[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a sight-threatening emergency and the aetiology is often multifactorial. Delayed diagnosis may exacerbate the poor visual prognosis. We describe the management and visual outcomes of EE presenting to a tertiary referral centre.
A prospective consecutive case series of 64 patients presenting with presumed EE from 1997 to 2007 to the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital were included. All data were collected in a standardized manner. Outcome measures included: visual acuity, microbial profiles, and vitrectomy rate.
In total, 64 cases of EE were identified over the study period with a mean age of 57.5 years, and 53.5% were male. Presenting acuities ranged from Snellen 6/6 to no perception of light (NPL). Identifiable risk factors were present in 78.1%, with the majority related to intravenous drug abuse. A 64.1% culture positivity rate was recorded. A vitrectomy rate of 57, 56, and 21% was recorded in documented bacterial, fungal, and no growth cases, respectively. Final Snellen acuities ranged from 6/6 to NPL. A total of 5 out of 64 eyes were enucleated, of which 3 identified Klebsiella species. Better visual outcome was documented in fungal cases.
EE is a serious ocular condition and has a varied aetiology. Visual outcomes are often poor, irrespective of the method of management. Fungal aetiology often confers a better prognosis, and vitrectomy is advocated for bacterial proven cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a monoclonal antibody which targets all isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor A. Its potent anti-angiogenic effects have been shown to cause regression of neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Avastin as an adjunct to vitrectomy in the management of severe diabetic eye disease.
Sixteen patients (18 eyes) with severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy were recruited into the study. All eyes underwent a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1.25 mg in 0.05 mL prior to vitrectomy surgery for the management of tractional retinal detachment or vitreous haemorrhage due to severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
At 3 months, seven eyes had visual acuities which were better than baseline, four were unchanged and seven were worse. At 6 months, 14 eyes had visual acuities better than baseline, one was unchanged and three were worse. Seven of the 18 eyes (38.8%) had postoperative rebleeds, six of which required surgical washout.
Avastin improved the ease of the surgery in these complex eyes and the early results are encouraging. We have found it to be particularly useful in diabetic eyes with traction detachments of short duration in which there is still active neovascularization.
Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 08/2008; 36(5):449-54. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical outcome of intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and expansile gas injection as a minimally invasive treatment for submacular hemorrhage (SMH).
This study was a retrospective clinical case series examining 104 eyes that received an intravitreal injection of 30-100 mcg of tPA and expansile gas (SF6 or C3F8) for SMH. The main outcomes evaluated were visual acuities (VA), anatomic displacement of submacular blood, and surgical complications.
: A total of 85, 77, and 81 eyes were available at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months follow up, respectively. Postoperatively, > or = 2 Snellen lines improvement were achieved in 43/85 eyes (51%) at 1 week, 49/77 eyes (63%) at 3 months, and 52/81 eyes (64%) at 12 months. Postoperative VA improvement was significantly associated with preoperative VA, submacular blood displacement, and the underlying cause of SMH. Diagnostic postoperative angiogram and clinical examination were possible at 8.2 +/- 7.4 weeks and 9.5 +/- 7.4 weeks, respectively. The observed complications included breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage in 8 eyes (8%) and retinal detachment in 3 eyes (3%).
In this retrospective series, intravitreal injection of tPA and expansile gas was shown to be a safe and effective technique that can improve VA in most eyes with SMH and assist in the diagnosis of the underlying cause.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenous drug use (IVDU) is a known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis. Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) is emerging as a common problem among this community. We describe the management and visual outcomes of acute IVDU-associated EFE.
A prospective consecutive case series of 19 patients presenting with presumed acute IVDU-associated EFE from 2001 to 2007 to the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital was included. All data were collected in a standardized manner. Outcome measures included visual acuity, microbial profiles, and vitrectomy rate.
Nineteen cases of IVDU-associated EFE were identified. Eight of these (42%) were men, and the mean age was 32.7 years (SD ± 8.0 years). Presenting visual acuity ranged from 6/6 to perception of light, with 58% having a visual acuity of 6/48 or less at presentation. Thirteen (68.4%) were culture positive with all cultures identifying Candida species, and 52.7% underwent vitrectomy. Fifty percent of subjects overall achieved a final visual acuity of 6/18 or better. Men demonstrated improved visual acuity when compared with women (P = 0.04). Age had no effect on final acuity.
Intravenous drug use is a significant risk factor for developing EFE. Good visual outcomes can be achieved with early treatment, often with intravitreal therapy alone.