[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and chemoattractant receptors (CKRs) that orchestrate leukocyte migration to infected tissue are two arms of host innate immunity. Although TLR signaling induces synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which recruit leukocytes, many studies have reported the paradoxical observation that TLR stimulation inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro and impairs their recruitment to tissues during sepsis. There is consensus that physical loss of chemokine receptor (CKR) at the RNA or protein level or receptor usage switching are the mechanisms underlying this effect. We show here that a brief (<15 min) stimulation with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) at ~0.2 ng/ml inhibited chemotactic response from CCR2, CXCR4 and FPR receptors in monocytes without downmodulation of receptors. A 3 min LPS pre-treatment abolished the polarized accumulation of F-actin, integrins and PIP(3) (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate) in response to chemokines in monocytes, but not in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). If chemoattractants were added before or simultaneously with LPS, chemotactic polarization was preserved. LPS did not alter the initial G-protein signaling, or endocytosis kinetics of agonist-occupied chemoattractant receptors (CKRs). The chemotaxis arrest did not result from downmodulation of receptors or from inordinate increase in adhesion. LPS induced rapid p38 MAPK activation, global redistribution of activated Rap1 (Ras-proximate-1 or Ras-related protein 1) GTPase and Rap1GEF (guanylate exchange factor) Epac1 (exchange proteins activated by cyclic AMP) and disruption of intracellular gradient. Co-inhibition of p38 MAPK and Rap1 GTPase reversed the LPS induced breakdown of chemotaxis suggesting that LPS effect requires the combined function of p38 MAPK and Rap1 GTPase.
PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e30404. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0030404 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV protein Nef is thought to mediate immune evasion and promote viral persistence in part by down-regulating major histocompatibility complex class I protein (MHC-I or HLA-I) from the cell surface. Two different models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon as follows: 1) stimulation of MHC-I retrograde trafficking from and aberrant recycling to the plasma membrane, and 2) inhibition of anterograde trafficking of newly synthesized HLA-I from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We show here that Nef simultaneously uses both mechanisms to down-regulate HLA-I in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or HeLa cells. Consistent with this, we found by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy that a third of diffusing HLA-I at the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi/trans-Golgi network, and the plasma membrane (PM) was associated with Nef. The binding of Nef was similarly avid for native HLA-I and recombinant HLA-I A2 at the PM. Nef binding to HLA-I at the PM was sensitive to specific inhibition of endocytosis. It was also attenuated by cyclodextrin disruption of PM lipid micro-domain architecture, a change that also retarded lateral diffusion and induced large clusters of HLA-I. In all, our data support a model for Nef down-regulation of HLA-I that involves both major trafficking itineraries and persistent protein-protein interactions throughout the cell.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both activated and resting CD4(+) T cells in mucosal tissues play important roles in the earliest phases of infection after sexual transmission of HIV-1, a process that is inefficient. HIV-1 gp120 binds to integrin alpha(4)beta(7) (alpha(4)beta(7)), the gut mucosal homing receptor. We find that alpha(4)beta(7)(high) CD4(+) T cells are more susceptible to productive infection than are alpha(4)beta(7)(low-neg) CD4(+) T cells in part because this cellular subset is enriched with metabolically active CD4(+) T cells. alpha(4)beta(7)(high) CD4(+) T cells are CCR5(high) and CXCR4(low); on these cells, alpha(4)beta(7) appears in a complex with CD4. The specific affinity of gp120 for alpha(4)beta(7) provides a mechanism for HIV-1 to target activated cells that are critical for efficient virus propagation and dissemination following sexual transmission.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2009; 106(49):20877-82. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0911796106 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma membrane cholesterol is critical for neutrophil chemotaxis, although how cholesterol affects chemotactic signaling pathway has not been clearly delineated. Here we demonstrate that cholesterol was absolutely required for polarized redistribution of key chemotactic mediators in human neutrophils in response to all chemoattractants tested (fMet-Leu-Phe, and the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL8 and CXCL12). In particular, PI3K and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5 triphosphate (PIP(3)) failed to accumulate at the front and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) at the back of chemoattractant-stimulated neutrophils after cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion did not affect early chemoattractant signaling events such as G-protein activation, intracellular calcium flux or G-protein-independent endocytosis-linked signaling, including the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Hck and Fgr transduced by beta-arrestin. During cell polarization, F-actin assemblies redistributed the cholesterol-rich microdomains and cytoskeleton-anchored proteins, including CD16 and CD44 from the leading edge. These data suggest that spatial polarization of chemotactic mediators is orchestrated by protein:protein interactions that organize cholesterol-rich domains of the plasma membrane.