ABSTRACT: To determine whether timing of clopidogrel bisulfate cessation influences outcome after abdominal operations.
A review was performed of 104 patients receiving clopidogrel who underwent abdominal operations between March 2003 and March 2009. Patients were grouped by last clopidogrel use: group A (<7 days) and group B (≥7 days).
Of 104 patients, 43 were in group A and 61 were in group B. Overall, 6 deaths occurred (group A, 5 patients [12%] vs group B, 1 [2%]; P = .03) and 27 patients required intensive care unit admission (group A, 16 patients [37%] vs group B, 11 [18%]; P = .03). Twenty-one patients developed a postoperative bleeding complication; 19 complications were managed by blood transfusion and 2 required reoperation. Group A vs group B had significantly increased rates of postoperative bleeding requiring blood transfusion (13 patients [30%] vs 8 [13%]; P = .03). No significant difference in postoperative bleeding resulting in reoperation or mortality was demonstrated. Timing of clopidogrel cessation within 7 days did not affect postoperative bleeding risk. Eighty-nine patients (86%) underwent elective operations (group A, 30 patients [70%] vs group B, 59 [97%]; P < .001). While elective patients in group A vs those in group B demonstrated a trend toward increased risk of postoperative bleeding requiring transfusion (7 patients [23%] vs 8 [14%]; P = .25), no significant difference in intensive care unit admission (group A, 6 patients [20%] vs group B, 9 [15%]; P = .31) or mortality (1 [3%] vs 1 [2%]; P = .62) was demonstrated.
While clopidogrel use within 7 days of an operation significantly increased the risk of postoperative bleeding, most bleeding episodes were successfully managed by transfusion without an increase in bleeding-related mortality or necessity for reoperation. After controlling for operative urgency, no significant difference in mortality or intensive care unit admission was demonstrated in patients undergoing elective procedures. High-risk patients undergoing elective operations may not require preoperative clopidogrel cessation. When clopidogrel cessation is warranted, 7 days before the procedure is recommended. Perioperative risk does not vary by timing of cessation within 7 days of an operation.
Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 03/2011; 146(3):334-9. · 4.32 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To examine the incidence, cause, and outcomes of ischemic colitis after endovascular stent graft repair of aortoiliac aneurysms (EVAR).
Medical record review.
University teaching hospital.
Eight hundred nine patients treated during 10 years were included in the study. Preoperative data regarding the size of the aneurysm, hypogastric coil embolization, and inferior mesenteric artery patency were evaluated by means of computed tomographic scans and aortograms. Ischemic colitis was diagnosed by lower endoscopy or pathology reports.
Ischemic colitis after EVAR.
Eleven patients (1.4%) developed ischemic colitis. Seven patients' episode occurred less than 30 days from repair (early), whereas 4 occurred 30 days or more from repair (late). Ten of 11 patients had preoperative inferior mesenteric artery occlusion. Microembolization was seen histologically in 2 patients in the early group, both of whom died. A significant increase in ischemic colitis was seen in patients undergoing preoperative unilateral hypogastric coil embolization (P = .02). Three of the patients with late ischemic colitis had comorbidities other than the EVAR to explain the ischemia.
The incidence of ischemic colitis is decreased in patients undergoing EVAR vs open repair. The cause of the ischemia is multifactorial and seems to differ between patients in the early and late groups. Microembolization tends to produce severe ischemic colitis and is usually fatal. There should be a low threshold for performing endoscopy in any patient thought to have ischemic colitis after EVAR.
Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 10/2009; 144(10):900-3. · 4.32 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although many studies in the cardiothoracic literature exist about the relationship between clopidogrel and postoperative bleeding, there is scarce data in the general surgery literature. We assessed whether there are increased bleeding complications, morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization in patients who are on clopidogrel (Plavix) within 1 week before undergoing a general surgery procedure. Fifty consecutive patient charts were retrospectively reviewed after identifying patients who had pharmacy orders for clopidogrel and who underwent a general surgery procedure between 2003 and 2007. Patients who took clopidogrel within 6 days before surgery (group I, n = 28) were compared with patients who stopped clopidogrel for 7 days or more (group II, n = 22). A larger percentage of patients who took their last dose of clopidogrel within 1 week of surgery (21.4% vs 9.5%) had significant bleeding after surgery requiring blood transfusion. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in operative or postoperative blood transfusions (P = 0.12, 0.53), decreases in hematocrit (P = 0.21), hospital stay (P = 0.09), intensive care unit stay (P = 0.41), late complications (P = 0.45), or mortality (P = 0.42). Although our cohort is limited in size, these results suggest that in the case of a nonelective general surgery procedure where outcomes depend on timely surgery, clopidogrel taken within 6 days before surgery should not be a reason to delay surgery. However, careful attention must be paid to meticulous hemostasis, and platelets must be readily available for transfusion in the operating room.
The American surgeon 09/2008; 74(8):721-5. · 1.28 Impact Factor