[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of low air humidity and low root temperature (LRT) on water uptake, growth and aquaporin gene expression were investigated in rice plants. The daily transpiration of the plants grown at low humidity was 1.5- to 2-fold higher than that at high humidity. LRT at 13°C reduced transpiration, and the extent was larger at lower humidity. LRT also reduced total dry matter production and leaf area expansion, and the extent was again larger at lower humidity. These observations suggest that the suppression of plant growth by LRT is associated with water stress due to decreased water uptake ability of the root. On the other hand, the net assimilation rate was not affected by low humidity and LRT, and water use efficiency was larger for LRT. We found that low humidity induced coordinated up-regulation of many PIP and TIP aquaporin genes in both the leaves and the roots. Expression levels of two root-specific aquaporin genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;5, were increased significantly after 6 and 13 d of LRT exposure. Taken together, we discuss the possibility that aquaporins are part of an integrated response of this crop to low air humidity and LRT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) and aquaporin amounts change diurnally. Previously, these changes were considered to be spontaneously driven by a circadian rhythm. Here, we evaluated the new hypothesis that diurnal changes could be triggered and enhanced by transpirational demand from shoots. When rice plants were grown under a 12h light/12h dark regime, Lp(r) was low in the dark and high in the light period. Root aquaporin mRNA levels also changed diurnally, but the amplitudes differed among aquaporin isoforms. Aquaporins, such as OsPIP2;1, showed moderate changes, whereas root-specific aquaporins, such as OsPIP2;5, showed temporal and dramatic induction around 2h after light initiation. When darkness was extended for 12h after the usual dark period, no such induction was observed. Furthermore, plants under 100% relative humidity (RH) showed no induction even in the presence of light. These results suggest that transpirational demand triggers a dramatic increase in gene expressions such as OsPIP2;5. Immunocytochemistry showed that OsPIP2;5 accumulated on the proximal end of the endodermis and of the cell surface around xylem. The strong induction by transpirational demand and the polar localization suggest that OsPIP2;5 contributes to fine adjustment of radial water transport in roots to sustain high Lp(r) during the day.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of root temperature T(R) in regulating the water-uptake capability of rice roots and the possible relationship with aquaporins were investigated. The root hydraulic conductivity Lp(r) decreased with decreasing T(R) in a measured temperature range between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C. A single break point (T(RC) = 15 degrees C) was detected in the Arrhenius plot for steady-state Lp(r). The temperature dependency of Lp(r) represented by activation energy was low (28 kJ mol(-1)) above T(RC), but the value is slightly higher than that for the water viscosity. Addition of an aquaporin inhibitor, HgCl(2), into root medium reduced osmotic exudation by 97% at 25 degrees C, signifying that aquaporins play a major role in regulating water uptake. Below T(RC), Lp(r) declined precipitously with decreasing T(R) (E(a) = 204 kJ mol(-1)). When T(R) is higher than T(RC), the transient time for reaching the steady-state of Lp(r) after the immediate change in T(R) (from 25 degrees C) was estimated as 10 min, while it was prolonged up to 2-3 h when T(R) < T(RC). The Lp(r) was completely recovered to the initial levels when T(R) was returned back to 25 degrees C. Immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for the major aquaporin members of PIPs and TIPs in rice roots revealed that there were no significant changes in the abundance of aquaporins during 5 h of low temperature treatment. Considering this result and the significant inhibition of water-uptake by the aquaporin inhibitor, we hypothesize that the decrease in Lp(r) when T(R) < T(RC) was regulated by the activity of aquaporins rather than their abundance.