ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that, in vitro, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) labeled with the Auger electron emitter (125)I are more cytotoxic if they remain at the cell surface and do not internalize in the cytoplasm. Here, we assessed the in vivo biologic efficiency of internalizing and noninternalizing (125)I-labeled mAbs for the treatment of small solid tumors.
Swiss nude mice bearing intraperitoneal tumor cell xenografts were injected with 37 MBq (370 MBq/mg) of internalizing (anti-HER1) (125)I-m225 or noninternalizing (anti-CEA) (125)I-35A7 mAbs at days 4 and 7 after tumor cell grafting. Nonspecific toxicity was assessed using the irrelevant (125)I-PX mAb, and untreated controls were injected with NaCl. Tumor growth was followed by bioluminescence imaging. Mice were sacrificed when the bioluminescence signal reached 4.5 x 10(7) photons/s. Biodistribution analysis was performed to determine the activity contained in healthy organs and tumor nodules, and total cumulative decays were calculated. These values were used to calculate the irradiation dose by the MIRD formalism.
Median survival (MS) was 19 d in the NaCl-treated group. Similar values were obtained in mice treated with unlabeled PX (MS, 24 d) and 35A7 (MS, 24 d) or with (125)I-PX mAbs (MS, 17 d). Conversely, mice treated with unlabeled or labeled internalizing m225 mAb (MS, 76 and 77 d, respectively) and mice injected with (125)I-35A7 mAb (MS, 59 d) showed a significant increase in survival. Irradiation doses were comparable in all healthy organs, independently from the mAb used, whereas in tumors the irradiation dose was 7.4-fold higher with (125)I-labeled noninternalizing than with internalizing mAbs. This discrepancy might be due to iodotyrosine moiety release occurring during the catabolism of internalizing mAbs associated with high turnover rate.
This study indicates that (125)I-labeled noninternalizing mAbs could be suitable for radioimmunotherapy of small solid tumors and that the use of internalizing mAbs should not be considered as a requirement for the success of treatments with (125)I Auger electrons.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 11/2009; 50(12):2033-41. · 6.38 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To improve radioimmunotherapy with Auger electron emitters, we assessed whether the biological efficiency of (125)I varied according to its localization. A-431 and SK-OV-3 carcinoma cells were incubated with increasing activities (0-4 MBq/ml) of (125)I-labeled vectors targeting the cell membrane, the cytoplasm or the nucleus. We then measured cell survival by clonogenic assay and the mean radiation dose to the nucleus by assessing the cellular medical internal radiation dose (MIRD). The relationship between survival and the radiation dose delivered was investigated with a linear mixed regression model. For each cell line, we obtained dose-response curves for the three targets and the reference values (i.e., the dose leading to 75, 50 or 37% survival). When cell survival was expressed as a function of the total cumulative decays, nuclear (125)I disintegrations were more harmful than disintegrations in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane. However, when survival was expressed as a function of the mean radiation dose to the nucleus, toxicity was significantly higher when (125)I was targeted to the cell membrane than to the cytoplasm. These findings indicate that the membrane is a more sensitive target than the cytoplasm for the dense ionization produced by Auger electrons. Moreover, cell membrane targeting is as cytotoxic as nuclear targeting in SK-OV-3 cells. We suggest that targeting the membrane rather than the cytoplasm may contribute to the development of more efficient radioimmunotherapies based on Auger electron radiation, also because most of the available vectors are directed against cell surface antigens.
Radiation Research 09/2008; 170(2):192-200. · 2.68 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with radiolabeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies after complete resection of liver metastases (LM) from colorectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Twenty-two patients planned for surgery of one to four LM received a preoperative diagnostic dose of a 131I-F(ab')2-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody F6 (8-10 mCi/5 mg). 131I-F(ab')2 uptake was analyzed using direct radioactivity counting, and tumor-to-normal liver ratios were recorded. Ten patients with tumor-to-normal liver ratios of >5 and three others were treated with a therapeutic injection [180-200 mCi 131I/50 mg F(ab')2] 30 to 64 days after surgery.
Median 131I-F(ab')2 immunoreactivity in patient serum remained at 91% of initial values for up to 96 hours after injection. The main and dose-limiting-toxicity was hematologic, with 92% and 85% grades 3 to 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, respectively. Complete spontaneous recovery occurred in all patients. No human anti-mouse antibody response was observed after the diagnosis dose; however, 10 of the 13 treated patients developed human anti-mouse antibody approximately 3 months later. Two treated patients presented extrahepatic metastases at the time of RIT (one bone and one abdominal node) and two relapsed within 3 months of RIT (one in the lung and the other in the liver). Two patients are still alive, and one of these is disease-free at 93 months after resection. At a median follow-up of 127 months, the median disease-free survival is 12 months and the median overall survival is 50 months.
RIT is feasible in an adjuvant setting after complete resection of LM from colorectal cancer and should be considered for future trials, possibly in combination with chemotherapy, because of the generally poor prognosis of these patients.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2008; 14(11):3487-93. · 7.74 Impact Factor