[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosed incidence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is increasing, and the underlying genomic mechanisms have not yet been defined. Using exome- and genome-sequence analysis of SI-NETs, we identified recurrent somatic mutations and deletions in CDKN1B, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene, which encodes p27. We observed frameshift mutations of CDKN1B in 14 of 180 SI-NETs, and we detected hemizygous deletions encompassing CDKN1B in 7 out of 50 SI-NETs, nominating p27 as a tumor suppressor and implicating cell cycle dysregulation in the etiology of SI-NETs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have implicated the mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase; MTOR) pathway in the regulation of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) growth. We explored whether expression of MTOR pathway components has prognostic significance in NET patients.
We evaluated immunohistochemical expression of MTOR and phospho (p) -MTOR; its downstream targets RPS6KB1, RPS6, and EIF4EBP1; and its upstream regulators, in a cohort of 195 archival neuroendocrine tumors. We correlated expression levels with clinical outcomes, after adjusting for other prognostic variables.
We observed anticipated correlations between expression of upstream components of the MTOR pathway and their downstream targets. Expression of PIK3CA, MTOR, or p-EIF4EBP1 was associated with high MKI67 (Ki-67) labeling index. We failed to identify clinical correlations associated with expression of the upstream regulators TSC1, TSC2, AKT, p-AKT, PDPK1, PTEN, PIK3R1, or PIK3CA. In contrast, high expression of MTOR or its activated downstream targets p-RPS6KB1, p-RPS6, or p-EIF4EBP1 was associated with adverse clinical outcomes.
Our observations suggest that expression of MTOR or its downstream targets may be adverse prognostic factors in neuroendocrine tumors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rarity of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) has contributed to a paucity of large epidemiologic studies of patients with this condition. We characterized presenting symptoms and clinical outcomes in a prospective database of over 900 patients with NET. We used data from patient questionnaires and the medical record to characterize presenting symptoms, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The majority of patients in this database had gastroenteropancreatic NET. The median duration of patient-reported symptoms prior to diagnosis was 3.4 months; 19.5% reported durations from 1 to 5 years, 2.5% from 5 to 10 years and 2% greater than 10 years. The median DFS among patients with resected small bowel NET or pancreatic NET was 5.8 yrs and 4.1 years, respectively. After correcting for left truncation bias, the median OS was 7.9 yrs for advanced small bowel NET and 3.9 yrs for advanced pancreatic NET. Chromogranin A (CGA) above twice the upper limit of normal was associated with shorter survival times (HR 2.8 (1.9, 4.0) p<0.001) patients with metastatic disease, regardless of tumor subtype. Our data suggest that while most NET patients are diagnosed soon after symptom onset, prolonged symptom duration prior to diagnosis is a prominent feature of this disease. Though limited to observations from a large referral center, our observations confirm the prognostic value of CGA, and suggest that median survival durations may be shorter than reported in other institutional databases.
Endocrine Related Cancer 01/2013; · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are poorly understood. We tested risk associations in patients with sporadic NET and non-cancer controls, using a custom array containing 1536 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 355 candidate genes. We identified 18 SNPs associated with NET risk at a P-value <0.01 in a discovery set of 261 cases and 319 controls. Two of these SNPs were found to be significantly associated with NET risk in an independent replication set of 235 cases and 113 controls, at a P value ≤0.05. An SNP in interleukin 12A (IL12A rs2243123), a gene implicated in inflammatory response, replicated with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (aOR) = 1.47 (1.03, 2.11) P-trend = 0.04. A second SNP in defender against cell death, (DAD1 rs8005354), a gene that modulates apoptosis, replicated at aOR = 1.43 (1.02, 2.02) P-trend = 0.04. Consistent with our observations, a pathway analysis, performed in the discovery set, suggested that genetic variation in inflammatory pathways or apoptosis pathways is associated with NET risk. Our findings support further investigation of the potential role of IL12A and DAD1 in the etiology of NET.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic studies of midgut carcinoid cancer have exclusively focused on genomic changes of the tumor cells. We investigated the role of constitutional genetic polymorphisms in predisposing individuals to ileal carcinoids. In all, 239 cases and 110 controls were collected from three institutions: the Uppsala University Hospital; the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and the MD Anderson Cancer Center, and were genotyped using microarrays assaying >300 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Association with rs2208059 in KIF16B approached statistical significance (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio=2.42, P=4.16×10(-7)) at a Bonferroni-corrected level (<1.62×10(-7)). Using two computational algorithms, four copy-number variants (CNVs) were identified in multiple cases that were absent in study controls and markedly less frequent in ∼1500 population-based controls. Of these four constitutional CNVs identified in blood-derived DNA, a 40 kb heterozygous deletion in Chr18q22.1 corresponded with a region frequently showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in ileal carcinoid tumor cells based on our meta-analysis of previously published cytogenetic studies (69.7% LOH, 95% confidence interval=60.0-77.9%). We analyzed the constitutional 40 kb deletion on chr18 in our study samples with a real-time quantitative PCR assay; 14/226 cases (6.19%) and 2/97 controls (2.06%) carried the CNV, although the exact boundaries of each deletion have not been determined. Given the small sample size, our findings warrant an independent cohort for a replication study. Owing to the rarity of this disease, we believe these results will provide a valuable resource for future work on this serious condition by allowing others to make efficient use of their samples in targeted studies.
Endocrine Related Cancer 01/2011; 18(1):171-80. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We address the prognostic and predictive value of KRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF mutations for clinical outcomes in response to active agents in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
We determined KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in tumours from 168 patients treated for mCRC at two institutions. All patients received 5-FU-based first-line chemotherapy and treatment outcome was analysed retrospectively.
KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were present in 62 (37%), 13 (8%) and 26 (15%) cases, respectively. Multivariate analysis uncovered BRAF mutation as an independent prognostic factor for decreased survival (hazard ratio (HR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-7.6). In addition, patients with BRAF-mutant tumours had significantly lower progression-free survival (PFS: HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.2-7.4) than those whose tumors that carried wild-type BRAF. Among 92 patients treated using chemotherapy and cetuximab as salvage therapy, KRAS mutation was associated with lack of response (P=0.002) and shorter PFS (P=0.09). BRAF (P=0.0005) and PIK3CA (P=0.01) mutations also predicted reduced PFS in response to cetuximab salvage therapy.
These results underscore the potential of mutational profiling to identify CRCs with different natural histories or treatment responses. The adverse significance of BRAF mutation should inform patient selection and stratification in clinical trials.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2009; 101(3):465-72. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variations or polymorphisms within genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway alter DNA repair capacity. Reduced DNA repair (NER) capacity may result in tumors that are more susceptible to cisplatin chemotherapy, which functions by causing DNA damage. We investigated the potential predictive significance of functional NER single nucleotide polymorphisms in esophageal cancer patients treated with (n = 262) or without (n = 108) cisplatin.
Four NER polymorphisms XPD Asp312Asn; XPD Lys751Gln, ERCC1 8092C/A, and ERCC1 codon 118C/T were each assessed in polymorphism-cisplatin treatment interactions for overall survival (OS), with progression-free survival (PFS) as a secondary endpoint.
No associations with ERCC1 118 were found. Polymorphism-cisplatin interactions were highly significant in both OS (P = 0.002, P = 0.0001, and P < 0.0001) and PFS (P = 0.006, P = 0.008, and P = 0.0007) for XPD 312, XPD 751, and ERCC1 8092, respectively. In cisplatin-treated patients, variant alleles of XPD 312, XPD 751, and ERCC1 8092 were each associated with significantly improved OS (and PFS): adjusted hazard ratios of homozygous variants versus wild-type ranged from 0.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.5] to 0.31 (95% CI: 0.1-0.7). In contrast, in patients who did not receive cisplatin, variant alleles of XPD 751 and ERCC1 8092 had significantly worse survival, with adjusted hazard ratios of homozygous variants ranging from 2.47 (95% CI: 1.1-5.5) to 3.73 (95% CI: 1.6-8.7). Haplotype analyses affirmed these results.
DNA repair polymorphisms are associated with OS and PFS, and if validated may predict for benefit from cisplatin therapy in patients with esophageal cancer.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 09/2009; 19(8):613-25. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Methods: Results: Conclusions: Materials and methods Results Discussion References Acknowledgements Figures and TablesBackground: We address the prognostic and predictive value of KRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF mutations for clinical outcomes in response to active agents in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
British Journal of Cancer 07/2009; 101(3):465-472. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that temozolomide has activity in neuroendocrine tumors. Low levels of the DNA repair enzyme, O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), are associated with sensitivity to temozolomide in other tumor types. We evaluated the prevalence of MGMT deficiency in neuroendocrine tumors and correlated MGMT deficiency with treatment response to temozolomide-based regimens.
The prevalence of MGMT deficiency, measured by immunohistochemistry, was assessed in 97 archival neuroendocrine tumor specimens. Rates of treatment response and survival were next evaluated in a cohort of 101 consecutive neuroendocrine tumor patients who had received treatment with a temozolomide-based regimen at one of three institutions. MGMT expression was directly correlated with treatment response in 21 patients who had available tumor tissue and response data.
In archival specimens, MGMT deficiency was observed in 19 of 37 (51%) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and 0 of 60 (0%) carcinoid tumors (P < 0.0001). In the clinical cohort, 18 of 53 (34%) patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors but only 1 of 44 (2%) patients with carcinoid tumors (P < 0.001) experienced a partial or complete response to temozolomide-based therapy. Among 21 patients with evaluable tumor tissue who had also received treatment with temozolomide, 4 of 5 patients with MGMT-deficient tumors (all pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) and 0 of 16 patients with tumors showing intact MGMT expression responded to treatment (P = 0.001).
MGMT deficiency, measured by immunohistochemistry, is more common in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors than in carcinoid tumors as is treatment response to temozolomide-based therapy. Absence of MGMT may explain the sensitivity of some pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors to treatment.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2009; 15(1):338-45. · 7.84 Impact Factor