L. N. da Costa

Universidad de La Laguna, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain

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Publications (89)201.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results of a survey for high redshift, z $\ge$ 6, quasars using izY multi-colour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the $\rm z_{AB}, Y_{AB}$ = 20.2, 20.2 (M$_{1450}$ = $-$26.5) quasar DES J0454$-$4448 with an emission line redshift of z = 6.10$\pm$0.03 and a HI near zone size of 4.6 $\pm$ 1.7 Mpc.The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i$-$z = 2.46 and z$_{AB} < 21.5$ from an area of $\rm \sim$300 deg$^2$. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for follow-up spectroscopically solely based on the DES i$-$z and z$-$Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has $W1_{AB} = 19.68$. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 $<$ z $<$ 6.5 and z$_{AB} \leq$ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z $\sim$ 6. DES when completed will have imaged $\rm \sim$5000 deg$^2$ to $Y_{AB}$ = 23.0 ($5\sigma$ point source) and we expect to discover $>$ 50-100 new quasars with z $>$ 6 including 3-10 with z $>$ 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies including determination of the neutral HI fraction of the intergalactic medium (IGM) during the epoch of Hydrogen reionization.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (Sep. 2013 through Feb. 2014) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility.
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    ABSTRACT: The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is currently undertaking an observational program imaging $1/4$ of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the DES will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) over five years. Once GRBs are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of GRB activity, collates useful information from archival DES data, and promulgates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that DES data provide for relative photometry of GRBs or their afterglows, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential GRB host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software as it presently operates, as well as the data products that it produces, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to several previously-detected GRBs.
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    ABSTRACT: Weak gravitational lensing allows one to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the projected mass density across the sky. These "mass maps" provide a powerful tool for studying cosmology as they probe both luminous and dark matter. In this paper, we present a weak lensing mass map reconstructed from shear measurements in a 139 deg^2 area from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data overlapping with the South Pole Telescope survey. We compare the distribution of mass with that of the foreground distribution of galaxies and clusters. The overdensities in the reconstructed map correlate well with the distribution of optically detected clusters. Cross-correlating the mass map with the foreground galaxies from the same DES SV data gives results consistent with mock catalogs that include the primary sources of statistical uncertainties in the galaxy, lensing, and photo-z catalogs. The statistical significance of the cross-correlation is at the 6.8 sigma level with 20 arcminute smoothing. A major goal of this study is to investigate systematic effects arising from a variety of sources, including PSF and photo-z uncertainties. We make maps derived from twenty variables that may characterize systematics and find the principal components. We find that the contribution of systematics to the lensing mass maps is generally within measurement uncertainties. We test and validate our results with mock catalogs from N-body simulations. In this work, we analyze less than 3% of the final area that will be mapped by the DES; the tools and analysis techniques developed in this paper can be applied to forthcoming larger datasets from the survey.
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    ABSTRACT: Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) for a new sample of 106 X-Ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of Bright Central Galaxies (BCGs) since redshift 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, $m_{*}\propto(\frac{M_{200}}{1.5\times 10^{14}M_{\odot}})^{0.24\pm 0.08}(1+z)^{-0.19\pm0.34}$, and compare the observed relation to the simulation prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of $M_{200, z}=10^{13.8}M_{\odot}$, at $z=1.0$: $m_{*, BCG}$ appears to have grown by $0.13\pm0.11$ dex, in tension at $\sim 2.5 \sigma$ significance level with the 0.4 dex growth rate expected in the simulation. We show that the buildup of extended intra-cluster light after $z=1.0$ may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.
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    ABSTRACT: OzDES is a five-year, 100-night, spectroscopic survey on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, whose primary aim is to measure redshifts of approximately 2,500 Type Ia supernovae host galaxies over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2, and derive reverberation-mapped black hole masses for approximately 500 active galactic nuclei and quasars over 0.3 < z < 4.5. This treasure trove of data forms a major part of the spectroscopic follow-up for the Dark Energy Survey for which we are also targeting cluster galaxies, radio galaxies, strong lenses, and unidentified transients, as well as measuring luminous red galaxies and emission line galaxies to help calibrate photometric redshifts. Here we present an overview of the OzDES program and our first-year results. Between Dec 2012 and Dec 2013, we observed over 10,000 objects and measured more than 6,000 redshifts. Our strategy of retargeting faint objects across many observing runs has allowed us to measure redshifts for galaxies as faint as m_r=25 mag. We outline our target selection and observing strategy, quantify the redshift success rate for different types of targets, and discuss the implications for our main science goals. Finally, we highlight a few interesting objects as examples of the fortuitous yet not totally unexpected discoveries that can come from such a large spectroscopic survey.
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    ABSTRACT: The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2kx4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2kx2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 microns x15 microns pixels with a plate scale of 0.263 arc sec per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.
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    ABSTRACT: We present Magellan/M2FS, VLT/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of 62.8 +/- 0.5 km/s and a velocity dispersion of 3.3 +/- 0.7 km/s. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is 470 +/- 210 Msun/Lsun, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 km/s, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 +/- 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -3. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.65 +/- 0.07, Ret II matches Segue~1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is log J = 18.8 +/- 0.6 Gev^2/cm^5 within 0.2 degrees, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a group of apparently young CoRoT red-giant stars exhibiting enhanced [alpha/Fe] abundance ratios (as determined from APOGEE spectra) with respect to Solar values. Their existence is not explained by standard chemical evolution models of the Milky Way, and shows that the chemical-enrichment history of the Galactic disc is more complex. We find similar stars in previously published samples for which isochrone-ages could be robustly obtained, although in smaller relative numbers, which could explain why these stars have not received prior attention. The young [alpha/Fe]-rich stars are much more numerous in the CoRoT-APOGEE (CoRoGEE) inner-field sample than in any other high-resolution sample available at present, as only CoRoGEE can explore the inner-disc regions and provide ages for its field stars. The kinematic properties of the young [$\alpha$/Fe]-rich stars are not clearly thick-disc like, despite their rather large distances from the Galactic mid-plane. Our tentative interpretation of these and previous intriguing observations in the Milky Way is that these stars were formed close to the end of the Galactic bar, near corotation -- a region where gas can be kept inert for longer times, compared to other regions shocked more frequently by the passage of spiral arms. Moreover, that is where the mass return from older inner-disc stellar generations should be maximal (according to an inside-out disc-formation scenario), further diluting the in-situ gas. Other possibilities to explain these observations (e.g., a recent gas-accretion event) are also discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of dark matter. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with dark matter halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged dark matter annihilation cross section for these new targets. If confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for dark matter particles with masses <∼ 20GeV annihilating via the b ̄b or τ+τ− channels.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of dark matter. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with dark matter halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged dark matter annihilation cross section for these new targets. If confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for dark matter particles with masses < 20 GeV annihilating via the b-bbar or tau+tau- channels.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of eight new Milky Way companions in ~1,800 deg^2 of optical imaging data collected during the first year of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Each system is identified as a statistically significant over-density of individual stars consistent with the expected isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor stellar population. The objects span a wide range of absolute magnitudes (M_V from -2.2 mag to -7.4 mag), physical sizes (10 pc to 170 pc), and heliocentric distances (30 kpc to 330 kpc). Based on the low surface brightnesses, large physical sizes, and/or large Galactocentric distances of these objects, several are likely to be new ultra-faint satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and/or Magellanic Clouds. We introduce a likelihood-based algorithm to search for and characterize stellar over-densities, as well as identify stars with high satellite membership probabilities. We also present completeness estimates for detecting ultra-faint galaxies of varying luminosities, sizes, and heliocentric distances in the first-year DES data.
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    ABSTRACT: The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a lar ge portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stel lar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disk. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of $i=-38.14^{\circ}\pm0.08^{\circ}$ (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of $\theta_0=129.51^{\circ}\pm0.17^{\circ}$. We find that stars younger than $\sim 4$ Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disk shows that the scale radius of the old populations is $R_{>4 Gyr}=1.41\pm0.01$ kpc, while the younger population has $R_{<4 Gyr}=0.72\pm0.01$ kpc. Howe ver, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disk model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of $R_{t}=13.5\pm0.8$ kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is $\simeq 24^{+9}_{-6}$ times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LM C disk model, we find that the LMC disk is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. Our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disk in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component
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    ABSTRACT: We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 +/- 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (type I). Using this redshift, we find M_U_peak = -21.05 +0.10 -0.09 for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low metallicity (sub-solar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log(M/M_sun) = 9.3 +/- 0.3); consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to fourteen similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 days rest frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2-0.3 magnitudes between +25 and +30 days after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for 'standardising' such supernovae, as is done with the more common type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I - the radioactive decay of 56Ni, and a magnetar - and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 days in the rest frame of the supernova.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a forward-modelling simulation framework designed to model the data products from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). This forward-model process can be thought of as a transfer function -- a mapping from cosmological and astronomical signals to the final data products used by the scientists. Using output from the cosmological simulations (the Blind Cosmology Challenge), we generate simulated images (the Ultra Fast Image Simulator, Berge et al. 2013) and catalogs representative of the DES data. In this work we simulate the 244 sq. deg coadd images and catalogs in 5 bands for the DES Science Verification (SV) data. The simulation output is compared with the corresponding data to show that major characteristics of the images and catalogs can be captured. We also point out several directions of future improvements. Two practical examples, star/galaxy classification and proximity effects on object detection, are then used to demonstrate how one can use the simulations to address systematics issues in data analysis. With clear understanding of the simplifications in our model, we show that one can use the simulations side-by-side with data products to interpret the measurements. This forward modelling approach is generally applicable for other upcoming and future surveys. It provides a powerful tool for systematics studies which is sufficiently realistic and highly controllable.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint 7-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg DECam field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of ~4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a ~1.5 mag increase in the 80% completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70% of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial data release. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z<0.5 and z>1. We present example DES+VHS colour selection criteria for high redshift Luminous Red Galaxies at z~0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes are useful for the selection of both populations. The combined DES+VHS dataset, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey with the purpose of 1) validating the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilizing DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modeling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. We find Science Verification data from DECam to be suitable for lensing analyses. The PSF is generally well-behaved, but the modeling is rendered difficult by a flux-dependent PSF width. We employ photometric redshifts to distinguish between foreground and background galaxies, and a red-sequence cluster finder to provide cluster richness estimates and cluster-galaxy distributions. By fitting NFW profiles to the clusters in this study, we determine weak-lensing masses that are in agreement with previous work. For Abell 3261, we provide the first estimates of redshift, weak-lensing mass, and richness. In addition, the cluster-galaxy distributions indicate the existence of filaments attached to 1E 0657-56 and RXC J2248.7-4431, stretching out as far as 1 degree (approximately 20 Mpc), showcasing the potential of DECam and DES for detailed studies of degree-scale features on the sky.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the chemo-kinematic properties of the Milky Way disc by exploring the first year of data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and compare our results to smaller optical high-resolution samples in the literature, as well as results from lower resolution surveys such as GCS, SEGUE and RAVE. We start by selecting a high-quality sample in terms of chemistry ($\sim$ 20.000 stars) and, after computing distances and orbital parameters for this sample, we employ a number of useful subsets to formulate constraints on Galactic chemical and chemodynamical evolution processes in the Solar neighbourhood and beyond (e.g., metallicity distributions -- MDFs, [$\alpha$/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagrams, and abundance gradients). Our red giant sample spans distances as large as 10 kpc from the Sun, increasing by at least a factor of eight the studied volume with respect to the most recent chemodynamical studies. We find remarkable agreement between the recently published local (d $<$ 100 pc) high-resolution high-S/N HARPS sample and our local HQ sample (d $<$ 1 kpc). The local MDF peaks slightly below solar metallicity, and exhibits an extended tail towards [Fe/H] $= -$1, whereas a sharper cutoff is seen at larger metallicities. The APOGEE data also confirm the existence of a gap in the abundance diagram. When expanding our sample to cover three different Galactocentric distance bins, we find the high-[$\alpha$/Fe] stars to be rare towards the outer zones, as previously suggested in the literature. For the gradients in [Fe/H] and [$\alpha$/Fe], measured over a range of 6 $ < $ R $ <$ 11 kpc in Galactocentric distance, we find a good agreement with the gradients traced by the GCS and RAVE dwarf samples. For stars with 1.5 $<$ z $<$ 3 kpc, we find a positive metallicity gradient and a negative gradient in [$\alpha$/Fe].
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    ABSTRACT: The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of ~100,000 red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2013; 5.
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    ABSTRACT: We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
201.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      • Department of Astrophysics
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2003
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Physics
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998–2002
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2000
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1987–1999
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1988
    • Observatório Nacional
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 1985
    • University of Oklahoma
      Norman, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1984
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States