[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metal hyperaccumulation is of great interest in recent years because of its potential application for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. In this study, a field survey and a hydroponic experiment were conducted to study the accumulation characteristics of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in Arabis paniculata Franch., which was found in Yunnan Province, China. The field survey showed that the wild population of A. paniculata was hyper-tolerant to extremely high concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd, and could accumulate in shoots an average level of 2300 mg kg−1 dry weight (DW) Pb, 20,800 mg kg−1 Zn and 434 mg kg−1 Cd, with their translocation factors (TFs) all above one. Under the hydroponic culture, stimulatory effects of Pb, Zn and Cd on shoot dry biomass were noted from 24 to 193 μM Pb, 9 to 178 μM Cd and all Zn supply levels in nutrient solution, while the effects were not obvious in the roots. Chlorophyll concentrations in Pb, Zn and Cd treatments showed an inverted U-shaped pattern, consistent with the change of plant biomass. Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations in the shoots and roots increased sharply with increasing Pb, Zn and Cd supply levels. They reached > 1000 mg kg−1 Pb, 10,000 mg kg−1 Zn and 100 mg kg−1 Cd DW in the 24 μM Pb, 1223 μM Zn and 9 μM Cd treatment, respectively, in which the plants grew healthy and did not show any symptoms of phytotoxicity. The TFs of Zn were basically higher than one and the amount of Zn taken by shoots ranged from 78.7 to 90.4% of the total Zn. However, the TFs of Pb and Cd were well below one, and 55.0–67.5% of total Pb and 57.8–83.5% of total Cd was accumulated in the shoots. These results indicate that A. paniculata has a strong ability to tolerate and hyperaccumulate Pb, Zn and Cd. Meanwhile, suitable levels of Pb, Zn and Cd could stimulate the biomass production and chlorophyll concentrations of A. paniculata. Thus, it provides a new plant material for understanding the mechanisms of stimulatory effect and co-hyperaccumulation of multiple heavy metals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd accumulation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidative enzymes in leaves and roots of Arabis paniculata F., a new Cd hyperaccumuator found in China. The results showed that 22-89 microM Cd in solution enhanced the growth of A. paniculata after three weeks, with 21-27% biomass increase compared to the control. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing Cd supply levels, and reached a maximum of 1662 and 8670 mg kg(-1) Cd dry weight at 178 microM Cd treatment, respectively. In roots, 22-89 microM Cd reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide (O(2)(-1)) and H(2)O(2) as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In leaves, the contents of MDA, O(2)(-1) and H(2)O(2) remained unaffected by 22-89 microM Cd, while 178 microM Cd treatment significantly increased the MDA content, 69.5% higher than that of the control; generally, the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), GPX and APX showed an increasing pattern with increasing Cd supply levels. Our present work concluded that A. paniculata has a great capability of Cd tolerance and accumulation. Moderate Cd treatment (22-89 microM Cd) alleviated the oxidative stress in roots, while higher level of Cd addition (178 microM) could cause an increasing generation of ROS, which was effectively scavenged by the antioxidative system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the differential centrifugation technique and sequential chemical extraction method, effects of Cd, Pb and different Zn salts on subcellular distribution and chemical form of Zn in Zn hyperaccumulator Potentilla griffithii var. velutina under nutrient solution culture were analyzed. Under all treatments except for the control, 46%-74% and 16%-33% of total Zn in the plants are distributed in cell wall and in soluble fraction, respectively. Further, 74%-95% of total Zn are localized in these two parts under all treatments, which suggest that cell wall and soluble fraction in the plant are major storage sites for Zn. Compared with the control, Zn percentage significantly increases by 9%-38% in the cell wall and decreases by 6%-40% in the soluble fraction with addition of Zn, Cd and Pb treatment (p < 0.05). Although the addition of Cd and Pb has no influence on the pattern of Zn subcellular distribution presenting cell wall > soluble fraction > karyon and chloroplast > mitochondrion, it generally reduces Zn percentage in the chloroplast, karyon and mitochondrion and increases that in the cell wall or soluble fraction, suggesting that Cd and Pb promote the transferring processes of Zn from organelle to either cell wall or vacuole. As to the chemical forms, 61%-87% of total Zn exist as ethanol- and water-extractable forms in plants under control and only leaves under Zn addition treatment; while 62%-73% of total Zn exist as NaCl- and ethanol-extractable forms in leafstalks and roots under Zn addition treatment. NaCl-, ethanol- and water-extractable forms are also the main chemical forms in the plants, occupied almost 70%-89% of total Zn under Zn/Cd and Zn/Pb compound treatments. The addition of Zn, Cd and Pb generally increases the percentage of NaCl-extractable Zn forms, but decreases that of ethanol-extractable Zn, which facilitates Zn chemical form transferring from relatively higher active forms to less active ones. These results mentioned above indicate that cell wall binding, vacuolar compartmentalization and reduction of total percentage in higher active chemical forms are main tolerance mechanisms for Zn in Potentilla griffithii var. velutina in response to Zn, Zn/Cd and Zn/Pb treatments. Additionally, different Zinc salts have no obvious influence on Zn subcellular distribution in the plant, whereas the treatment of Zinc nitrate turns Zn ethanol-extraction to a dominant chemical form.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 08/2008; 29(7):2028-36.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroponic culture was conducted to study the effect of Cd on the growth, metal accumulation and nitrogen metabolism in Brassica chinensis. The enzymatic activities of nitrogen metabolism including nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and GS-transferase as well as the concentrations of chlorophyll, free proline, soluble protein, NO3(-) -N, NH4+ -N and nutrients in Brassica chinensis were determined. Results indicated that the addition of Cd reduced the content of the soluble protein and the accumulation of Cu, Ca, Fe and Mg, but promoted the P uptake. Low level of Cd (1 mg x L(-1)) could significantly increase the biomass and the content of chlorophyll of Brassica chinensis and the activities of NR, GS and GS-transferase when compared to control plants. However, when the Cd levels were above 2.5 mg x L(-1) in the culture medium, the activities of these enzymes were inhibited. Accordingly, the contents of NO3(-) -N, NH4+ -N, free proline and the activity of protease in the leaf of Brassica chinensis increased significantly. These results suggested that Cd addition could interfere with the assimilation of N in Brassica chinensis. The increase of free proline might alleviate the toxicity of ammonium in Brassica chinensis.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 03/2008; 29(2):506-11.