[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumothorax can occur in several situations such as; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where emphysema is observed or due to a biopsy for malignancy suspicion. In any case it is a dangerous situation that requires immediate attention and treatment. Pneumothorax can be divided in primary and secondary. Staging of pneumothorax is also very important. In our current editorial we summarize etiology and treatment of pneumothorax from a panel of pulmonary physicians, oncologists and thoracic surgeons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes severe handicap among smokers. Most patients have to remain under continuous oxygen therapy at home. Moreover, respiratory infections are very common among these patients and vaccination is obligatory against influenza. Emphysema and bronchiectasis are observed with computed tomography (CT) and in several situations these parenchymal damages are responsible for pneumothorax in one case and pseudomonas aeroginosa infection. Novel mini-invasive techniques are used currently for emphysema treatments which are described extensively throughout our current work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is an insidious type of cancer with its symptoms manifested upon extensive disease. The overall 5-year survival rates between 0.4 and 4%. Surgical resection is an option for only 10% of the patients with pancreatic cancer. Local recurrence and hepatic metastases occur within 2 years after surgery. There are currently several molecular pathways investigated and novel targeted treatments are on the market. However; the nature of pancreatic cancer with its ability to spread locally in the primary site and lymph nodes indicates that further experimentation with local interventional therapies could be a future treatment proposal as palliative care or adjunct to gene therapy and chemotherapy/radiotherapy. In the current review, we will summarize the molecular pathways and present the interventional treatment options for pancreatic cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a clinical entity characterized by the presence of normal endometrial mucosa abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can be either endopelvic or extrapelvicdepending on the location of endometrial tissue implantation. Despite the rarity of extrapelvic endometriosis, several cases of endometriosis of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinarytract, the upper and lower respiratory system, the diaphragm, the pleura and the pericardium, as well as abdominal scars loci have been reported in the literature. There are several theories about the pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Depending on the place of endometrial tissue implantation, endometriosis can be expressed with a wide variety of symptoms. The diagnosis of this entity is neither easy nor routine. Many diagnostic methods clinical and laboratory have been used, but none of them is the golden standard. The multipotent localization of endometriosis in combination with the wide range of its clinical expression should raise the clinical suspicion in every woman with periodic symptoms of extrapelvic organs. Finally, the therapeutic approach of this clinical entity is also correlated with the bulk of endometriosis and the locum that it is found. It varies from simple observation, to surgical treatment and treatment with medication as well as a combination of those.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1968087883113362.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Involvement of the pleura in lung cancer is a common manifestation accompanying with reduced life expectancy. Symptoms relief and improvement of the quality of life are the primary goals of the management of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Histological confirmation is essential for optimal patient management. Lung cancer patients, with life expectancy more than 3 months, resistant to chemotherapy should be treated with thoracentesis, intercoastal tube drainage and installation of a sclerosant agent or pleurodesis through thoracospopic procedures or placement of an indwelling pleura catheter. Talc pleurodesis (sterile asbestos-free graded, particle size >15 μm), as "poudrage" or "slurry" still remains the treatment of choice in patients with MPE resistant to chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) GLOBOCAN World Cancer Report, lung cancer affects more than 1 million people a year worldwide. In Greece according to the 2008 GLOBOCAN report, there were 6,667 cases recorded, 18% of the total incidence of all cancers in the population. Furthermore, there were 6,402 deaths due to lung cancer, 23.5% of all deaths due to cancer. Therefore, in our country, lung cancer is the most common and deadly form of cancer for the male population. The most important prognostic indicator in lung cancer is the extent of disease. The Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging (AJCC) developed the tumour, node, and metastases (TNM) staging system which attempts to define those patients who might be suitable for radical surgery or radical radiotherapy, from the majority, who will only be suitable for palliative measures. Surgery has an important part for the therapy of patients with lung cancer. "Lobectomy is the gold standard treatment". This statement may be challenged in cases of stage Ia cancer or in patients with limited pulmonary function. In these cases an anatomical segmentectomy with lymph node dissection is an acceptable alternative. Chest wall invasion is not a contraindication to resection. En-bloc rib resection and reconstruction is the treatment of choice. N2 disease represents both a spectrum of disease and the interface between surgical and non-surgical treatment of lung cancer Evidence from trials suggests that multizone or unresectable N2 disease should be treated primarily by chemoradiotherapy. There may be a role for surgery if N2 is downstaged to N0 and lobectomy is possible, but pneumonectomy is avoidable. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a systemic disease at diagnosis, because the potential for hematogenous and lymphogenic metastases is very high. The efficacy of surgical intervention for SCLC is not clear. Lung cancer resection can be performed using several surgical techniques. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is a safe, efficient, well accepted and widespread technique among thoracic surgeons. The 5-year survival rate following complete resection of lung cancer is stage dependent. Incomplete resection rarely is useful and cures the patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents 12.95% of all lung cancer diagnoses and continues to be a major clinical problem, with an aggressive clinical course and short disease-free duration after 1st line therapy. Treatment of SCLC remains challenging because of its rapid growth and development of drug resistance during the course of the disease. Chemotherapy remains the current optimal treatment and radical thoracic radiotherapy representing the best treatment option for fit patients with LD. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice in patients with good performance status, and the effect of cisplatin is important for concurrent chemoradiotherapy in LD cause of his radiosensitivity. Patients with progress disease after first-line chemotherapy have poor prognosis. Second-line therapy may produce a modest clinical benefit. A number of targeted agents have been investigated in LD and ED, mostly in unselected populations, with disappointing results. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is recommended only for patients who had full response to first line chemotherapy, as target of improving overall survival and decreasing possibilities of brain metastases. New factors for target therapy are the hope for the management of this systematic disease. If we identify these targets for treatment of SCLC and overcome drug-resistance mechanisms, we will create new chemo-radiotherapy schedules for future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colocutaneous fistula caused by diverticulitis is relatively uncommon with colo-umbilical fistulas being even rarer. We herein report a rare case of a spontaneous colo-umbilical fistula due to diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. The fistula developed from a diverticulum of the sigmoid colon that discharged through the umbilicus after two episodes of acute diverticulitis. The condition was successfully treated by resectional surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurilemomas are benign usually encapsulated nerve sheath tumors derived from the Schwann cells. These tumors commonly arise from the cranial nerves as acoustic neurinomas but they are extremely rare in the pelvis and the retroperitoneal area (less than 0.5% of reported cases), unless they are combined with von Recklinghausen disease (type 1 neurofibromatosis). We report the case of a 58-year-old female with pelvic schwannoma, 6.5 × 5.5 cm in size, in the right parametrium. This is the first case reported in the literature. Based on the rarity of this tumor and in order to ensure optimum treatment and survival for our patient, we performed laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and en-block tumor excision. A frozen section was taken during the surgery before complete resection of the mass, which was ambiguous. Because of the possibility of malignancy, complete excision of the mass was performed, with pelvic blunt dissection. Histological examination showed a benign neoplasm, originating from the cells of peripheral nerve sheaths; diagnosis was a schwannoma. There were degenerative areas, including cystic degeneration, hemorrhagic infiltrations, ischemic foci with pycnotic cells, and collagen replacement. Pelvic schwannomas are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed. Laparoscopy is a safe and efficient option for approaching benign pelvic tumors and might offer the advantage of better visualization of structures due to the magnification in laparoscopic view, especially in narrow anatomic spaces.
International Journal of General Medicine 03/2013; 6:123-6. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S41224
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare entity which is characterized by metaplastic bone formation in the lung parenchyma. It is an uncommon condition without significant symptoms, which is usually diagnosed on autopsy. Diffuse pulmonary ossification can be easily misdiagnosed as one of interstitial lung diseases due to diffuse pulmonary lesions. Two types of diffuse ossification are described in medicine: dendriform and nodular. In this article, the authors present a patient with persistent pneumothorax who underwent investigation of the cause of his disease and a diagnosis of DPO was revealed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated that reduced lung function is a significant risk factor for lung cancer and increased surgical risk in patients with operable stages of lung cancer. The aim of the study was to perform pulmonary function tests and investigate which is a favorable respiratory function test for overall survival between lung cancer stages.
Lung function tests were performed to lung cancer patients with non-small cell lung cancer of stage I, II, III and IV (241 patients in total). They had the last follow-up consecutively between December 2006 and July 2008. The staging was decided according to the sixth edition of TNM classification of NSCLC. The Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO) were measured according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines. The 6 Minute Walking Test (6MWT) was measured according to the American Thoracic Society.
There was a significant association of the DLCO upon diagnosis and overall survival for stage II (P<0.007) and IV (P<0.003). Furthermore, there was a significant association between 6MWT and overall survival for stage III (P<0.001) and stage IV (P<0.010).
The significance for each lung function test is different among the stages of NSCLC. DLCO and 6MWT upon admission are the most valuable prognostic factors for overall survival of NSCLC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon, benign disorder also known as fibrous mesothelioma. The cause of fibrous dysplasia is unknown. They represent 5% of all pleura neoplasms and in 80% of all cases arise from the visceral pleura. The epidemiology of the disease is reported equal between males and females around the age of 50. Fibrous dysplasia is usually asymptomatic, although several disease symptoms have been reported as hypoglycemia, pain and swelling may accompany the lesion, in advanced disease. Chemotherapy has not presented disease control; nevertheless, radiotherapy is efficient and indicated in residual disease. The disease progress is usually benign; however several disease manifestations have been reported. There are several molecular pathways, which are possible activated during the disease progress and therefore the disease expression changes throughout its course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive malignancy of the pleura correlated with exposure to asbestos, with a medium survival of 11-12 months after diagnosis. A case of a 67-year-old male who had previously worked in the asbestos industry and is a current smoker is reported. The computed tomography evaluation revealed a right pleural mass with pleural thickening, and the pleural biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. He was treated with chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, paclitaxel, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride. After completion of chemotherapy, radiologic evaluation confirmed a reduction of pleural thickening and improvement in his symptoms. A complete presentation of each drug formulation and characteristics are also included in this paper. The patient's follow-up is continuing, and computed tomography reveals stable disease 9 years after initial examination.
OncoTargets and Therapy 09/2012; 5:231-6. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S36915 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present retrospective study was to examine the clinical differences between patients hospitalized with H1N1 virus and those hospitalized with nonvirus respiratory tract infection in 2009 and 2010.
Adult patient data were collected from three tertiary hospital centers. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. We included 106 H1N1-positive patients (52 from 2009 and 54 from 2010). These data were compared with those from 108 patients with H1N1-negative respiratory tract infection (51 patients from 2009 and 57 from 2010).
In 2009, the mean age was 36.4 years for H1N1-positive patients versus 46.4 years for H1N1-negative patients, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.4 kg/m(2) patients and 28.1 kg/m(2), respectively. In 2009, seven patients required intubation, six of whom were H1N1-positive. In 2010, the mean age was 43.8 years for H1N1-positive patients versus 60.2 years for H1N1-negative patients, and mean BMI was 32.3 kg/m(2) and 26.9 kg/m(2), respectively. In 2010, six patients required intubation, three of whom were H1N1-positive. Abnormal chest x-ray findings were found significantly more frequently in H1N1-negative patients than in H1N1-positive patients.
In comparison with 2009, H1N1-positive patients in 2010 were older, were more likely to be obese, and had more severe clinical and laboratory perturbations. However, this did not affect their outcomes. H1N1-negative patients were older in comparison with those who were H1N1-positive, and had more severe clinical and laboratory perturbations.
International Journal of General Medicine 08/2012; 5:675-82. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S34940
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritoneal tuberculosis is rare with increased incidence rates in recent years. The absence of characteristic clinical features of the disease often makes its diagnosis difficult and elusive. We present the case of 61-year-old female with peritoneal tuberculosis. The patient suffered from abdominal pain for a period of 5 months prior to admission. The diagnosis was established on the basis of findings from an abdominal computed tomography scan, a chest radiograph and histopathological analysis of the laparoscopic resection of the two masses. The patient was discharged from hospital receiving a fourfold antituberculous treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. A high index of suspicion and a combination of radiologic, endoscopic, microbiologic and histopathological examination achieves diagnostic accuracy and prevents clinical mismanagement.
Case Reports in Gastroenterology 05/2012; 6(2):369-74. DOI:10.1159/000339764
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first positive patient with influenza A (H1N1) was recorded in March 2009 and the pandemic continued with new outbreaks throughout 2010. This study's objective was to quantify the total cost of inpatient care and identify factors associated with the increased cost of the 2009-2010 influenza A pandemic in comparison with nonviral respiratory infection.
In total, 133 positive and 103 negative H1N1 patients were included from three tertiary care hospitals during the two waves of H1N1 in 2009 and 2010. The health costs for protective equipment and pharmaceuticals and hospitalization (medications, laboratory, and diagnostic tests) were compared between H1N1 positive and negative patients.
The objective of the study was to quantify the means of daily and total costs of inpatient care. Overall, cost was higher for H1N1 positive (€61,0117.72) than for H1N1-negative patients (€464,923.59). This was mainly due to the protection measures used and the prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units. In H1N1-negative patients, main contributors to cost included additional diagnostic tests due to concern regarding respiratory capacity and laboratory values, as well as additional radiologic and microbial culture tests. The mean duration of hospitalization was 841 days for H1N1 positive and 829 days for negative patients.
Cost was higher in H1N1 patients, mainly due to the protection measures used and the increased duration of hospitalization in intensive care units. An automated system to monitor patients would be desirable to reduce cost in H1N1 influenza.
International Journal of General Medicine 03/2012; 5:175-82. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S28454
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinoid bronchopulmonary tumors represent approximately 25% of all carcinoid tumors and 1%-2% of all lung neoplasms. The most common symptoms are: persistent cough, asthma-like wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis and obstructive pneumonitis. We present a case of a young adult diagnosed with a typical carcinoid tumor. The diagnosis was established on the basis of imaging examination and bronchoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with bronchoscopic electrocautery therapy to relieve the obstructed airway, followed by surgical lobectomy in order to entirely remove the exophytic damage. This approach was not only a palliative management to bronchial obstruction but also avoided pneumonectomy. Recent studies support the use of such interventional resection methods, as they may result in a more conservative surgical resection.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 02/2012; 5:47-51. DOI:10.2147/JMDH.S29709