[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detection of obstruction site is very important for the surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Among the various diagnostic modalities for detection that have been tried, an analysis of snoring sound could be a simple and safe alternative. This study evaluates the usefulness of sound analysis in OSA as a detection tool of obstruction site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air caloric results are supposed to be influenced by anatomic changes of the middle ear. The aims of our study were to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of abnormal air caloric results in patients with unilateral chronic otitis media and without any history of vertigo, and to compare caloric results with there of other vestibular function tests (VFTs).
Twenty five patients with unilateral chronic otitis media (COM) who were scheduled for surgery underwent VFTs preoperatively. Hearing was assessed using pure-tone audiometry and vestibular function was assessed using a set of VFTs: air caloric, head-shaking nystagmus (HSN), vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN), and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests.
Six patients (24%) showed pathologic canal paresis (CP) on COM-sided ears. Two patients showed pathologic CP on the contralateral side. However, both of the two showed inverted nystagmus to warm air stimulation on the COM-side and hyperactive nystagmus to cold air stimulation on the COM-side, which means that the COM-sided ear was stimulated too much. There was pathologic HSN in 12 patients (48%), pathologic VIN in 7 (28%), and pathologic SVV in 5 (20%). Overall, 20 (80%) patients showed abnormal findings through a set of VFTs. Patients with an interaural difference of bone-conduction hearing thresholds >/=10 dB tended to show more abnormal VFT results than those for whom the interaural difference of bone-conduction hearing thresholds was <10 dB.
Our data show that one-fourth of patients with unilateral COM show abnormal caloric results on the COM side. However, subclinical latent vestibular imbalances were found to be common, which might be related to the gradual vestibular involvement in inflammatory processes, regardless of the caloric results. Results of a set of VFTs should be referred to when determining vestibular imbalance in patients with COM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Korean Version of the Sniffin' stick (KVSS) is the first olfactory test for Koreans. Although we adopted the Sniffin' Stick, we modified it to make it more suitable for Koreans. KVSS I is a screening test, and KVSS II a more comprehensive test. The aims of this study were to apply the KVSS test and assess its clinical validity and reliability in comparison to CC-SIT.
One hundred and seventy-four healthy volunteers and 206 patients with subjective decreased olfaction participated. Each participant was tested with both the CC-SIT and KVSS tests and then the correlation between these two tests was analyzed.
The correlation between CC-SIT and KVSS I was 0.720 (p<0.01) and 0.714 between the CC-SIT and KVSS II total scores (p<0.01). When the degree of olfaction based on the KVSS I was used, the mean CC-SIT score was 8.6+/-1.8 for normosmia, 7.3+/-2.2 for hyposmia, and 4.2+/-2.3 for anosmia. When the KVSS II total was applied, the mean CC-SIT score was 8.4+/-1.8 for normosmia, 7.3+/-2.0 for hyposmia, and 3.7+/-2.0 for anosmia. The means of the three group differed significantly in both cases (p<0.01).
Thus, the KVSS test demonstrates validity and reliability for Korean in comparison with CC-SIT.