[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate conflicting theories that perpetration of sexual aggression and perpetration of nonsexual aggression are either manifestations of one another (i.e., derived from the same underlying factors) or completely divergent in origin, we performed a meta-analysis of 116 independent studies that measured perpetration of both forms of aggression. Our findings indicated that research literature only partially supports the view that these aggression forms are similar in origin. While associations of significant magnitude were found between sexual and nonsexual aggression perpetration, they were limited to specific groups of perpetrators (i.e., adult perpetrators, nonincarcerated perpetrators, perpetrators who target adult victims). Important methodological moderators were also identified, including the use of self-report instruments and use of nonaggressive comparison groups, which resulted in stronger associations between sexual and nonsexual aggression. We discuss implications for theory refinement, as well as the identification, treatment, and prevention of sexual aggression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although impulsivity has been consistently linked to perpetration of sexual aggression, results lack clarity because they do not account for the substantial heterogeneity associated with the construct. The UPPS-P model (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2006), which was proposed to clarify the multidimensional nature of impulsivity, has yet to be applied to sexual aggression. We measured UPPS-P Impulsivity in a sample of male college students who also self-reported on perpetration of sexual aggression. As predicted, impulsivity distinguished perpetrators from nonperpetrators. Perpetrators scored higher than non-perpetrators on Negative Urgency, Positive Urgency, and lack of Premeditation. Results suggest that the impulsivity traits most relevant to sexual aggression are the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing intense emotions (Positive and Negative Urgency) and lack of forethought and planning (lack of Premeditation).
Violence and Victims 06/2013; 28(3):429-42. DOI:10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-12-00025 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perpetrators of sexual aggression consistently report higher scores on measures of psychopathy and acceptance of rape myths relative to nonperpetrators. However, less is known about psychopathy among nonincarcerated individuals and the relation between the two constructs has not been empirically examined among college perpetrators. To address this gap, both constructs were measured in a sample (N = 308) of college men. Rape myth acceptance was positively correlated with psychopathy, and perpetrators scored higher on both constructs. Myths transferring responsibility to victims were related to Factor 1 psychopathy (i.e., callous and manipulative traits). The myth that “rape is trivial” was associated with Factor 1 and Factor 2 (i.e., impulsive and antisocial behavior), possibly suggesting that this myth is related to a larger tendency to excuse aggressive behavior. Although both constructs distinguished perpetrators when considered individually, rape myth acceptance did not explain unique variance in the presence of psychopathy.
Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma 02/2013; 22(2):159-174. DOI:10.1080/10926771.2013.743937
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The researchers assessed the predictors of victim-perpetrator relationship stability following a sexual assault. Participants included 254 women sexually assaulted by a friend, casual dating partner, or steady dating partner. Results suggested that most victim-perpetrator relationships (75%) continued following the sexual assault. Greater trauma symptomatology, less perpetrator blame, and nondisclosure of the assault by victims predicted relationship continuation with the perpetrator. Additionally, the odds of continuing the relationship were greater following acts of sexual coercion than following acts of completed rape. Close relationships (steady dating partner) were more likely to continue following the sexual assault than less close relationships (friends and casual dating partners). Unexpectedly, the odds of relationship stability were greater for women without histories of childhood sexual abuse than women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.
Violence and Victims 02/2012; 27(1):25-32. DOI:10.1891/0886-6708.27.1.25 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress symptomatology is a partial mediator of the relationship between sexual assault history in adolescence/adulthood and physical health symptomatology (e.g., Eadie, Runtz, & Spencer-Rodgers, 2008). The current study assessed a broader, more inclusive potential mediator, trauma-related symptoms in the relationship between sexual victimization history (including both childhood and adolescent/adulthood sexual victimizations) and physical health symptomatology in a college sample. Participants were 970 young women (M = 18.69, SD = 1.01), who identified mostly as Caucasian (86.7%), from 2 universities who completed a survey packet. Path analysis results provide evidence for trauma-related symptoms as a mediator in the relationship between adolescent/adulthood sexual assault and physical health symptomatology, χ(2) (1, N = 970) = 1.55, p = .21; comparative fit index = 1.00; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = .02, 90% confidence interval [.00, .09], Bollen-Stine bootstrap statistic, p = .29. Childhood sexual abuse was not related to physical health symptomatology, but did predict trauma-related symptoms. Implications of these findings suggest that college health services would benefit from targeted integration of psychiatric and medical services for sexual assault survivors given the overlap of psychological and physical symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study prospectively examined the relation between alcohol use and sexual assault in a sample (N = 319) of first-year college women. Both frequency of drinking and frequency of binge drinking were measured. Over the course of their freshman year, 19.3% reported experiencing at least one sexual assault. Frequent binge drinking and frequent drinking predicted a subsequent sexual assault; however, experiencing a sexual assault did not predict changes in alcohol use. Frequent binge drinking demonstrated a stronger association with sexual assault than did frequent drinking. Findings help clarify the relation between alcohol use and sexual assault in college women and call for continued differentiation in assessment of alcohol use.
Violence and Victims 02/2012; 27(1):78-94. DOI:10.1891/0886-6708.27.1.78 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study examines the link between pathological personality traits (i.e., narcissism and psychopathy) and perpetration of sexual aggression among college men. Additionally, it explores how sexuality impacts the operation of these personality traits in the context of sexual aggression. Our model proposed that sociosexuality (i.e., willingness to engage in frequent, casual sexual encounters) would explain the associations of narcissism and psychopathy with perpetration of sexual aggression. Method: A sample of college men (n = 296) self-reported levels of Narcissistic Personality Disorder traits, psychopathy, sociosexuality, and history of both rape and sexual assault perpetration. Results: Participants who scored in the upper third of the distribution of all three personality variables were twice as likely to report perpetration relative to the sample as a whole (i.e., 46% vs. 22%). Both narcissism and psychopathy distinguished perpetrators from nonperpetrators, but with sociosexuality included in the model neither personality trait continued to explain significant variance in perpetration. Conclusions: Pathological personality traits aid in our understanding of perpetration among college men, and sexuality plays an important role in explaining the association between pathological personality traits and perpetration. Therefore, prevention programs designed to target men with this personality profile might be particularly efficacious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Violence 12/2011; 2(1):16-27. DOI:10.1037/a0026217 · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking significantly increased risk for subsequent rape. Monthly binge drinkers were significantly more likely to experience alcohol-involved rape than forcible rape at follow-up. Only prior binge drinking, and not type of rape experience, predicted subsequent binge drinking. Findings have direct implications for targeted programming addressing combined risks for binge drinking and rape among college women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study utilized a cross-sectional design in order to explore the relationship between interpersonal effectiveness, defined as level of assertiveness, social perception, and perceived self-efficacy, and repeated sexual victimization in adolescence and adulthood. In addition, we compared global versus situation-specific measures of interpersonal effectiveness. Results indicated that global measures of interpersonal effectiveness failed to differentiate victim groups, and there were also no group differences in social perception. However, on situation-specific measures, revictimized women were significantly lower than nonvictims on sexual assertiveness and sexual self-efficacy. These results support the hypothesis that interpersonal functioning is related to sexual revictimization and highlight the need to measure interpersonal functioning specifically in sexual situations as it relates to women's sexual assault history.
Violence and Victims 08/2010; 25(4):504-17. DOI:10.1891/0886-6708.25.4.504 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a significant reduction in both psychological distress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at follow-up relative to wait-list control participants, even after controlling for frequency of revictimization. Significantly fewer intervention participants met criteria for PTSD from Time 1 to Time 2. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated frequency and severity of victimization and behavioral and characterological self-blame, and use of avoidance coping explained a significant amount of the variance in distress following revictimization. Implications for future research and risk reduction programs are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research suggests that many sexual assault survivors do not disclose their experience, which may increase associated distress. Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm has been shown to ameliorate psychological and physical distress in individuals exposed to stressful events. The current study assessed the effectiveness of this paradigm with sexual assault survivors (N = 74). College women with a history of sexual assault wrote about their most severe victimization or about how they spend their time (control). Then 73 women (98.6%) completed a 1-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that across writing sessions, the disclosure group reported greater reductions in negative mood immediately post-writing. However, both groups showed significant reductions in physical complaints, psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms at the 1-month follow-up, suggesting no added benefit to disclosure of a sexual assault using a brief written paradigm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed college women's reactions to participating in sexual assault research. Women with sexual victimization histories reported more negative emotional reactions than nonvictimized women, but also greater benefits. Benefits to research participation outweighed costs for both women with and without sexual victimization histories. Women with and without sexual victimization histories evidenced significant improvements in several domains of mood over the course of the study, although victimized women improved less in several areas of mood. Participants' presurvey mood, assault severity, perpetrator aggression, self-blame, and perceived benefits to research participation all uniquely predicted participants' immediate negative emotional reactions to the research protocol. Descriptive analyses showed that only a small number of women reported negative emotional reactions to the research protocol.
Psychology of Women Quarterly 04/2009; 33(2):225 - 234. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01492.x · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: College women who binge drink are at greater risk than their peers for experiencing an alcohol-involved rape. Evidence suggests that these women commonly underestimate their risk for assault. This study examines college women's perceptions of their rape resistance efficacy in two acquaintance rape scenarios (one involving the woman's alcohol consumption and one not) as a function of their binge drinking and alcohol-involved rape history. Alcohol-involved rape was inversely associated only with efficacy in situations involving alcohol. Binge drinking was differentially predictive of efficacy in the two scenarios, with regular binge drinkers being significantly more likely to have high perceived efficacy in rape scenarios in which they were drinking and significantly less likely than their peers to have high perceived efficacy in rape scenarios in which they weren't drinking. Findings have direct implications for both college drinking and rape risk reduction interventions, highlighting the need to address women's minimization of alcohol's impact on their rape resistance ability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research has consistently found that a history of previous sexual victimization increases risk for future sexual assault, which might be due to women with a history of sexual victimization having difficulty identifying risky cues and not perceiving their own vulnerability for future assaults. This study investigated how acknowledgment of previous experiences with interpersonal violence is related to risk perception and rates of victimization. Participants were 198 college women who completed assessments of victimization, personal risk appraisal, and acknowledgment. Analyses indicated differences in rates of victimization based on labeling of experiences and differences in efforts to change behaviors to reduce risk for future assaults based on level of acknowledgment. Also, there were a number of situational factors significantly related to likelihood of acknowledgment. The findings differed for physical and sexual violence. This study suggests that acknowledgment is an important factor to consider in studies of sexual and physical revictimization.
Psychology of Women Quarterly 11/2007; 31(4):371 - 380. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00386.x · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article discusses issues and future directions for clinical psychology in academic departments of psychology. Psychology continues to be the most popular undergraduate major and departments must better prepare them for graduate study. Budget constraints continue to impact departments, resulting in challenges such as decreasing numbers of faculty, increasing dependence on external grant funds, and accompanying distortion of the reward system for faculty contributions. Increasing specialization in clinical psychology will require difficult choices. Increasing emphasis on multidisciplinary study presents both opportunities and challenges for traditional departments of psychology. The emergence of neuroscience is having a great impact and the integration of psychology and neuroscience will be a significant issue facing clinical programs. Despite challenges, academic clinical psychology can be expected to remain resilient in the face of change.
Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 08/2006; 13(3):278 - 281. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2850.2006.00038.x · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between college men's self-reported histories of coercive sexual behavior, alcohol consumption, and alcohol expectancies regarding sexual behaviors. Hypotheses were (a) history of sexually coercive behavior would be associated with more alcohol consumption, (b) sexually coercive men would hold greater alcohol expectancies for sexual behaviors, and (c) alcohol expectancies would moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual coercion. In addition, the authors hypothesized that alcohol expectancies would vary as a function of the method of sexual coercion used, such that men reporting that they had sexually coerced a woman by giving her alcohol would hold greater alcohol expectancies than would coercive men who used other methods. Results supported the first three hypotheses. However, men who used alcohol as a means of coercion did not hold significantly greater alcohol expectancies than did coercive men who used other means.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of these analyses was to investigate the association between reported alcohol use during a sexual assault and perceptions of assault severity and physical and emotional peritraumatic reactions. Self-report data were collected on 57 sexually assaulted college women. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that perception of assault severity mediated the relationship between alcohol use and peritraumatic physical reactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The issue of gaining prescription privileges and its potential impact on the field of clinical psychology has special relevance for graduate students. This study was designed to investigate clinical graduate students' attitudes toward prescription authority, identify salient variables that contribute to these attitudes, and ascertain preferred models of training. Only 42.5% of respondents personally desired to obtain prescription privilege, although 61.8% of respondents favored efforts of the American Psychological Association to acquire prescription authority. Proponents and opponents were compared on their ratings of positive and negative aspects of the debate. There was strong agreement that the training should not be predoctoral and that it should lead to board certification. The strongest predictors of graduate students' attitudes were concerns about fundamental change to the field, malpractice premiums, and whether they considered it a logical extension of the field. This study provides a framework for understanding important factors influencing the decision-making process among clinical psychology graduate students.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated alcohol expectancies, alcohol consumption, sexual assertiveness, and the number of consensual sexual partners as potential risk factors for sexual assault among three groups of college women: nonvictimized, moderately victimized, and severely victimized. Women with severe victimization histories (attempted or completed rape), compared with nonvictims, reported more consensual sexual partners, less perceived assertiveness in their ability to refuse unwanted sexual advances, greater weekly alcohol consumption, and more positive outcome expectancies for alcohol including tension reduction, sexual enhancement, and global positive change. In addition, for both victimized and nonvictimized women, consumption of alcohol and expectancies of social enhancement following alcohol use independently accounted for a significant portion of the variance of sexual activity following alcohol consumption. Findings are discussed with respect to research aimed at reducing sexual assault among women who are at highest risk for sexual violence.