobilized bead loading, and initial dye concentration on % degradation was studied, and their optimal values were found to be 30 °C, 6, 20 g/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The analysis showed that the extracellular enzymes were responsible for the degradation. The biodegradation of MG was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic and FTIR analysis. The phytotoxicity test concluded that the degradation products were less toxic compared to MG. The kinetics of biodegradation was studied and the activation energy was found to be 10.65 kcal/mol.
    MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2013; · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Ramachandran Sivaramakrishnan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 07/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Dharmaraj Gunasundari, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents simultaneous hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction and phenol degradation using Stenotrophomonas sp., isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil. Phenol was used as the sole carbon and energy source for Cr(VI) reduction. The optimization of different operating parameters was done using Placket-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The significant operating variables identified by PBD were initial Cr(VI) and phenol concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time. These variables were optimized by a three-level BBD and the optimum initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial phenol concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time obtained were 16.59 mg/l, 200.05 mg/l, 7.38, 31.96 °C and 4.07 days, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, 81.27 % Cr(VI) reduction and 100 % phenol degradation were observed experimentally. The results concluded that the Stenotrophomonas sp. could be used to decontaminate the effluents containing Cr(VI) and phenol effectively.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 04/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Govindarajan Ramadoss, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the ultrasound assisted ammonia pretreatment (UAAP) of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and the influence of SCB particle size, liquid ammonia concentration, sonication time, temperature and liquid to solid ratio (LSR) on cellulose recovery and delignification. The maximum cellulose recovery and delignification observed at the optimum conditions (particle size 0.274 mm, sonication time 45 min, ammonia concentration 10%, LSR 10 mL/g and temperature 80 °C) were 95.78 and 58.14%, respectively. The dilute acid hydrolysis of pretreated SCB produced 16.58 g/L glucose, 8.21 g/L xylose, 2.78 g/L arabinose, 0.81 g/L furfural and 1.79 g/L acetic acid. The hydrolysate contained less inhibitors compared to the values reported in the literature during fermentable sugar production.
    Biochemical Engineering Journal. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene by Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil and the media optimization by factorial design experiments. The Plackett–Burman design was used to evaluate the effects of eight variables (potassium dihydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, ferrous sulfate, glucose, inoculum concentration, and phenanthrene concentration) on phenanthrene degradation. Based on the results, the critical medium components having significant influence on the degradation were found to be disodium hydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and phenanthrene. Furthermore, these four variables were used as central composite design parameters. The optimum minimal salt medium composition obtained by conventional and factorial design experiments for the degradation of phenanthrene by Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 at pH 6.5 and 30°C were found to be, potassium 2.5 g/L dihydrogen phosphate, 0.3505 g/L disodium hydrogen phosphate, 0.5501 g/L magnesium sulfate, 0.02 g/L calcium chloride, 0.0261 g/L ferrous sulfate, 0.6756 g/L phenanthrene, 0.5 g/L glucose, 0.5 g/L ammonium sulfate, and inoculum 5% v/v. The phenanthrene degradation was confirmed by analyzing the metabolites formed.
    CLEAN - Soil Air Water 01/2013; 41(1). · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Ramachandran Sivaramakrishnan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the production of methyl ester from Oedogonium sp. oil was studied using an isolated thermo-, solvent-, and sono-tolerant Bacillus sp. lipase immobilized on celite. The application of ultrasound during the reaction reduced the reaction time significantly. The effect of sonication time, enzyme dosage, water content, methanol/oil molar ratio, and solvent addition on the performance of transesterification was studied. The reaction time required in the presence and absence of ultrasound was 2 and 40 h, respectively. Under optimum conditions, 75 and 82% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields were obtained for normal and ultrasound-assisted transesterification, respectively. The reusability of the immobilized enzyme after five cycles did not show much loss in enzyme activity, and this indicates that the isolated enzyme was not affected as a result of the application of ultrasound.
    Energy & Fuels. 09/2012; 26(10):6387–6392.
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30°C temperature, and 18.6 × 106 cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study.
    CLEAN - Soil Air Water 08/2012; 40(8). · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Arjunan Babuponnusami, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the degradation of phenol by the photoelectro-Fenton method using nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads. The effect of nZVI loading, H(2)O(2) concentration, pH, and initial phenol concentration on phenol degradation and chemical oxygen demand reduction was studied. The scanning electron microscope images of the nZVI beads were used to analyze their morphology, and their diameters were in the range of 500-600 μm. The concentration of nZVI in the beads was varied from 0.1 to 0.6 g/L. Fe(2+) leakage of 1 and 3 % was observed with 0.5 and 0.6 g/L of nZVI, respectively, and the observed beads' fracture frequency was 2 %, which confirmed the stability of the beads. The optimum operating conditions that arrived for better degradation were 0.5 g/L of nZVI, pH 6.2, and 400 mg H(2)O(2)/L. The treatment of effluent by this method increased the biodegradability index of the effluent, and the degradation data were found to follow pseudo first-order kinetics.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2012; · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Rajendran Velmurugan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) for fermentable sugar production was carried out and the influence of particle size, liquid to solid ratio (LSR), NaOH concentration, temperature and sonication time on delignification and reducing sugar production was ascertained with Placket-Burman design. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by a central composite design (CCD) and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum reducing sugar yield (96.27%) were particle size of 0.27 mm, LSR of 25 ml/g, NaOH concentration of 2.89% (w/v), temperature of 70.15°C and pretreatment time of 47.42 min. Under these conditions, 92.11% of theoretical reducing sugar yield was observed experimentally. The substantial reduction in pretreatment time and temperature with improved efficiency is the most attractive features of the ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment.
    Bioresource Technology 02/2012; 112:293-9. · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • Senthilnathan Nachiappan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, sonolysis (US), a dual oxidant system (DOX), and ultrasound coupled with a dual oxidant system (US/DOX) were employed to degrade real pharmaceutical effluent. In a DOX system, two effective oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide and activated persulphate were used simultaneously. In this work, for the first time, an easily available waste material, iron swarf, was used as an activator for persulphate oxidation. Iron swarf coupled with an ultrasound system showed better activation. High iron dosage, acidic pH and high temperature favoured degradation with both DOX and US/DOX. Sequential addition of iron swarf produced better results compared to single-step addition. The activation energy was found to be 47.25 and 23.47 kJ/mol for DOX and US/DOX, respectively. The biodegradability index of the effluent was enhanced from 0.13 to 0.81 after treatment with US/DOX.
    Environmental Technology 01/2012; 34(1-4):209-17. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Ramachandran Sivaramakrishnan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the production of biodiesel from algae oil by transesterification using thermophilic microorganism. The microorganism used in this study was isolated from the soil sample obtained near the furnace. The organism was identified as Bacillus sp., and the lipase obtained was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography leading to 8.6-fold purification and 13% recovery. Molecular weight of the enzyme was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and it was found to be 45 kDa. The effect of pH, temperature, and solvent addition on lipase activity was investigated. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 55 °C and at pH 7 and was also found to be highly active in the presence of organic solvents such as hexane and t-butanol. The isolated lipase was successfully used for the production of biodiesel. The transesterification activity of the isolated lipase showed 76% of fatty acid methyl esters yield in 40 h, which indicated that this enzyme can be used as a potential biocatalyst for the biodiesel production.
    Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 12/2011; 166(4):1095-111. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Mathur Nadarajan Kathiravan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the ultrasound mediated reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) into non-toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) using sludge obtained during the electrocoagulation of pharmaceutical wastewater (EC sludge). Experiments were carried out with and without ultrasound to explore its influence. The effect of initial concentration of Cr(VI) (100-200 mg/l), pH (6-8) and EC sludge dosage (5-10 g/l) on Cr(VI) reduction was studied. The morphological and functional group changes of EC sludge due to Cr(VI) reduction were analysed with scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, respectively. The reduction rates observed in the presence of ultrasound were found to be higher than the rates observed for without ultrasound. The results concluded that the EC sludge can be successfully used for reduction of Cr(VI) at lower cost.
    Environmental Technology 10/2011; 32(13-14):1523-31. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Qusay Jaffer Rasheed, Kannaiyan Pandian, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: Petroleum refineries release wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and cannot be treated easily. This study presents the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) in the presence of ultrasonication. NZVI characteristics were analyzed using SEM and XRD. The influence of NZVI dosage and initial pH on % chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was studied. From the results, it can be inferred that a dosage of 0.15 g/l and an initial pH are optimum for the effective degradation of effluents. The degradation data were found to follow first order kinetics. The results indicate that using NZVI in combination with ultrasonication is an efficient method for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater.
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 09/2011; 18(5):1138-42. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Rajendran Velmurugan, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the production of sugar monomers from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by sono-assisted acid hydrolysis was performed. The SCB was subjected to sono-assisted alkaline pretreatment. The cellulose and hemicellulose recovery observed in the solid content was 99% and 78.95%, respectively and lignin removal observed during the pretreatment was about 75.44%. The solid content obtained was subjected to sono-assisted acid hydrolysis. Under optimized conditions, the maximum hexose and pentose yield observed was 69.06% and 81.35% of theoretical yield, respectively. The hydrolysate obtained was found to contain very less inhibitors, which improved the bioethanol production and the ethanol yield observed was 0.17 g/g of pretreated SCB.
    Bioresource Technology 07/2011; 102(14):7119-23. · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • Arjunan Babuponnusami, Karuppan Muthukumar
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    ABSTRACT: The present work focuses on the performance of Fenton, sono‐Fenton, and sono‐photo‐Fenton processes for the oxidation of phenol present in aqueous solution. The effects of H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, pH, and initial phenol concentration on the oxidation of phenol were studied. The optimum Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations for the Fenton process were 45 and 800 mg/L, respectively. For the sono‐Fenton process, the optimum Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations were 30 and 800 mg/L, respectively. The optimal conditions for the sono‐photo‐Fenton process were found to be 20 mg/L of Fe2+ and 700 mg/L of H2O2. The optimum pH was found to be 3 for the processes investigated in the present study. The analysis of results showed that the sono‐photo‐Fenton method reduced the Fe2+ concentration by 30–50% and the H2O2 concentration by 12.5%. It was found that the sono‐photo‐Fenton technique showed better performance than the Fenton and sono‐Fenton processes for the oxidation of phenol. A lumped kinetic model was used to predict the chemical oxygen demand reduction and the model was found to fit the data.
    CLEAN - Soil Air Water 01/2011; 39(2):142 - 147. · 2.05 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

286 Citations
78.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Anna University, Chennai
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India
  • 2013
    • Centro Universitário Sant’Anna
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2012
    • St. Joseph's College of Engineering, Chennai
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India
    • Adhiparasakthi Engineering College
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Kānchipuram, State of Tamil Nadu, India
  • 2004–2006
    • Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology
      Karaikudi, Tamil Nādu, India