[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased in both Snus (the Swedish variant of oral smokeless tobacco) users and, to a greater extent, in cigarette smokers. Concurrent chronic pancreatitis further increases the risk in cigarette smokers. Little is known about the mechanism by which cigarette smoke or Snus increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with chronic pancreatitis. This study examined the carcinogenic effects of an aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (tobacco smoke, TS) or Snus in an Elastase-IL-1beta transgenic mouse model of chronic pancreatitis. Both transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice were fed diluted TS water or Snus-containing diet for up to 15 months, and monitored for phenotypic and molecular changes in the pancreas. Both TS- and Snus-treated Elastase-IL-1beta mice, but not WT mice, developed significant pancreatic ductal epithelial flattening and severe glandular atrophy compared with untreated transgenic mice. Ductal epithelial cells displayed a high proliferative index, minimal apoptosis, and induction of COX-2 in the setting of chronic inflammation. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha correlated with the onset of severe glandular atrophy. In comparison with Snus-treated mice, TS-Elastase-IL-1beta mice had an earlier onset and a greater extent of phenotypic changes, which were associated with up-regulation of TNF-alpha and increased expression of IL-6, TGF-beta, and SDF-1. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which tobacco products are likely to promote carcinogenesis in the setting of chronic pancreatitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of morbidity and a known risk factor for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Interleukin-1beta is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in pancreatic inflammation. We sought to determine whether targeted overexpression of interleukin-1beta in the pancreas could elicit localized inflammatory responses and chronic pancreatitis.
We created a transgenic mouse model (elastase sshIL-1beta) in which the rat elastase promoter drives the expression of human interleukin-1beta. Mice were followed up for up to 2 years. Pancreata of elastase sshIL-1beta mice were analyzed for chronic pancreatitis-associated histologic and molecular changes. To study the potential effect of p53 mutation in chronic pancreatitis, elastase sshIL-1beta mice were crossed with p53(R172H) mice.
Three transgenic lines were generated, and in each line the pancreas was atrophic and occasionally showed dilation of pancreatic and biliary ducts secondary to proximal fibrotic stenosis. Pancreatic histology showed typical features of chronic pancreatitis. There was evidence for increased acinar proliferation and apoptosis, along with prominent expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1; stromal cell-derived factor 1; transforming growth factor-beta1; matrix metallopeptidase 2, 7, and 9; inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1; and cyclooxygenase 2. The severity of the lesions correlated well with the level of human interleukin-1beta expression. Older mice displayed acinar-ductal metaplasia but did not develop mouse pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia or tumors. Elastase sshIL-1beta*p53(R172H/+) mice had increased frequency of tubular complexes, some of which were acinar-ductal metaplasia.
Overexpression of interleukin-1beta in the murine pancreas induces chronic pancreatitis. Elastase sshIL-1beta mice consistently develop severe chronic pancreatitis and constitute a promising model for studying chronic pancreatitis and its relationship with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.