Yongxu Sun

Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China

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Publications (26)49.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4(+)CD69(+) T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.
    Oncology letters 10/2013; 6(4):1039-1044. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible and medicinal mushroom of Brazilian origin, the components from which have been shown to possess anti-tumor potentials. Meanwhile, E-selectin-mediated cell–cell adhesion plays an important role in extravasation of tumor cells. In this study, the effect of a low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from A. blazei (LMW-ABP) on the TNF-α-stimulated E-selectin protein and mRNA expression was evaluated in vitro. LMW-ABP could depress the E-selectin protein expression, and similar results were observed for E-selectin gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, which lead to a significant reduction in TNF-α stimulated adhesion of HT-29 cells to HUVEC. These results indicated that the effect of LMW-ABP against tumor cell adhesion was based on the inhibition of E-selectin protein and gene expression. In addition, LMW-ABP also suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) protein expression and nuclear translocation. The data supported the view that LMW-ABP might be developed to a promising therapeutic agent against E-selectin-mediated neoplasm metastasis.
    Carbohydrate Polymers 05/2012; 88(4):1326–1333. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A water-soluble polysaccharide, designated as EFP-AW1, was isolated from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana and purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration chromatography. Its carbohydrate content was up to 92.34%, which was composed of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), mannose (Man) and rhamnose (Rha) in a molar ratio of 14.1:1.9:2.0:1.9. The molecular weight was evaluated to be 10,830 Da as determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). On the basis of sugar analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) studies (1H and 13C), the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as:Figure optionsView in workspace
    Carbohydrate Polymers 05/2012; 88(4):1299–1303. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A water-soluble protein-bound polysaccharide (EFP-W1) was fractioned from roots of Euphorbia fischeriana and purified by gel-filtration chromatography. Its primary structural features were characterized by partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation-periodate oxidation, methylation analysis, high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The data obtained indicated that EFP-W1 contains about 91% of carbohydrate content, which was mainly composed of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara) in a molar ratio of 6:1:1:1. Its average molecular weight was about 11,230Da. The structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was elucidated as follows:
    Carbohydrate Polymers - CARBOHYD POLYM. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: One water-soluble glucan (PCP-W1) was purified from the crude polysaccharide of Pleurotus citrinopileatus by chromatography on DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephadex G-200 column, and PCP-W1 (Mw = 45 kDa), was predominantly composed of Glc. Partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation–periodate oxidation, methylation analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) experiments were conducted to elucidate its structure. The results indicated that PCP-W1 had a glucan backbone consisting of (1 → 6)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues, which were branched at O-3 position of the backbone with (1 → 3)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl and non-reducing end 1-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. The repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as:Figure optionsView in workspace
    Carbohydrate Polymers 01/2012; 87(1):348–352. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides (EFP) from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) with four independent variables was investigated, such as extraction temperature (°C), water/solid ratio, extraction number (n), and extraction time (h). The results indicated optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 97°C, water/solid ratio of 9:1, extraction number of 2 and extraction time of 2.4h, respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental value was 24.6±0.62, which was well in close agreement with value predicted by the model. The preliminary chemical analysis of EFP revealed the EFP contained 25.43% polysaccharides, 20.42% uronic acids, 2.54% sulfate radical and 23.41% proteins. And the neutral polysaccharides were mainly composed of glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, xylose, mannose in the ratio of 21:8:5:3:1:1.
    International journal of biological macromolecules 10/2011; 49(3):416-21. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One water-soluble polysaccharide (ABP-W1) was purified from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and Sepharose 6 Fast Flow column chromatography. Its molecular weight was about 3.9×10(2) kDa as determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The structural feature of ABP-W1 was investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis, including partial hydrolysis with acid, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, acetylation, methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR (1)H, (13)C). The results revealed that ABP-W1 had a backbone consisting of (1→6)-linked-α-D-galactopyranosyl and (1→2,6)-linked-α-D-glucopyranosyl, which was branched with one single terminal (1→)-α-D-glucopyranosyl at the O-2 position of (1→2,6)-linked-α-D-glucopyranosyl along the main chain in the ratio of 1:1:1. The observation of the complex-formation between ABP-W1 and Congo Red indicated that ABP-W1 probably existed in a triple-strand helical conformation in water. Based on the data obtained, ABP-W1 was composed of a repeating unit with a structure as below: [structure: see text].
    International journal of biological macromolecules 07/2011; 49(4):716-20. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A water-soluble proteoglycan (CRP-W2) was purified from the fruiting bodies of Chroogomphis rutilus by boiled water extraction, ethanol precipitation, weak anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Its molecular weight (Mw) was estimated to be about 1.3×104Da using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). As a precondition to understand the bioactivity, the structural features of CRP-W2 was analyzed using chemical methods, IR spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy. The results indicated that CRP-W2 had a backbone consisting of 1,6-linked and 1,2,6-linked-α-d-Gal, which was terminated with 1-linked-α-d-Man and 1-linked-α-d-Glc residues at the O-2 position of 1,2,6-linked-α-d-Gal in the molar ratio of 2:2:1:1.
    Carbohydrate Polymers - CARBOHYD POLYM. 01/2011; 86(3):1381-1384.
  • Jicheng Liu, Yongxu Sun
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    ABSTRACT: An alkali-extractable and water-soluble polysaccharide (ABP-AW1) was isolated by 5% sodium hydroxide solution from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei. ABP-AW1 (Mw = 50 kDa), was composed of Gal, Glc, Fuc, Ara and Man with the molar ratio of 29: 20: 6: 2: 2. According to the combination of chemical and instrumental analysis, the results indicated that ABP-AW1 had a backbone consisting of (1 → 6)-linked-β-d-galactopyranosyl, (1 → 6)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl and (1 → 3, 6)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl, which was terminated with (1→)–linked Fuc, Ara and Man residues at the O-3 position of (1 → 3, 6)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl in the proportion of 29: 10: 10: 6: 2:2.
    Carbohydrate Polymers 01/2011; 86(2):429-432. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Yongxu Sun
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    ABSTRACT: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, with thousands of years of history, has been known as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine. The plant has been valued for its important biological and chemical perspectives and its use in the treatment of a variety of pathological conditions and illnesses have been documented in ethnobotanical reports. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that ginsenosides is the most active ingredients. Most recent interest has been focused on the ginsenosides to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of P. ginseng. Whereas it is difficult to make significant progress to elucidate the underlying mechanism by which P. ginseng take effect only by ginsenoside. As we know, ginseng contains multiple constituents, such as ginsenosides, essential oil, polysaccharides and peptides, and especially more and more attentions have been cast on ginseng polysaccharides by medical scientists and nutritionists due to their various important biological activities. Therefore the aim of present review is to give a comprehensive summary of information regarding the chemical constituents and biological effects of polysaccharides form the leaves, roots and fruits of P. ginseng to help us to take action for future study in this discipline.
    Carbohydrate Polymers - CARBOHYD POLYM. 01/2011; 85(3):490-499.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the saponins (PCS) from the roots of Pulsatilla chinensis were evaluated for its haemolytic activity, acute toxicity and tested for potential adjuvant activity in mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) compared with that of Quil A saponin. The haemolytic activity of PCS was determined using 0.5% rabbit red blood cell with values of 15.41 and 7.42% at concentrations of 500 and 250microg/mL, respectively. The saponins were tested for their toxicity by lethality in mice and were found to be less toxic at the same dose than their counterpart Quil A. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100microg in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone or with OVA 100microg in the presence of Quil A (10microg) or PCS (50, 100 or 200microg) twice at a 2-week interval. Four weeks later, the ConA-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation, OVA-specific antibodies levels (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a) in serum, IL-2, and TNF-alpha were significantly enhanced by PCS at a high dose compared to that induced by Quil A. The P values of various testing activities in saponin-treated groups were obviously differential to that in the OVA-immunized mice (p<0.05 or p<0.01). This finding suggested that PCS might have an effect on Th1 and Th2 helper T cells. In conclusion, the results indicated that PCS showed slight side effects and at an appropriate dose could be used as a vaccine adjuvant to increase immune responses.
    International immunopharmacology 02/2010; 10(5):584-90. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula. A central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal processing parameters. Four independent variables such as extraction temperature (°C), ratio of water to raw material, extraction time (h), and number of extraction (n) were investigated. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. The 3-D response surface and the contour plots derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 94 °C, ratio of water to raw material 9, extraction time 2.5 h, and number of extraction 5. Under these conditions, the experimental percentage value was 15.2 ± 0.28, which is well in close agreement with value predicted by the model.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: One water-soluble polysaccharide (CRP) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Chroogomphis rutilus with a molecular weight (Mw) of 3.2 × 104 Da. According to partial acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, methylation, FT–IR, GC–MS, and NMR analysis, the results indicated CRP had a backbone consisting of (1→6)-linked-α-d-galactopyranosyl and (1→2, 6)-linked-α-d-galactopyranosyl residues that terminated in a single terminal (1→)-β-d-glucopyranosyl residue at the O-2 position of (1→2, 6)-linked-α-d-galactopyranosyl residue along the main chain in the ratio of 1:1:1. Furthermore, the in vitro anti-oxidant activity evaluated by hydroxyl radicals scavenging method showed that CRP could remarkably enhance the scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology (RSM), based on A Box–Behnken design (BBD), was used to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides (POP) from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus. Four independent variables such as extraction temperature (°C), ratio of water to raw material, number of extraction and extraction time (h) were investigated. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. The optimum extraction conditions, determined by the 3-D response surface and contour plots derived from the mathematical models, were as follows: extraction temperature 94.9 °C, ratio of water to raw material 22, number of extraction 4, and extraction time 2.7 h. Under these conditions, the experimental value was 64.1 ± 1.42, which is well matched with value predicted by the model.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In this research, one low molecular weight polysaccharide (LMW-ABP) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murill. We reported that the effect of LMW-ABP on inhibiting the interaction between E-selectin and sialyl Lewis X (sLex) by flow cytometry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. Different concentrations of LMW-ABP (5, 10, and 20 mg/L) could effectively dose-dependently inhibit adhesion of HT-29 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in static conditions, as well as down-regulating the expression of both α-1,3-fucosyltransferase-VII (FucT-VII) and sLex in transcription or translation level, respectively. These results suggest that LMW-ABP could suppress the metastasizing capacity of cancer cells through interfering with the interaction between E-selectin and sLex. Thus based on these findings, LMW-ABP is expected to be having enormous potential for use in treatment for neoplasm metastasis.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2010;
  • Yongxu Sun, Tianbao Li, Jicheng Liu
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    ABSTRACT: One low molecular-weight polysaccharide (APP) of 2.8 × 104 Da was isolated from the fruiting body of Auricularia polytricha. Partial hydrolysis with acid, periodate oxidation–Smith degradation, acetylation, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C) were conducted to elucidate its structure and the repeating unit of APP was established as: the backbone was composed of (1 → 3)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl, (1 → 3)-linked-β-d-galactopyranosyl and (1 → 3,6)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl residues in the ratio of 3:2:1, and terminated with one single terminal (1→)-β-d-glucopyranosyl at the O-6 position of (1 → 3,6)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl along the main chain. Preliminary antioxidant activity test in vitro showed APP could potentialize scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals in a dose dependent manner.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In order to get high quality bioactive polysaccharides (ARP) from Anemone raddeana, an orthogonal experiment (L9(3)4) was applied to optimize the best extraction conditions. Extraction time, extraction temperature, number of extraction and water to raw material ratio were the main factors to influence the yield and purity of the extracted crude polysaccharides. The four factors chosen for the present investigation were based on the results of a single-factor test. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction time 1.5 h, temperature 80 °C, number 4 and water to raw material at 6. Under optimized conditions, the experimental yield 7.97 ± 0.27% agreed closely with the predicted yield. In vivo ARP at suitable dose is effective on Th1 cells, as associated with an enhancement of IgG2a and IgG2b levels. In vitro ARP significantly inhibited the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma HEP-G2 and human intestinal cancer HCT-22 cells, indicating ARP could be a potential anti-cancer therapeutic agent.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Response surface methodoloty (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides (ABP) from the fruiting body of Agaricus blazei. A central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal processing parameters. Four independent variables such as extraction temperature (°C), ratio of water to raw material, number of extraction, and extraction time (h) were investigated. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. The 3-D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 91 °C, ratio of water to raw material 14, number of extraction 6, and extraction time 2.1 h. Under these conditions, the experimental value was 65.8 ± 1.42, which is well in close agreement with value predicted by the model.
    Carbohydrate Polymers. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The water-soluble polysaccharide (AMP), with a molecular mass of 7.8x10(3)Da as determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), was obtained from the fruiting body of Armillaria mellea. Methylation, Smith degradation, acetolysis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis studies were conducted to elucidate its structure. The results indicated that AMP consisted of a backbone composed of (1-->6)-linked-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl, (1-->2,6)-linked-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl and (1-->6)-linked-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl residues in the ratio of 3:1:1, and terminated with one single terminal (1-->)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl at the O-2 position of (1-->2,6)-linked-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl, on average, along the main chain. Preliminary tests in vitro showed that AMP has stimulating effects on murine lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. It is a possible potential immunopotentiating agent for use in health-care food or medicine.
    Bioresource Technology 11/2008; 100(5):1860-3. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the saponins (JGS) extracted from the rhizoma of Japanese ginseng were evaluated for their haemolytic activities and their potential ability as adjuvants on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. The haemolytic activity of JGS was determined using 0.5% rabbit red blood cell, with its HD(50) value being 177.78+/-6.77microg/mL. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100microg alone or with OVA 100microg dissolved in saline containing Alum (200microg), QuilA (10 and 20microg) or JGS (50, 100 or 200microg) on Days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (Day 28), concanavalin A (ConA)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific antibodies in serum were measured. JGS significantly enhanced the ConA-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice especially at a dose of 100microg (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were also significantly enhanced by JGS compared with OVA control group (P<0.01). The results suggest that JGS showed a slight haemolytic effect and enhanced significantly a specific antibody and cellular response against OVA in mice.
    Vaccine 10/2008; 26(47):5911-7. · 3.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

246 Citations
49.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2010
    • Dalian Polytechnic University
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2008–2010
    • Qiqihar Medical University
      Zizikar, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
    • Northeast Normal University
      • School of Life Sciences
      Changchun, Jilin Sheng, China
  • 2009
    • Beihua University
      Yung-chi, Jilin Sheng, China