[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that a systemic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist promoted macrophage reverse-cholesterol transport (mRCT) in vivo. Because LXR are expressed in multiple tissues involved in RCT (macrophages, liver, intestine), we analyzed the effect of tissue-specific LXR agonism on mRCT.
In initial studies, the systemic LXR agonist GW3965 failed to promote mRCT in a setting in which LXR was expressed in macrophages but not in liver or intestine. To evaluate the effect of LXR activation specifically in small intestine on mRCT, wild-type mice were treated with either intestinal-specific LXR agonist (GW6340) or systemic LXR agonist (GW3965). Both GW3965 and GW6340 significantly promoted excretion of [(3)H]-sterol in feces by 162% and 52%, respectively. To evaluate the requirement for macrophage LXR activation, we assessed the ability of GW3965 to promote mRCT in wild-type mice using primary macrophages deficient in LXR alpha/beta vs wild-type macrophages. Whereas GW3965 treatment promoted fecal excretion compared with vehicle, its overall ability to promote mRCT was significantly attenuated using LXR alpha/beta knockout macrophages.
We demonstrate that intestinal-specific LXR agonism promotes macrophage RCT in vivo and that macrophage LXR itself plays an important, but not predominant, role in promoting RCT in response to an LXR agonist.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARdelta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased hepatobiliary cholesterol secretion, nor by reduced cholesterol absorption. To test the hypothesis that PPARdelta activation leads to stimulation of transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE), we quantified it by intestine perfusions in FVB mice treated with PPARdelta agonist GW610742. To exclude the effects on cholesterol absorption, mice were also treated with cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe or ezetimibe/GW610742. GW601742 treatment had little effect on plasma lipid levels but stimulated both fecal neutral sterol excretion ( approximately 200%) and TICE ( approximately 100%). GW610742 decreased intestinal Npc1l1 expression but had no effect on Abcg5/Abcg8. Interestingly, expression of Rab9 and LIMPII, encoding proteins involved in intracellular cholesterol trafficking, was increased upon PPARdelta activation. Although treatment with ezetimibe alone had no effect on TICE, it reduced the effect of GW610742 on TICE. These data show that activation of PPARdelta stimulates fecal cholesterol excretion in mice, primarily by the two-fold increase in TICE, indicating that this pathway provides an interesting target for the development of drugs aiming at the prevention of atherosclerosis.
The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2009; 50(10):2046-54. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M800579-JLR200 · 4.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthranilic acid GW9371 was identified as a novel class of PPARdelta partial agonist through high-throughput screening. The design and synthesis of SAR analogues is described. GSK1115 and GSK7227 show potent partial agonism of the PPARdelta target genes CPT1a and PDK4 in skeletal muscle cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver X receptor-alpha (LXRalpha) and LXRbeta are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. They have been identified as key players in cholesterol homeostasis and lipid and glucose metabolism as well as immune and inflammatory responses. In the small intestine, LXRs have been shown not only to regulate cholesterol absorption and excretion but also to promote high-density lipoprotein biogenesis via the ATP-binding cassette A1 signaling pathway. Here, using gene expression assays, we identified PPARalpha as an intestine-specific LXR target gene. Chronic administration of LXR synthetic agonists led to a significant increase of PPARalpha mRNA levels in the small intestine but not in the liver. In addition, this specific PPARalpha gene up-regulation occurred in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in a dose-dependent manner and translated at the protein level as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, PPARalpha gene induction was completely abolished in LXR-deficient mice. Finally, the physiological relevance of LXR-mediated PPARalpha up-regulation in the small intestine was assessed in PPARalpha-deficient mice. Administration of a synthetic LXR agonist to wild-type mice led to the induction of several PPARalpha target genes including PDK4 and CPT1. Those effects were completely abolished in PPARalpha-deficient mice, demonstrating the biological relevance of this LXR-PPARalpha transcriptional cascade. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPARalpha is an intestine-specific LXR target gene and suggest the existence of a transcriptional cross talk between those members of the nuclear receptor superfamily.