[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim was to test the influence of sex and specialty (3000, 5000 and 10000 m) on the validity of middle-distance running performance predictions obtained from the Mercier et al.'s nomogram. Consequently, we examined all official French track running rankings for the 3000-, 5000- and 10000-m events (men and women) from 2006 to 2012. A scoring table was used to determine the runners' specialties. Only runners who performed in the three distance events within the same year were included (75 women and 400 men). The Mercier et al.'s nomogram was used to predict one running performance from the other two. The results showed no significant difference between actual and predicted running performances (P = 0.77). Female runners had significantly lower performances than male runners (P < 0.001). Specialty did not influence performances (P = 0.11). Very high correlations were found between actual and predicted performances (0.91 < r < 0.99), with the exception of women (r = 0.85) in 5000 m. Moreover, low limits of agreement were obtained for male and female runners, whatever the specialty. These results support the validity of the nomogram to predict running performance in the 3000-, 5000- and 10000-m events for male and female runners, whatever the specialty. The predicted running performances may be used in training programmes (e.g., to prescribe tempo runs) and competitions (e.g., to establish split times).
Journal of Sports Sciences 12/2014; · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The aims of this study were to test the reproducibility of the 6-minute stepper test (6MST), and evaluate its accuracy in detecting improved functional capacity after pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty-five COPD outpatients performed two 6MSTs in the same session, before (6MST1 and 6MST2) and after (6MST3 and 6MST4) PR. The performance, perceived exertion, heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation were measured during each 6MST. The performance was higher during the second 6MST of the same session (before PR: 514 strokes during the 6MST2 > 471 strokes during the 6MST1, and after PR: 559 strokes during the 6MST4 > 508 strokes during the 6MST3; p = 0.04). After PR, 6MST performance was higher than before PR (6MST3 > 6MST1 and 6MST4 > 6MST2; P < 0.01). The bias (the difference in the number of strokes) between the two 6MSTs from the same session (before PR: 6MST2-6MST1 = 42 strokes vs after PR: 6MST4-6MST3 = 52 strokes) was not different (P = 0.34). However, both bias were greater than 0 (P < 0.001). The mean performances for the two 6MSTs of the same session (before PR: 6MST1 and 6MST2 and after PR: 6MST3 and 6MST4) were correlated with the bias between these performances (P < 0.01; r = 0.32). The perceived exertions were lower after PR (P < 0.02). The systematic improvement of performance (8-10%) during the second 6MST of the each session may be explained from the warming of hydraulic jacks of the stepper and/or learning effect. On the other hand, the 6MST seems sufficiently sensitive to detect functional capacity improvements after PR in patients with COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of a training program at a special exercise intensity—the crossover point of substrate utilization (COP)—on the metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in obese women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Eighteen postmenopausal obese women with MetS (age, 54.8 ± 8.4 years; height, 160 ± 6 cm) followed a 12-week training program consisting of three 45-minute sessions/wk on a cycle ergometer. The intensity imposed during the training sessions corresponded to COP. Before and after the training program, anthropometric, biological, and blood pressure data were collected and compared. After the training program, body mass (88.4 ± 12.3 kg vs. 85.7 ± 11.1 kg), fat mass (43.2 ± 4.8% vs. 41.8 ± 4.8% body mass), body mass index (34.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2 vs. 33.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2), and waist circumference (105 ± 10 cm vs. 100 ± 9 cm) were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, fasting plasma glucose was significantly lower after the training program (114 ± 20 mg/dL vs. 107 ± 15 mg/dL; p = 0.02) and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index was significantly higher (0.58 ± 0.08 vs. 0.61 ± 0.05; p = 0.05). A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure was also observed (141 ± 15 mmHg vs. 129 ± 11 mmHg; p = 0.02). After the program, the number of patients with fasting plasma hyperglycemia and arterial hypertension was significantly decreased by 54.4% and 44.4%, respectively, and the number of patients with MetS was nonsignificantly reduced by 22.2% (p = 0.10). The present study shows that a training program at COP is an efficient means to treat MetS.
Journal of exercise science and fitness (JESF) 11/2014; · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to define the time-motion (i.e., fighting, preparatory and breaking activity), technical (i.e., attack, timed-attack, counterattack, blocking and grasps) and tactical (i.e., upper limb, lower-limb, combination and throwing) profiles of the senior top-level karate competition played under the most recent rules of the International Karate Federation in relation to gender, match outcome and weight categories. Time-motion, tactical actions and technical executions were investigated of senior karatekas (n = 60) during the Karate World Championship. The referee's decisions caused an overall activity-to-break ratio of ~1:1.5 with a significant difference (P = 0.025) between karateka's weight categories (light = 1:1.5; middle = 1:2 and heavy = 1:1). High-intensity actions (i.e., attack and defensive actions performed quickly and powerfully) were higher in male compared to female athletes. Top-level karatekas used upper limb techniques more than lower limb ones, with both applied in the head more than in the body. For the high-intensity-actions to pause ratio and the percentage of combined techniques, light weight category was significantly higher than middle weight category. These findings suggest that training programs may need to be specific to the requirements of the gender and weight categories.
Journal of Sports Sciences 10/2014; · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the validity of predicting peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2 peak) from the relationship between oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) and overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) obtained during the initial stages of a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was an epidemiological report of the injuries to young soccer players from pretraining centres (12 to 15 years: U12-U15) and training centres (16 to 20 years: U16-U20).
The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 08/2014; 54(4):526-35.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of karate practice level (national vs international level) and sex (women vs men) on physiological and perceptual responses in three modern karate training modalities (tactical-technical (TT), technical-development (TD), and randori).
Biology of Sport 08/2014; 31(3):201-7. · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study determined the validity and the reliability of a new specific field test that was based on the scientific data that exist within the latest literature research.
Seventeen international level karatekas participated in this study: 14 men (age: 24.1±4.6 years, body mass: 65.7±10.8 kg) and 3 women (age: 19±3.6 years, body mass: 54.1±0.9 kg). All performed the new karate specific test (KST) two times (test and retest sessions were carried out on separated occasions one week apart). Thirteen men performed also a laboratory test for assessing maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).
Test-retest results showed the KST to be reliable. VO2peak, Peak heart rate (HRpeak), blood lactate ([La-]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and time to exhaustion (TE) did not display a difference between the test and the retest. The SEM and ICC for relative and absolute VO2peak, and TE were <5% and >0.90, respectively. Significant correlations were found between VO2peak (mL.kg-1.min-1) and TE measured from the KST (r=0.71, 95%CI: 0.35-0.88,p<0.0001). There was also no significant difference between VO2peak measured from the KST and VO2max recorded from the cyclo-ergometer laboratory test (55.1±4.8 vs 53.2±6.6 mL.kg-1.min-1, respectively) (t=-1.85, df=12, p=0.08, dz=0.51 [small]). The Bland and Altman analyses reported a mean difference (bias) ± the 95% limits of agreement of 1.9±7.35 mL.kg-1.min-1.
This study showed that the new KST test, with effort pattern replicating real karate combats, can be considered as a valid and reliable karate specific field test for assessing the endurance fitness of karatekas.
International journal of sports physiology and performance 03/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: tTrained breath-hold divers (BHDs) are exposed to repeated bouts of intermittent hypoxia and hyper-capnia during prolonged breath-holding. It has thus been hypothesized that their specific training maydevelop enhanced chemo-responsiveness to hypoxia associated with reduced ventilatory response tohypercapnia.Hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HCVR) and hypoxic ventilatory responses at rest (HVRr) and exer-cise (HVRe) were assessed in BHDs (n = 7) and a control group of non-divers (NDs = 7). Cardiac output (CO),stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) were also recorded. BHDs presented carbon dioxide sensitivitysimilar to that of NDs (2.85 ± 1.41 vs. 1.85 ± 0.93 L min−1mmHg−1, p > 0.05, respectively). However, bothHVRr(+68%) and HVRe(+31%) were increased in BHDs. CO and HR reached lower values in BHDs thanNDs during the hypoxic exercise test.These results suggest that the exposure to repeated bouts of hypoxia/hypercapnia frequently experi-enced by trained breath-hold divers only enhances their chemo-responsiveness to poikilocapnic hypoxia,without altering HCVR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maximal or peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively) are commonly measured during graded exercise tests (GXTs) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), to prescribe exercise intensity and/or to evaluate the effects of training. However, direct measurement of CRF requires a GXT to volitional exhaustion, which may not always be well accepted by athletes or which should be avoided in some clinical populations. Consequently, numerous studies have proposed various sub-maximal exercise tests to predict [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. Because of the strong link between ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]), it has been proposed that the individual relationship between RPE and [Formula: see text] (RPE:[Formula: see text]) can be used to predict [Formula: see text] (or [Formula: see text]) from data measured during submaximal exercise tests. To predict [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] from these linear regressions, two procedures may be identified: an estimation procedure or a production procedure. The estimation procedure is a passive process in which the individual is typically asked to rate how hard an exercise bout feels according to the RPE scale during each stage of a submaximal GXT. The production procedure is an active process in which the individual is asked to self-regulate and maintain an exercise intensity corresponding to a prescribed RPE. This procedure is referred to as a perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET). Recently, prediction of [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] from RPE:[Formula: see text] measured during both GXT and PRET has received growing interest. A number of studies have tested the validity, reliability and sensitivity of predicted [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] from RPE:[Formula: see text] extrapolated to the theoretical [Formula: see text] at RPE20 (or RPE19). This review summarizes studies that have used this predictive method during submaximal estimation or production procedures in various populations (i.e. sedentary individuals, athletes and pathological populations). The accuracy of the methods is discussed according to the RPE:[Formula: see text] range used to plot the linear regression (e.g. RPE9-13 versus RPE9-15 versus RPE9-17 during PRET), as well as the perceptual endpoint used for the extrapolation (i.e. RPE19 and RPE20). The [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] predictions from RPE:[Formula: see text] are also compared with heart rate-related predictive methods. This review suggests that [Formula: see text] (or [Formula: see text]) may be predicted from RPE:[Formula: see text] extrapolated to the theoretical [Formula: see text] (or [Formula: see text]) at RPE20 (or RPE19). However, it is generally preferable to (1) extrapolate RPE:[Formula: see text] to RPE19 (rather than RPE20); (2) use wider RPE ranges (e.g. RPE ≤ 17 or RPE9-17) in order to increase the accuracy of the predictions; and (3) use RPE ≤ 15 or RPE9-15 in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications in clinical populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trained breath-hold divers (BHDs) are exposed to repeated bouts of intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia during prolonged breath-holding. It has thus been hypothesized that their specific training may develop enhanced chemo-responsiveness to hypoxia associated with reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HCVR) and hypoxic ventilatory responses at rest (HVRr) and exercise (HVRe) were assessed in BHDs (n=7) and a control group of non-divers (NDs=7). Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) were also recorded. BHDs presented carbon dioxide sensitivity similar to that of NDs (2.85±1.41 vs. 1.85±0.93 l.min(-1).mmHg(-1), p>0.05, respectively). However, both HVRr (+68%) and HVRe (+31%) were increased in BHDs. CO and HR reached lower values in BHDs than NDs during the hypoxic exercise test. These results suggest that the exposure to repeated bouts of hypoxia/hypercapnia frequently experienced by trained breath-hold divers only enhances their chemo-responsiveness to poikilocapnic hypoxia, without altering HCVR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition.
Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1-2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2-3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La(-)] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match.
Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La(-)], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L(-1) and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La(-)], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; P<0.001) and Edwards TL (r=0.77; P<0.01).
International karate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La(-)]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training.
Asian journal of sports medicine. 12/2013; 4(4):263-71.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voluntary breath-holding (BH) elicits several hemodynamic changes, but little is known about maximal static immersed-body BH. We hypothesized that the diving reflex would be strengthened with body immersion and would spare more oxygen than maximal dry static BH, resulting in a longer BH duration.
Eleven trained breath-hold divers (BHDs) performed a maximal dry-body BH and a maximal immersed-body BH. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), contractility index (CTI), and ventricular ejection time (VET) were continuously recorded by bio-impedancemetry (PhysioFlow PF-05). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was assessed with a finger probe oximeter.
In both conditions, BHDs presented a bi-phasic kinetic for CO and a tri-phasic kinetic for SV and HR. In the first phase of immersed-body BH and dry-body BH, results (mean ± SD) expressed as percentage changes from starting values showed decreased CO (55.9 ± 10.4 vs. 39.3 ± 16.8 %, respectively; p < 0.01 between conditions), due to drops in both SV (24.9 ± 16.2 vs. 9.0 ± 8.5 %, respectively; p < 0.05 between conditions) and HR (39.7 ± 16.7 vs. 33.6 ± 17.0 %, respectively; p < 0.01 between conditions). The second phase was marked by an overall stabilization of hemodynamic variables. In the third one, CO kept stabilizing due to increased SV (17.0 ± 20.2 vs. 10.9 ± 13.8 %, respectively; p < 0.05 between conditions) associated with a second HR drop (14.0 ± 10.0 vs. 12.7 ± 8.9 %, respectively; p < 0.01 between conditions).
This study highlights similar time-course patterns for cardiodynamic variables during dry-body and immersed-body BH, although the phenomenon was more pronounced in the latter condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Les effets d’un programme de réadaptation sur les mesures anthropométriques, biologiques, physiques et psychosociales ont été évalués chez des patients obèses, puis réévalués après un an. Trente patients obèses (dont 70 % de diabétiques de type 2) suivaient un programme de réadaptation de 10 semaines (incluant trois séances d’activités physiques par semaine et une séance hebdomadaire d’éducation collective à la santé). Des mesures anthropométriques, biologiques, de la condition physique, de la précarité, psychologiques et du niveau d’activité physique étaient relevées avant, juste après le programme de réadaptation et à un an. Le programme de réadaptation n’a pas d’effet significatif sur les mesures anthropométriques et biologiques. Toutefois, il permettait d’augmenter la condition physique, d’améliorer la qualité de vie perçue, d’accroître l’estime de soi, ainsi que réduire l’anxiété, la dépression et la sédentarité. Ces bénéfices semblent permettre aux patients de rompre le cercle vicieux de la sédentarité.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The graded exercise test (GXT) is used to measure the exercise capacity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To do this GXT must be maximal (exhaustive). However, the value of the blood lactate at the GXT endpoint [La−max] or after a recovery period of three minutes [La−recovery], to confirm that the GXT is maximal, remains controversial. The purpose of the present study is to determine a threshold of [La−max] and/or [La−recovery], which confirms the exhaustiveness of GXT in patients with COPD.
Thirty-six patients with COPD performed a GXT until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. During the GXT cardiorespiratory parameters, [La−max] and [La−recovery] were measured. When at least three out of five of the most frequently used criteria to confirm exhaustion were met, GXT was considered as maximal. Conversely, GXT was considered as sub-maximal when less three criteria were observed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed.
For [La−max] the areas under the ROC curve and the areas under the diagonal were not significantly different (P = 0.16). For [La−recovery] the ROC curve inflected itself at 5.8 mmol/L (sensitivity = 0.92 and specificity = 0.56).
It was not possible to use [La−max] to confirm exhaustion in our population. However, [La−recovery] < 5.8 mmol/L may help to confirm non-exhaustion during GXT in patients with COPD. Below this blood lactate threshold 93% patients performed a sub-maximal GXT.
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 03/2013; 30(3):187–193. · 0.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While some studies have demonstrated that respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) improves performances during various exercise modalities, controversy continues about the transfer of RMET effects to swimming performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the added effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET; normocapnic hyperpnea) on the respiratory muscle function and swimming performance of young well-trained swimmers. Two homogenous groups were recruited: ten swimmers performed RMET (RMET group) and ten swimmers performed no RMET (control group). During the 8-week RMET period, all swimmers followed the same training sessions 5-6 times/week. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance, performances on 50- and 200-m trials, effort perception, and dyspnea were assessed before and after the intervention program. The results showed that ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and performances were improved only in the RMET group. Moreover, perceived exertion and dyspnea were lower in the RMET group in both trials (i.e., 50- and 200-m). Consequently, the swim training associated with RMET was more effective than swim training alone in improving swimming performances. RMET can therefore be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers. Key PointsRespiratory muscle endurance training improves the performance.Respiratory muscle endurance training improves the ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance.Respiratory muscle endurance training decreases the perceived exertion and dyspnea.Respiratory muscle endurance training can be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers.
Journal of sports science & medicine 01/2013; 12(4):630-8. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: USING EFFORT PERCEPTION TO QUANTIFY THE TRAINING LOAD DURING DIFFERENT MODES OF KARATE TRAINING SESSIONS
M. Tabben, Dr. R. Sioud, Dr. J. Coquart, Pr. K. Chamari and Pr. C. Tourny-Chollet.
CETAPS, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France.
The objectives of the present study were (1) to determine the relationship between a subjective method of quantifying karate training loads (TLs) (the session rating of perceived exertion: session-RPE) and two objective methods (the training impulse: Banister’s TRIMP, and the summated-heart-rate-zones equation: Edwards’ TL) and (2) to explain the characteristics of the variance for different training modes. Twelve international karate athletes (5 women and 7 men, age: 23.0±1.7 yrs) were recruited. RPE and heart rate (HR) were recorded to calculate the training loads in 171 karate training sessions. Correlation analysis assessed the validity between session-RPE and the 2 HR-based methods for TL assessment in a variety of training modes: technical training, special physical training and Randori. The HR was 131±14 bpm, 134±14 bpm and 137±15 bpm, respectively. No significant difference was found between the session-RPE according to training mode. The cumulative duration in the 90-100% zone of maximum HR was 2.52 min in technical training, whereas the duration in the same zone was 8.39 min in Randori sessions. The correlation between the TRIMP and session-RPE was r=0.87 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72 to 0.95). The correlation between session-RPE and Edwards’ TL was r=0.85 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.71 to 0.95). Karate coaches can use the RPE method to monitor karate training, although they should ensure that the Randori sessions are of high intensity to simulate the physiological responses of competition.
XXXII WORLD CONGRESS OF SPORTS MEDICINE Rome; 09/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The objective was to examine the relationship between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) at the point of maximal lipids oxidation (LIPOXmax), physiological responses and psychological profile in trained competitive cyclists.
Patients and methods
Twenty-one competitive cyclists performed an exercise test in order to determine RPE at LIPOXmax. During this exercise test, physiological responses at LIPOXmax were measured. Moreover, a psychological profile for each cyclist has been evaluated from questionnaires (levels of anxiety, desire for success, self-esteem, psychological resistance and endurance, dynamism, competitiveness, activity control, risk-taking, emotional control, extroversion–introversion, leadership, aggressiveness, sociability, cooperation, acceptance of a judgment, and social desirability). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the physiological and psychological factors linked to RPE at LIPOXmax.
Only the percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%V˙O2max), leadership and psychological endurance explained significantly the RPE at LIPOXmax.
More the cyclists have a low RPE at LIPOXmax, more their LIPOXmax (in V˙O2max) was low. Cyclists with high level of leadership (i.e., persuasive, with command ability) and/or psychological endurance (i.e., persistent, obstinate) have lower RPE at LIPOXmax than the cyclists with lower level of leadership and/or psychological endurance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to predict performance is of great interest for athletes and coaches. It is helpful for the selection of athletes to a team, the prescription of individualized training and the determination of the optimal pacing strategy. However, it is often difficult to judge the time to exhaustion without maximal exercise testing, which is often difficult to schedule during a competitive season. Consequently, the purpose of this review is to present a recent tool based on subjective prediction of time to exhaustion than can be achieved without requiring a maximal effort. This tool is the estimated time limit (ETL) scale. This review summarizes all experimentations that have studied the ETL scale. These studies suggest that the ETL scale may be used to predict time to exhaustion.
Sports Medicine 08/2012; 42(10):845-55. · 5.32 Impact Factor