P Courtellemont

LVMH Recherche, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (21)64.63 Total impact

  • C Migdal, M Tailhardat, P Courtellemont, M Haftek, M Serres
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    ABSTRACT: Several cases of skin sensitization have been reported following the application of thimerosal, which is composed of ethyl mercury and thiosalicylic acid (TSA). However, few in vitro studies have been carried out on human dendritic cells (DCs) which play an essential role in the initiation of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of thimerosal and other mercury compounds on human DCs. To address this purpose, DCs derived from monocytes (mono-DCs) were used. Data show that thimerosal and mercury derivatives induced DC activation, as monitored by CD86 and HLA-DR overexpression associated with the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 8, similarly to lipopolysaccharide and the sensitizers, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) and nickel sulfate, which were used as positive controls. In contrast, TSA, the non-mercury part of thimerosal, as well as dichloronitrobenzene, a DNCB negative control, and the irritant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, had no effect. Moreover, oxidative stress, monitored by ROS induction and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, was induced by thimerosal and mercury compounds, as well as DNCB, in comparison with hydrogen peroxide, used as a positive control. The role of thiol oxidation in the initiation of mono-DC activation was confirmed by a pre-treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine which strongly decreased chemical-induced CD86 overexpression. These data are in agreement with several clinical observations of the high relevance of thimerosal in patch-test reactions and prove that human mono-DCs are useful in vitro tools for determining the allergenic potency of chemicals.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2010; 246(1-2):66-73. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thimerosal, a mercury derivative composed of ethyl mercury chloride (EtHgCl) and thiosalicylic acid (TSA), is widely used as a preservative in vaccines and cosmetic products and causes cutaneous reactions. Since dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in the immune response, the sensitization potency of chemicals was studied in vitro using U937, a human promyelomonocytic cell line that is used as a surrogate of monocytic differentiation and activation. Currently, this cell line is under ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods) validation as an alternative method for discriminating chemicals. Thimerosal and mercury derivatives induced in U937 an overexpression of CD86 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion similarly to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB), a sensitizer used as a positive control for DC activation. Non-sensitizers, dichloronitrobenzene (DCNB), TSA and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an irritant, had no effect. U937 activation was prevented by cell pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) but not with thiol-independent antioxidants except vitamin E which affected CD86 expression by preventing lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. Thimerosal, EtHgCl and DNCB induced glutathione (GSH) depletion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 15 min; another peak was detected after 2h for mercury compounds only. MitoSOX, a specific mitochondrial fluorescent probe, confirmed that ROS were essentially produced by mitochondria in correlation with its membrane depolarization. Changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability induced by mercury were reversed by NAC but not by thiol-independent antioxidants. Thimerosal and EtHgCl also induced a calcium (Ca2+) influx with a peak at 3h, suggesting that Ca2+ influx is a secondary event following ROS induction as Ca2+ influx was suppressed after pretreatment with NAC but not with thiol-independent antioxidants. Ca2+ influx was also suppressed when culture medium was deprived of Ca2+ confirming the specificity of the measure. In conclusion, these data suggest that thimerosal induced U937 activation via oxidative stress from mitochondrial stores and mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a primordial effect of thiol groups. A cross-talk between ROS and Ca2+ influx was demonstrated.
    Toxicology 05/2010; 274(1-3):1-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-animal testing methods are a current challenge in terms of the assessment of skin sensitization potential for new chemicals. Our objective was to investigate a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor to screen allergens against nucleophilic amino acids (cysteine, lysine and histidine) in a direct binding assay. Amino acids were immobilized on the sensor surface and exposed to different skin allergens (chemicals and fragrances) with varying sensitizing potential. Cysteine was found to be more reactive than lysine while histidine showed the lowest reactivity. The interactions observed were different depending on the allergen/amino acids involved. It appeared that weak allergens could quickly dissociate from the ligand, whereas strong and extreme allergens remained bound to the amino acids. The SPR report points allowed a good discrimination of the tested allergens. With this technology, we can observe low energy bindings and get information on the stability of the hapten/amino acid complex which seem relevant for the determination of skin sensitization potential. This prospective experiment showed the potential of real-time SPR to generate specific report points to refine the skin sensitization allergen assessment.
    Toxicology in Vitro 01/2009; 23(2):308-18. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ACD, allergic contact dermatitis; DC, dendritic cell; MDLR, mixed DC–lymphocyte reaction; PBL, peripheral blood lymphocyte
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 09/2008; 128(8):2119-22. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNFalpha) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Facetrade mark and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO(4), DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 09/2008; 230(3):397-406. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A critical step in the induction of allergic contact dermatitis is the interaction of haptens with immature dendritic cells (iDC) leading to their activation. Therefore iDC appear as suitable targets for the evaluation of the sensitizing properties of haptens with the aim of developing in vitro toxicologic methods. Here, using a low-density cDNA-array, we analyzed the expression of 165 genes related to dendritic cell biology in human iDC following a 24h incubation with four haptens representative of strong (DNBS), moderate (isoeugenol) and weak (eugenol, hydroxycitronellal) contact sensitizers and with one irritant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Results show that 21/165 iDC genes were significantly modulated by hapten treatment. Some genes were preferentially modulated by a given chemical. Thus, DNBS, isoeugenol, eugenol and hydroxycitronellal consistently modulated CCR5, CCL27, CCL2 and CCR7, respectively, whereas the CXCL10 gene was regulated by SDS. When subjected to principal component analysis, the 21 target genes fell into four groups associated with a particular type of chemical endowed with distinct sensitizing or irritant properties. Thus, gene profiling of iDC using low-density microarray allows, for screening of chemicals, the indentification of weak haptens with potential skin sensitizing properties. These results suggest that gene profiling of iDC using low-density microarrays may be useful to identify chemicals with weak skin sensitizing properties.
    Toxicology Letters 12/2007; 174(1-3):98-109. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • European journal of dermatology: EJD 01/2007; 17(5):457-9. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The accelerated migration of Langerhans cells (LCs) out of the epidermis and up-regulation of maturation markers, upon treatment with subtoxic concentrations of chemicals, were used as the criteria to determine the potential of allergenic chemicals capable of inducing a hapten-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Here we report the findings of a study in which seven chemicals, coded and tested in a blind fashion, were classified as contact allergens or non-allergens using the human organotypic skin explant culture (hOSEC) model. All chemicals that were identified as a contact sensitizer on decoding induced a definite decrease in the number of CD1a and HLA-DR-positive epidermal LCs in the epidermis of the skin explants, as determined by both semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and quantitative flow cytometric analysis. A significant increase in the number of CD83(+) cells was accompanied by up-regulation of activation molecules in the epidermis of hOSEC exposed specifically to contact allergens. In contrast, there were only minor alterations in epidermal LC numbers, expression of CD83 and other activation markers by LCs when the biopsies were treated with non-toxic concentrations of non-allergenic irritants and vehicles. The data suggest that an increased epidermal LC migration and maturation accompanied by increased expression of activation markers could be used as end-point determinants to screen allergens in a non-animal alternative hOSEC model.
    Experimental Dermatology 07/2006; 15(6):421-31. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we have used UVB-irradiated human skin explants and the allostimulatory function of Langerhans cells (LC) to determine immune protection factors (IPF) for sunscreens. We sought here to simplify the model by using either human enriched LC suspensions or in vitro generated dendritic cells from human monocytes (MoDC). LC or MoDC suspensions were irradiated with increasing doses of UVB through a piece of translucent strip recovered or not with the sunscreens. The allostimulatory function of the cells was then analysed in a mixed lymphocyte reaction and the UVB dose providing 50% immunosuppression (D50%) was determined graphically. IPF were determined by the ratio of the D50% value in the presence of sunscreen to that of the vehicle alone. In either experimental conditions, the D50% in the presence of sunscreens was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that obtained with the vehicle, demonstrating the sunscreen immunoprotective effect. IPF values obtained with either DC suspensions were very similar and quite comparable to those previously obtained in the skin explant model. Thus, the present in vitro model provides easy tools to determine a new important biological parameter for sunscreens, i.e. immune protection.
    Toxicology in Vitro 06/2004; 18(3):359-64. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed at determining immune protection factors (IPFs) for sunscreens. Human skin explants from donors of phototype II-III were treated, or not, with sunscreens with increasing sun protection factors (SPF 4, 8, 15 and 30), or their respective vehicles. Explants were submitted, or not, to increasing doses of UVB irradiation (312 nm). After an 18-h incubation at 37 degrees C, epidermal cells were recovered through trypsinization and tested in a mixed epidermal cell/T lymphocyte reaction. The UVB dose providing 50% immunosuppression (D50%) was determined graphically. We first demonstrated a large difference in the individual response to UVB, as assessed by the D50% in the absence of any topical treatment (mean 1615+/-839 J/m2 from 14 experiments with values ranging from 500 to 3200 J/m2). For all the tested sunscreens, the D50% values were significantly higher than those obtained without sunscreens or with their respective vehicles (P < 0.01), thus demonstrating their immunoprotective effect. IPFs were determined as the ratio of the D50% in the presence of sunscreen to that with vehicle alone. Although they displayed important individual variations, IPFs ranked according to the sunscreen SPFs.
    Archives for Dermatological Research 06/2000; 292(6):306-11. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that in vitro low dose of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, 100–200 J per m2) directly impaired the antigen-presenting function of human Langerhans cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of UVB irradiation on the Langerhans cells expression of several accessory molecules, namely CD54, CD80, and CD86. Langerhans cells phenotype was determined either immediately after UVB exposure (100 J per m2) or after a 2 d culture. No modification in cell surface antigen levels was observed immediately after irradiation. Prior UVB exposure did not modify the levels of CD80 at the Langerhans cells surface after a 2 d culture. In contrast, CD54 and, above all, CD86 expression were significantly decreased. Addition of exogenous anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies partly restored the allostimulatory property of irradiated Langerhans cells in mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction, demonstrating that impairment of CD86 upregulation contributes to the UVB-induced immunosuppressive effect. Furthermore, we found that UVB irradiation at 200 J per m2 significantly reduced the number of viable Langerhans cells after 2 d of culture. UVB-induced cytotoxicity was due to apoptotic cell death, as demonstrated by typical morphologic alterations and by DNA fragmentation yielding a classical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. Interestingly, interaction of Langerhans cells with CD40-ligand transfected L cells improved the viability of irradiated Langerhans cells, counteracted the inhibition of CD86 expression, and efficiently reduced the number of apoptotic cells after a 2 d culture. Collectively, these results demonstrate that in vitro UVB exposure affects Langerhans cells via at least two distinct pathways: (i) decreased CD86 costimulatory molecule upregulation; and (ii) induction of Langerhans cells apoptosis, a phenomenon partly prevented by CD40 triggering.Keywords: accessory molecules, apoptosis
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 08/1998; 111(3):373-379. · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • P Courtellemont, F Rattis, D Schmitt, J Peguet-Navarro
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    ABSTRACT: The deleterious effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) on the antigen-presenting function of human epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) were studied by using the in vitro primary and secondary T-cell proliferative responses to the trinitrophenyl hapten (TNP) modified autologous LC. Increasing doses of UVB radiation (100-200 J/m(2)) induced a dose dependent inhibition of the primary and secondary TNP-specific T cell response. However, this decreased T-cell proliferative response after UVB radiation, was strongly enhanced when freshly isolated LC, as compared with cultured LC, were used as antigen-presenting cells (APC), suggesting an impaired development of LC accessory function. Moreover, the exogenous addition of IL1beta, TNFalpha, IL10 or their specific monoclonal antibodies neither modified nor reversed the immunosuppressive effect of UVB radiation. Even if the low doses of UVB radiation (100 and 200 J/m(2)) seemed to slightly affect HLA-DR synthesis, the antigen-presenting function of human LC cannot be related to the decreased expression of these molecules but might be associated with an impaired development of accessory molecules such as a downregulation of B7-2 antigen.
    Toxicology in Vitro 08/1998; 12(4):343-51. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Dermatological Science - J DERMATOLOGICAL SCI. 01/1998; 16.
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    ABSTRACT: The need to develop predictive tests which could identify potential allergens has been recognized for many years. There is as yet no accepted in vitro method for the assessment of contact sensitizers. We have tested the ability of a range of contact allergens to induce in vitro primary sensitization of autologous T cells. T-cell proliferation induced by haptens using 2-day cultured human Langerhans cells as antigen-presenting cell was assessed by 3H thymidine incorporation. Antigen specific stimulation was calculated as stimulation indexes. Strong allergens induced in vitro a primary T-cell response in all (trinitrophenyl, TNP: 13/13) or in the majority (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC: 7/10) of experiments. An irritant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), failed to generate a significant T-cell proliferation in any of the experiments (0/10). We obtained a significant lymphoproliferative response to weak sensitizers only in a limited number of experiments: (coumarin: 1/12, citronellal: 0/10, hydroxycitronellal: 2/8). p-Phenylenediamine (PPDA), a prohapten and highly sensitizing chemical in vivo, generated primary sensitization in vitro in only one of six experiments, while Bandrowski's base (BB), a metabolization product of PPDA induced a significant T-cell response in all six experiments. The present in vitro model allows discrimination between two groups of substances: strong contact sensitizers (TNP, FITC, BB) on the one hand and weak sensitizers (coumarin, citronellal and hydroxycitronellal) and irritants (SDS) on the other hand. It could be used as a screening in vitro assay to eliminate strong contact allergens before further predictive animal tests have to be performed.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 06/1996; 26(5):563-70. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to T cell receptor triggering, activation of T cells requires costimulatory signals that have been shown to be mainly initiated through CD28. We analyzed the expression and function of the two ligands for CD28, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), on human Langerhans cells (LC), the antigen-presenting cells from epidermis. Human LC freshly isolated from epidermis (fLC) expressed significant level of B7-2, which was increased upon a short culture in vitro. In contrast, B7-1 was undetectable on fLC but appeared at the cell surface after a 3-day culture in vitro. Pre-incubation of 18-h cultured LC with anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAB) was sufficient to abrogate the binding of CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, while a combination of both mAB against B7-1 and B7-2 was necessary to obtain a complete inhibition of CTLA4-Ig binding on 3-day cultured LC, showing the absence of a third CTLA4 ligand. The function of B7-1 and B7-2 on human LC has been analyzed by adding mAb at the beginning of mixed epidermal cell lymphocyte reactions. Anti-B7-2 mAb and CTLA4-Ig, but not anti-B7-1 mAb, strongly inhibited allogenic. as well as recall antigen-induced T cell proliferation supported by fLC or 3-day cultured LC. Collectively, these results demonstrate that B7-2 is the major ligand for CD28/CTLA4 at the LC surface and that it plays a crucial role in human LC co-stimulatory function with little, if any, dependence of B7-1 expression.
    European Journal of Immunology 03/1996; 26(2):449-53. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Current problems in dermatology 02/1996; 25:28-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Urocanic acid (UCA) represents the major ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm)-absorbing component of the skin. Trans-UCA is naturally produced in the stratum corneum and converts to the cis isomer upon UVB irradiation. In this study, we examined the effect of purified cis-UCA (about 99% of cis isomer) on the human Langerhans cell (LC) allostimulatory function by using the mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction (MELR). We found that addition of increasing amounts (6.5-400 micrograms/mL) of purified cis-UCA or trans-UCA did not modify the T-cell response supported by enriched LC (eLC: 8-25% LC) as well as purified LC (pLC: 70-90% LC) suspensions. Because cis-UCA had no effect on the allostimulatory function of untreated LC, we investigated whether this compound could modify T-cell proliferation induced by UVB-irradiated LC. The UVB exposure of eLC or pLC to 100 J/m2 significantly inhibited the capacity of both suspensions to mount a T-cell response. However, addition of cis-UCA did not potentiate this UVB-induced immunosuppression. The eLC or pLC were then incubated with cis-UCA for 18 h at 37 degrees C and washed before adding to allogeneic T cells. The obtained proliferative response was similar to that induced by control LC incubated in medium alone, demonstrating that pretreatment with cis-UCA did not alter human LC function. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that cis-UCA has no direct effect on human LC antigen-presenting function.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 12/1995; 62(5):914-6. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UBV) on the immune function of human epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) were studied by using the mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction (MELR). Exposure of both enriched LC suspensions (eLC, 8-20% LC) and purified LC suspensions (pLC, 70-90% LC) to increasing doses of UVB radiation (25 to 200 J/m2) decreased the proliferative T cell response in a very similar dose-dependent way, suggesting that keratinocytes did not play a major role in the UVB-induced inhibition of MELR. Supernatants from irradiated cultured eLC or pLC failed to inhibit T cell proliferation induced by untreated pLC. Furthermore, addition of irradiated eLC to untreated pLC did not affec the allogeneic T cell response. Taken together, these results provide evidence that in vitro UVB-induced immunosuppression was not mediated by inhibitory soluble factors that could affect either LC allostimulatory property or T cell proliferative response. UVB irradiation of human LC inhibited the capacity of these cells to induce CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cell proliferation. UVB-irradiated LC also induced a decreased T cell response to recall antigen or mitogen. Moreover, addition of exogeneous cytokines such as IL-1 beta, IL-1 alpha, or IL-2 did not reverse the defective function of UVB-irradiated LC in MELR. The inhibitory effect of UVB radiation on human LC was not related to a decreased HLA-DR expression. Because cultured LC appeared to be less sensitive than freshly isolated LC to UVB-induced suppressive effects, the deleterious effects of UVB radiation on human LC allostimulatory properties may be associated with an impaired development of LC accessory function.
    Cellular Immunology 09/1995; 164(1):65-72. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/1995; 378:243-5. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the capacity of human Langerhans's cells (LC) to sensitize autologous T cells to the trinitrophenyl hapten (TNP) in vitro. Two-day cultured Langerhans' cells, but not freshly prepared Langerhans' cells, can induce in vitro primary proliferative reactions to the TNP hapten. Using a CD45RA+ naive T-cell subset, similar results were found, therefore making the possibility of a previous in vivo T-cell contact with the hapten unlikely. The primary in vitro response was strongly inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II, CD4 antigens and ICAM-1 and LFA-3 adhesion molecules. Furthermore, we found that fresh LC can prime T cells to TNP, as revealed by a significant secondary T-cell proliferation after restimulation of the recovered T lymphocytes by fresh hapten-modified autologous LC. Nevertheless, the ability of these fresh LC to stimulate in vitro secondary hapten-specific T-cell proliferation was very limited in comparison with that of 2-day incubated Langerhans' cells. After secondary stimulation with TNP-cultured LC, sensitized T cells could be non-specifically expanded without losing hapten specificity. The TNP-specific T-cell lines were mostly of the CD4+ phenotype. The present findings extend previous studies in the mouse, showing that culture LC are potent antigen-presenting cells (APC) in primary hapten-dependent proliferation assays. Furthermore, this in vitro priming assay, using cultured human Langerhans' cells as APC, might be useful to analyse the early steps of T-cell sensitization and subsequently to develop in vitro predictive tests allowing detection of sensitizing compounds.
    Immunology 12/1993; 80(3):373-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor