José Baselga

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (395)4144.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Results from the phase III trial CLEOPATRA in HER2-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel over placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. We performed exploratory analyses of the incidence and time to development of CNS metastases in patients from CLEOPATRA. Patients received pertuzumab/placebo: 840 mg in Cycle 1, then 420 mg; trastuzumab: 8 mg/kg in Cycle 1, then 6 mg/kg; docetaxel: initiated at 75 mg/m(2). Study drugs were administered intravenously every 3 weeks. The log-rank test was used for between-arm comparisons of time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and overall survival in patients with CNS metastases as first site of disease progression. The Kaplan-Meier approach was used to estimate median time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and median overall survival. The incidence of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was similar between arms; placebo arm: 51/406 (12.6%), pertuzumab arm: 55/402 (13.7%). Median time to development of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was 11.9 months in the placebo arm and 15.0 months in the pertuzumab arm; HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.85, P=0.0049. Overall survival in patients who developed CNS metastases as first site of disease progression showed a trend in favor of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel; HR=0.66, 95% CI 0.39-1.11. Median overall survival was 26.3 versus 34.4 months in the placebo and pertuzumab arms, respectively. Treatment comparison of the survival curves was not statistically significant for the log-rank test (P=0.1139), but significant for the Wilcoxon test (P=0.0449). While the incidence of CNS metastases was similar between arms, our results suggest that pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel delays the onset of CNS disease compared with placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel.The trial is registered with, NCT00567190.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial NeOAdjuvant Herceptin (NOAH) trial in women with HER2-positive locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer, neoadjuvant trastuzumab significantly improved pathological complete response rate and event-free survival. We report updated results from our primary analysis to establish the long-term benefit of trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant therapy. We did this multicentre, open-label, randomised trial in women with HER2-positive locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), by computer program with a minimisation technique, to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone or with 1 year of trastuzumab (concurrently with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and continued after surgery). A parallel group with HER2-negative disease was included and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone. Our primary endpoint was event-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered at, ISRCTN86043495. Between June 20, 2002, and Dec 12, 2005, we enrolled 235 patients with HER2-positive disease, of whom 118 received chemotherapy alone and 117 received chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. 99 additional patients with HER2-negative disease were included in the parallel cohort. After a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 3·1-6·8) the event-free-survival benefit from the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy was maintained in patients with HER2-positive disease. 5 year event-free survival was 58% (95% CI 48-66) in patients in the trastuzumab group and 43% (34-52) in those in the chemotherapy group; the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for event-free survival between the two randomised HER2-positive treatment groups was 0·64 (95% CI 0·44-0·93; two-sided log-rank p=0·016). Event-free survival was strongly associated with pathological complete remission in patients given trastuzumab. Of the 68 patients with a pathological complete response (45 with trastuzumab and 23 with chemotherapy alone), the HR for event-free survival between those with and without trastuzumab was 0·29 (95% CI 0·11-0·78). During follow-up only four cardiovascular adverse events were regarded by the investigator to be drug-related (grade 2 lymphostasis and grade 2 lymphoedema, each in one patient in the trastuzumab group, and grade 2 thrombosis and grade 2 deep vein thrombosis, each in one patient in the chemotherapy-alone group). These results show a sustained benefit in event-free survival from trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant therapy followed by adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer, and provide new insight into the association between pathological complete remission and long-term outcomes in HER2-positive disease. F Hoffmann-La Roche.
    The Lancet Oncology 03/2014; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of ficlatuzumab, a humanized hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) inhibitory monoclonal antibody, as monotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors and liver metastases. Patients and Methods: Patients with p-Met-positive tumors enrolled in 3 dose-escalation cohorts, receiving ficlatuzumab 2, 10, or 20 mg/kg once per 14-day cycle. Pharmacodynamic changes in liver tumor biopsies and serum, pharmacokinetics, safety, and clinical activity were assessed. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred in the 19 patients enrolled (n=6, 2 mg/kg; n=7, 10 mg/kg; n=6, 20 mg/kg). The most frequent diagnosis was colorectal cancer (n=15; 79%). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were asthenia, peripheral edema, hepatic pain (32% each), and cough (26%). Laboratory abnormalities of decreased serum albumin were present in all patients. Ficlatuzumab at 20 mg/kg lowered median levels of tumor p-Met (-53%), p-ERK (-43%), p-Akt (-2%), and increased median HGF levels (+33%), at the last on-study time point relative to baseline. Mean serum HGF levels increased with ficlatuzumab dose and number of treatment cycles. Ficlatuzumab exhibited linear pharmacokinetics and long terminal half-life (7.4 to 10 days). Best overall response was stable disease (SD) in 28% of patients, including 1 pancreatic cancer patient with SD >1 year. Ficlatuzumab exhibited good safety/tolerability and demonstrated ability to modulate the HGF/c-Met pathway and downstream signaling in the tumor in patients with advanced solid tumors. Safety, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacokinetic data for ficlatuzumab confirmed the recommended phase 2 dose of 20 mg/kg once per 14-day cycle.
    Clinical Cancer Research 03/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the BOLERO-2 trial, everolimus (EVE), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, demonstrated significant clinical benefit with an acceptable safety profile when administered with exemestane (EXE) in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+)) advanced breast cancer. We report on the incidence, time course, severity, and resolution of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) as well as incidence of dose modifications during the extended follow-up of this study. Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive EVE 10 mg/day or placebo (PBO), with open-label EXE 25 mg/day (n = 724). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Safety evaluations included recording of AEs, laboratory values, dose interruptions/adjustments, and study drug discontinuations. The safety population comprised 720 patients (EVE + EXE, 482; PBO + EXE, 238). The median follow-up was 18 months. Class-effect toxicities, including stomatitis, pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia, were generally of mild or moderate severity and occurred relatively early after treatment initiation (except pneumonitis); incidence tapered off thereafter. EVE dose reduction and interruption (360 and 705 events, respectively) required for AE management were independent of patient age. The median duration of dose interruption was 7 days. Discontinuation of both study drugs because of AEs was higher with EVE + EXE (9%) versus PBO + EXE (3%). Most EVE-associated AEs occur soon after initiation of therapy, are typically of mild or moderate severity, and are generally manageable with dose reduction and interruption. Discontinuation due to toxicity was uncommon. Understanding the time course of class-effect AEs will help inform preventive and monitoring strategies as well as patient education. NCT00863655.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This phase I, first-in-human study evaluated the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics and preliminary efficacy of SAR245409, an inhibitor of pan-Class I PI3K and mTOR, administered orally once or twice daily in patients with advanced solid tumors. Eighty-three patients received SAR245409. Doses ranged from 15-120 mg twice daily, and 70-100 mg once daily. A 3+3 dose-escalation design was used to determine the MTD. Patients were evaluated for adverse events (AEs) and response. Assessments included PK, pharmacodynamic impact of SAR245409 on PI3K pathway signaling in hair sheath cells, skin and tumor, and characterization of tumor molecular alterations. The MTDs were 50 mg twice daily and 90 mg once daily. The most frequent treatment-related AEs were nausea (36.1%), diarrhea (21.7%), vomiting (19.3%) and decreased appetite (16.9%). The most frequent treatment-related grade 3/4 AEs were increases in alanine aminotransferase (6.0%) and aspartate aminotransferase (4.8%). SAR245409 had a relatively short plasma half-life (2.96-7.52 hours). At MTDs, once- and twice-daily regimens yielded similar mean steady-state plasma exposure. A reduction in PI3K and mTORC1/mTORC2 pathway signaling was observed in serial hair sheath cells, skin and tumor samples. Best response was stable disease (SD) in 48% of evaluable patients; seven patients had minor tumor regression. Twelve patients with SD were treated for ≥16 weeks. No trend was observed correlating tumor molecular alteration with antitumor activity. SAR245409 had a manageable safety profile, demonstrated reduced PI3K and mTORC1/mTORC2 pathway signaling and was associated with clinically relevant SD.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathological complete response has been proposed as a surrogate endpoint for prediction of long-term clinical benefit, such as disease-free survival, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). We had four key objectives: to establish the association between pathological complete response and EFS and OS, to establish the definition of pathological complete response that correlates best with long-term outcome, to identify the breast cancer subtypes in which pathological complete response is best correlated with long-term outcome, and to assess whether an increase in frequency of pathological complete response between treatment groups predicts improved EFS and OS. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Medline for clinical trials of neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer. To be eligible, studies had to meet three inclusion criteria: include at least 200 patients with primary breast cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery; have available data for pathological complete response, EFS, and OS; and have a median follow-up of at least 3 years. We compared the three most commonly used definitions of pathological complete response-ypT0 ypN0, ypT0/is ypN0, and ypT0/is-for their association with EFS and OS in a responder analysis. We assessed the association between pathological complete response and EFS and OS in various subgroups. Finally, we did a trial-level analysis to assess whether pathological complete response could be used as a surrogate endpoint for EFS or OS. We obtained data from 12 identified international trials and 11 955 patients were included in our responder analysis. Eradication of tumour from both breast and lymph nodes (ypT0 ypN0 or ypT0/is ypN0) was better associated with improved EFS (ypT0 ypN0: hazard ratio [HR] 0·44, 95% CI 0·39-0·51; ypT0/is ypN0: 0·48, 0·43-0·54) and OS (0·36, 0·30-0·44; 0·36, 0·31-0·42) than was tumour eradication from the breast alone (ypT0/is; EFS: HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·55-0·66; OS 0·51, 0·45-0·58). We used the ypT0/is ypN0 definition for all subsequent analyses. The association between pathological complete response and long-term outcomes was strongest in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (EFS: HR 0·24, 95% CI 0·18-0·33; OS: 0·16, 0·11-0·25) and in those with HER2-positive, hormone-receptor-negative tumours who received trastuzumab (EFS: 0·15, 0·09-0·27; OS: 0·08, 0·03, 0·22). In the trial-level analysis, we recorded little association between increases in frequency of pathological complete response and EFS (R(2)=0·03, 95% CI 0·00-0·25) and OS (R(2)=0·24, 0·00-0·70). Patients who attain pathological complete response defined as ypT0 ypN0 or ypT0/is ypN0 have improved survival. The prognostic value is greatest in aggressive tumour subtypes. Our pooled analysis could not validate pathological complete response as a surrogate endpoint for improved EFS and OS. US Food and Drug Administration.
    The Lancet 02/2014; · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This phase 1 trial was undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity of the novel smoothened inhibitor sonidegib (LDE225), a potent inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) signaling, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Oral sonidegib was administered to 103 patients with advanced solid tumors, including medulloblastoma (MB) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), at doses ranging from 100 to 3000 mg daily and 250 to 750 mg twice daily, continuously, with a single-dose PK run-in period. Dose-escalations were guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model. Safety, tolerability, efficacy, PK, and biomarkers in skin and tumor biopsies were assessed. The MTDs of sonidegib were 800 mg daily and 250 mg twice daily. The main DLT of reversible grade 3/4 elevated serum creatine kinase (18% of patients) was observed at doses ≥ the MTD in an exposure-dependent manner. Common grade 1/2 adverse events included muscle spasm, myalgia, gastrointestinal toxicities, increased liver enzymes, fatigue, dysgeusia, and alopecia. Sonidegib exposure increased dose proportionally up to 400 mg daily, and displayed nonlinear PK at higher doses. Sonidegib exhibited exposure-dependent reduction in GLI1 mRNA expression. Tumor responses observed in patients with MB and BCC were associated with evidence of Hh pathway activation. Sonidegib has an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced solid tumors and exhibits antitumor activity in advanced BCC and relapsed MB, which is strongly associated with activated Hh pathway, as determined by gene expression.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation in patients with HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer has been implicated in de novo and acquired trastuzumab resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical activity of the PI3K inhibitor buparlisib (BKM120) in patients with HER2+ advanced/metastatic breast cancer resistant to trastuzumab-based therapy. In the dose-escalation portion of this Phase I/II study, patients with trastuzumab-resistant locally advanced or metastatic HER2+ breast cancer were treated with daily oral doses of buparlisib and weekly intravenous trastuzumab (2 mg/kg). Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model with overdose control. Of 18 enrolled patients, 17 received buparlisib. One dose-limiting toxicity of Grade 3 general weakness was reported at the 100-mg/day dose level (the single-agent maximum tolerated dose) and this dose level was declared the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) of buparlisib in combination with trastuzumab. Common (>25%) adverse events included rash (39%), hyperglycemia (33%), and diarrhea (28%). The pharmacokinetic profile of buparlisib was not affected by its combination with trastuzumab. At the RP2D, there were two (17%) partial responses, seven (58%) patients had stable disease (≥6 weeks), and the disease control rate was 75%. Pharmacodynamic studies showed inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MEK/ERK pathways. In this patient population, the combination of buparlisib and trastuzumab was well tolerated and preliminary signs of clinical activity were observed. The Phase II portion of this study will further explore the safety and efficacy of this combination at the RP2D.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of selective PI3K and AKT inhibitors were compared in human tumor cell lines in which the pathway is dysregulated. Both caused inhibition of AKT, relief of feedback inhibition of RTKs, and growth arrest. However, only the PI3K inhibitors caused rapid induction of cell death. In seeking a mechanism for this phenomenon, we found that PI3K inhibition, but not AKT inhibition, causes rapid inhibition of wild type RAS and of RAF/MEK/ERK signaling. Inhibition of RAS-ERK signaling is transient, rebounding a few hours after drug addition, and is required for rapid induction of apoptosis. Combined MEK and AKT inhibition also promotes cell death and in murine models of HER2+ cancer, either pulsatile PI3K inhibition or combined MEK and AKT inhibition causes tumor regressions. We conclude that PI3K is upstream of RAS and AKT and that pulsatile inhibition of both pathways is sufficient for effective antitumor activity.
    Cancer Discovery 01/2014; · 10.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a retrospective exploratory analysis of the association of the research-based prediction analysis of microarray 50 (PAM50) subtype predictor with pathologic complete response (pCR) and event-free survival (EFS) in women enrolled in the NeOAdjuvant Herceptin (NOAH) trial. Gene expression profiling was performed using RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded core biopsies from 114 pretreated patients with HER2-positive (HER2(+)) tumors randomized to receive neoadjuvant doxorubicin/paclitaxel (AT) followed by cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil (CMF), or the same regimen in combination with trastuzumab for one year. A control cohort of 42 patients with HER2-negative tumors treated with AT-CMF was also included. The PAM50 subtypes, the PAM50 proliferation score, and the PAM50 risk of relapse score based on subtype (RORS) and subtype and proliferation (RORP) were evaluated. HER2-enriched (HER2-E) tumors predominated within HER2(+) disease, although all PAM50 intrinsic subtypes were identified across the three cohorts. The OR for achieving pCR with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy for HER2(+)/HER2-E and HER2(+)/RORP-high were 5.117 (P = 0.009) and 8.469 (P = 0.025), respectively, compared with chemotherapy only. The pCR rates of HER2(+)/HER2-E and HER2(+)/RORP-high after trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were 52.9% and 75.0%, respectively. A statistically nonsignificant trend was observed for more pronounced survival benefit with trastuzumab in patients with HER2(+)/HER2-E and HER2(+)/RORP-high tumors compared with patients with HER2(+)/non-HER2-E and HER2(+)/non-RORP-high tumors, respectively. As determined by EFS and pCR, patients with HER2(+)/HER2-E tumors, or HER2(+)/RORP-high tumors, benefit substantially from trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. The clinical value of this genomic test within HER2(+) disease warrants further investigation. Clin Cancer Res; 20(2); 511-21. ©2014 AACR.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2014; 20(2):511-21. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin liposomal doxorubicin, (Myocet™; Sopherion Therapeutics, Inc Canada, and Cephalon, Europe) (NPLD; Myocet(®)) in combination with trastuzumabHerceptin(®) (Hoffmann-La Roche) has shown promising activity and cardiac safety. We conducted a randomized phase III trial of first-line NPLD plus trastuzumab and paclitaxel (Pharmachemie B.V.) (MTP) versus trastuzumab plus paclitaxel (TP) in patients with human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients were randomly assigned to NPLD (M, 50 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for six cycles), trastuzumab (T, 4 mg/kg loading dose followed by 2 mg/kg weekly), and paclitaxel (P, 80 mg/m(2) weekly) or T + P at the same doses until progression or toxicity. The primary efficacy outcome was progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred and eighty-one patients were allocated to receive MTP, and 183 to TP. Median PFS was 16.1 and 14.5 months with MTP and TP, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) 0.84; two-sided P = 0.174]. In patients with estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors, PFS was 20.7 and 14.0 months, respectively [HR 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.99]. Median overall survival (OS) was 33.6 and 28.9 months with MTP and TP, respectively (HR 0.79; two-sided P = 0.083). In ER- and PR-negative tumors, OS was 38.2 and 27.9 months, respectively (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.93). The frequency of adverse events was higher with MTP, but there was no significant difference in cardiac toxicity between treatment arms. The trial failed to demonstrate a significant clinical improvement with the addition of M to TP regimen. The clinical benefit observed in an exploratory analysis in the ER- and PR-negative population deserves consideration for further clinical trials. NCT00294996.
    Annals of Oncology 01/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both abundant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB1) and high activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway are common and therapeutically targeted in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, activation of another EGFR family member [human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) (or ErbB3)] may limit the antitumor effects of these drugs. We found that TNBC cell lines cultured with the EGFR or HER3 ligand EGF or heregulin, respectively, and treated with either an Akt inhibitor (GDC-0068) or a PI3K inhibitor (GDC-0941) had increased abundance and phosphorylation of HER3. The phosphorylation of HER3 and EGFR in response to these treatments was reduced by the addition of a dual EGFR and HER3 inhibitor (MEHD7945A). MEHD7945A also decreased the phosphorylation (and activation) of EGFR and HER3 and the phosphorylation of downstream targets that occurred in response to the combination of EGFR ligands and PI3K-Akt pathway inhibitors. In culture, inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway combined with either MEHD7945A or knockdown of HER3 decreased cell proliferation compared with inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway alone. Combining either GDC-0068 or GDC-0941 with MEHD7945A inhibited the growth of xenografts derived from TNBC cell lines or from TNBC patient tumors, and this combination treatment was also more effective than combining either GDC-0068 or GDC-0941 with cetuximab, an EGFR-targeted antibody. After therapy with EGFR-targeted antibodies, some patients had residual tumors with increased HER3 abundance and EGFR/HER3 dimerization (an activating interaction). Thus, we propose that concomitant blockade of EGFR, HER3, and the PI3K-Akt pathway in TNBC should be investigated in the clinical setting.
    Science Signaling 01/2014; 7(318):ra29. · 7.65 Impact Factor
  • Aditya Bardia, José Baselga
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    ABSTRACT: The traditional drug development process in breast cancer based on large phase III studies has serious limitations and needs a major overhaul. Searching for new approaches, the testing of novel agents in the preoperative (neoadjuvant) setting approach offers a potentially rapid and efficient strategy for drug development utilizing pathologic complete response (path CR), a surrogate marker for survival, as the primary endpoint. In addition, neoadjuvant studies allow the assessment of drug effects on the target (pharmacodynamic response) and the development of predictive biomarkers of response. Molecular profiling of the residual tumor in the surgical specimen may also provide insights into actionable mechanisms of resistance. Recognizing the potential of neoadjuvant trials for drug development, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced consideration of neoadjuvant trials for accelerated drug approval in early breast cancer, particularly for tumors with high risk of recurrence and unfavorable prognosis, and provided accelerated approval to neoadjuvant pertuzumab in September 2013. The FDA has emphasized that while improvement in path CR could be utilized for "accelerated" approval, improvement in survival will still need to be demonstrated for "regular" approval. Key considerations in conduct of such neoadjuvant drug development trials include (i) study design such as utilization of biomarker stratified design to evaluate a biomarker that could enrich response, (ii) definition of path CR, (iii) distribution of factors that influence path CR between the treatment arms, (iv) prespecified plan for follow-up to obtain data on survival, and (v) safety as it involves a patient population with curable disease. In the years to come, we anticipate an increase in the number of neoadjuvant trials testing novel therapies that hopefully will open a new path in bringing efficacious new therapies to patients with breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 19(23); 6360-70. ©2013 AACR.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; 19(23):6360-70. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer in whom disease progresses or there is recurrence while taking a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) are usually treated with exemestane (EXE), but no single standard of care exists in this setting. The BOLERO-2 trial demonstrated that adding everolimus (EVE) to EXE improved progression-free survival (PFS) while maintaining quality of life when compared with EXE alone. Because many women with HR(+) advanced breast cancer are elderly, the tolerability profile of EVE plus EXE in this population is of interest. BOLERO-2, a phase III randomized trial, compared EVE (10 mg/d) and placebo (PBO), both plus EXE (25 mg/d), in 724 postmenopausal women with HR(+) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after treatment with NSAIs. Safety and efficacy data in elderly patients are reported at 18-month median follow-up. Baseline disease characteristics and treatment histories among the elderly subsets (≥ 65 years, n = 275; ≥ 70 years, n = 164) were generally comparable with younger patients. The addition of EVE to EXE improved PFS regardless of age (hazard ratio, 0.59 [≥ 65 years] and 0.45 [≥ 70 years]). Adverse events (AEs) of special interest (all grades) that occurred more frequently with EVE than with PBO included stomatitis, infections, rash, pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia. Elderly EVE-treated patients had similar incidences of these AEs as did younger patients but had more on-treatment deaths. Adding EVE to EXE offers substantially improved PFS over EXE and was generally well tolerated in elderly patients with HR(+) advanced breast cancer. Careful monitoring and appropriate dose reductions or interruptions for AE management are recommended during treatment with EVE in this patient population.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 12/2013; 13(6):421-432.e8. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the pattern of rash, diarrhea, and hepatic adverse events (AEs) secondary to lapatinib and their association with age and pathologic complete response (pCR) in the Neoadjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimisation (NeoALLTO) phase III trial. Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive lapatinib (Arm A), trastuzumab (Arm B), or their combination (Arm C) for 6 weeks followed by the addition of paclitaxel for 12 weeks before surgery. We investigated the frequency and time to developing each AE according to age (≤ 50 v > 50 years) and their association with pCR in a logistic regression model adjusted for age, hormone receptors, tumor size, nodal status, planned breast surgery, completion of lapatinib administration, and treatment arm. Only patients randomly assigned to arms A and C were eligible (n = 306). Younger patients (≤ 50 years) experienced significantly more rash compared with older patients (74.4% v 47.9%; P < .0001). Diarrhea and hepatic AEs were observed in 78.8% and 41.2% of patients, respectively, with no differences in rate or severity or time of onset according to age. Early rash (ie, before starting paclitaxel) was independently associated with a higher chance of pCR, mainly in patients older than 50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.76; 95% CI, 1.69 to 8.34) but not in those ≤ 50 years (OR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.88; P for interaction = .01). No significant association was observed between pCR and diarrhea or hepatic AEs. Our results indicate that the frequency and clinical relevance of lapatinib-related rash is largely dependent on patient age.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seventy percent of breast cancers express estrogen receptor (ER), and most of these are sensitive to ER inhibition. However, many such tumors for unknown reasons become refractory to inhibition of estrogen action in the metastatic setting. We conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of two independent cohorts of metastatic ER-positive breast tumors and identified mutations in ESR1 affecting the ligand-binding domain (LBD) in 14 of 80 cases. These included highly recurrent mutations encoding p.Tyr537Ser, p.Tyr537Asn and p.Asp538Gly alterations. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the structures of the Tyr537Ser and Asp538Gly mutants involve hydrogen bonding of the mutant amino acids with Asp351, thus favoring the agonist conformation of the receptor. Consistent with this model, mutant receptors drive ER-dependent transcription and proliferation in the absence of hormone and reduce the efficacy of ER antagonists. These data implicate LBD-mutant forms of ER in mediating clinical resistance to hormonal therapy and suggest that more potent ER antagonists may be of substantial therapeutic benefit.
    Nature Genetics 11/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SAR245408 is a pan-Class I phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. This phase I study determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of two dosing schedules (first 21 days of a 28-day period [21/7] and continuous once-daily dosing [CDD]), pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and preliminary efficacy. Patients with refractory advanced solid malignancies were treated with SAR245408 using a 3 + 3 design. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after single and repeated doses. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated in plasma, hair-sheath cells, skin and tumor biopsies. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The MTD of both schedules was 600mg; dose-limiting toxicities were maculopapular rash and hypersensitivity reaction. The most frequent drug-related adverse events included dermatologic toxicities, diarrhea, nausea and decreased appetite. Plasma pharmacokinetics demonstrated a median time to maximum concentration of 8-22 hours, mean terminal elimination half-life of 70-88 hours and 5-13-fold accumulation after daily dosing (first cycle). Steady-state concentration was reached between Days 15 and 21, and exposure was dose-proportional with doses up to 400mg. SAR245408 inhibited the PI3K pathway (~40-80%; reduced phosphorylation of AKT, PRAS40, 4EBP1 and S6 in tumor and surrogate tissues) and, unexpectedly, also inhibited the MEK/ERK pathway. Partial response was seen in one patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Eight patients were progression-free at 6 months. Pharmacodynamic and clinical activity was observed irrespective of tumor PI3K pathway molecular alterations. SAR245408 was tolerable at doses associated with PI3K pathway inhibition. The recommended phase II dose of the capsule formulation is 600mg administered orally with CDD.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective treatments for hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer (BC) following relapse/progression on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) therapy are needed. Initial Breast Cancer Trials of OraL EveROlimus-2 (BOLERO-2) trial data demonstrated that everolimus and exemestane significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus exemestane alone in this patient population. BOLERO-2 is a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, international trial comparing everolimus (10 mg/day) plus exemestane (25 mg/day) versus placebo plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with HR(+) advanced BC with recurrence/progression during or after NSAIs. The primary endpoint was PFS by local investigator review, and was confirmed by independent central radiology review. Overall survival, response rate, and clinical benefit rate were secondary endpoints. Final study results with median 18-month follow-up show that median PFS remained significantly longer with everolimus plus exemestane versus placebo plus exemestane [investigator review: 7.8 versus 3.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.38-0.54); log-rank P < 0.0001; central review: 11.0 versus 4.1 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.31-0.48); log-rank P < 0.0001] in the overall population and in all prospectively defined subgroups, including patients with visceral metastases, patients with recurrence during or within 12 months of completion of adjuvant therapy, and irrespective of age. The incidence and severity of adverse events were consistent with those reported at the interim analysis and in other everolimus trials. The addition of everolimus to exemestane markedly prolonged PFS in patients with HR(+) advanced BC with disease recurrence/progression following prior NSAIs. These results further support the use of everolimus plus exemestane in this patient population. #NCT00863655.
    Advances in Therapy 10/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oncogenic PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is an attractive therapeutic target in cancer. However, it is unknown whether the pathway blockade required for tumor growth inhibition is clinically achievable. Therefore, we conducted pharmacodynamic studies with GDC-0068, an ATP competitive, selective Akt1/2/3 inhibitor, in preclinical models and in patients treated with this compound. We used a reverse phase protein array (RPPA) platform to identify a biomarker set indicative of Akt inhibition in cell lines and human-tumor xenografts, and correlated the degree of pathway inhibition with antitumor activity. Akt pathway activity was measured using this biomarker set in pre and post-dose tumor biopsies from patients treated with GDC-0068 in the dose escalation clinical trial. The set of biomarkers of Akt inhibition is composed of 10 phosphoproteins, including Akt and PRAS40, and is modulated in a dose-dependent fashion, both in vitro and in vivo. In human-tumor xenografts, this dose-dependency significantly correlated with tumor growth inhibition. Tumor biopsies from patients treated with GDC-0068 at clinically achievable doses attained a degree of biomarker inhibition that correlated with tumor growth inhibition in preclinical models. In these clinical samples, compensatory feedback activation of ERK and HER3 was observed, consistent with preclinical observations. This study identified a set of biomarkers of Akt inhibition that can be used in the clinical setting to assess target engagement. Here, it was used to show that robust Akt inhibition in tumors from patients treated with GDC-0068 is achievable, supporting the clinical development of this compound in defined patient populations.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the incidence of cancer increases with age, older patients are under-represented in cancer treatment trials, resulting in limited data availability in this patient population. Here we present results from pre-defined subgroup analyses conducted by age group (<65 vs ≥65 years) from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients who had not received previous chemotherapy or biological therapy for HER2-positive locally recurrent, unresectable or metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel or with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. Primary endpoint was independently assessed progression-free survival. We performed pre-specified subgroup analyses of progression-free survival according to age. The study is registered with, NCT00567190. 808 patients were enrolled. Of those, 127 patients were 65 years of age or older (placebo arm: 67, pertuzumab arm: 60). Patients in both age groups experienced progression-free survival benefit with treatment in the pertuzumab arm (<65 years: HR: 0.65; 95 % CI 0.53-0.80; ≥65 years: HR: 0.52; 95 % CI 0.31-0.86). Diarrhoea, fatigue, asthenia, decreased appetite, vomiting, and dysgeusia were reported more frequently in patients 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were reported less frequently in the older age group. The efficacy and safety data reported in CLEOPATRA suggest that the combined use of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel should not be limited by patient age.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

29k Citations
4,144.01 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2014
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Division of Molecular Pharmacology & Chemistry
      • • Department of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Medicine
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2013
    • Unicancer
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • The Washington Institute
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      • Bordet Institute
      Brussels, BRU, Belgium
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2011–2013
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy
      Île-de-France, France
    • Sarah Cannon Research Institute
      Nashville, Tennessee, United States
    • НИИ онкологии им.Н.Н. Петрова
      Sankt-Peterburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia
    • Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío
      Hispalis, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2010–2013
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Statistics
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    • Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • National Cancer Centre Singapore
      • Department of Medical Oncology
  • 2005–2013
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Hospital Clínico San Carlos
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • The Portland Hospital
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
      • Cancer Program
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center (VICC)
      • • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Nashville, MI, United States
  • 1996–2012
    • University Hospital Vall d'Hebron
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009
    • Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • VHIR Vall d’Hebron Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008
    • University of Leeds
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
    • Hebron University
      Al Khalīl, West Bank, Palestinian Territory
    • University of Antwerp
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
    • Institut Jules Bordet
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • Carl Gustav Carus-Institut
      Pforzheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Lugano
      Lugano, Ticino, Switzerland
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2001–2006
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2004
    • University Hospital Essen
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2003
    • Karmanos Cancer Institute
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione Pascale"
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Kinki University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan