[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to examine the impact that prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) has on birth and early neonatal outcomes. The prevalence of prenatally diagnosed CHD has risen over the past decade, but the effect that prenatal diagnosis of CHD has on peripartum decisions remains unclear. No consensus exists on the effect of prenatal diagnosis on neonatal outcomes. Between January 2004 and July 2009, a retrospective chart review of all neonates with CHD admitted to our institution's neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. Obstetric and postnatal variables were collected. Among the 993 subjects, 678 (68.3 %) had a prenatal diagnosis. A prenatal diagnosis increased the odds of a scheduled delivery [odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.0-5.6] and induction of labor (OR 11.5, 95 % CI 6.6-20.1). Prenatal diagnosis was not significantly associated with cesarean delivery when control was used for maternal age, multiple gestation, and presence of extracardiac anomaly. Mean gestational age had no impact on prenatal diagnosis, but prenatal diagnosis was associated with increased odds of delivery before a gestational age of 39 weeks (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1-1.9) and decreased odds of preoperative intubation (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.3-0.6). Prenatal diagnosis did not have an impact on preoperative or predischarge mortality. Prenatal diagnosis was associated with increased odds of a scheduled delivery, birth before a gestational age of 39 weeks, and a decreased need for invasive respiratory support. Prenatal diagnosis of CHD was not associated with preoperative or predischarge mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a rare case of ventriculocoronary fistulae in a patient with d-transposition of the great arteries, hypoplastic left heart, and pulmonary atresia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this anatomic variant, and raises an important discussion about the development and implications of such fistulous connections.
Cardiology in the Young 03/2012; 23(1):1-3. DOI:10.1017/S1047951112000145 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial bridge is a rare congenital coronary anomaly in children, usually seen in the setting of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in left ventricular hypertrophy. Most myocardial bridges are believed to represent a benign anatomical variant; however, symptomatic myocardial bridge is a distinct subgroup of pathological variant, linked to myocardial ischaemia, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. We present a case of a symptomatic myocardial bridge in a 5-year-old boy with mild hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent supra-arterial myotomy, automatic defibrillator placement, and long-term Beta-blocker therapy. We also present 10 years of follow-up with a review of literature regarding symptomatic myocardial bridges in the paediatric age group.
Cardiology in the Young 06/2011; 21(5):490-4. DOI:10.1017/S1047951111000849 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Referral for fetal echocardiography (fECHO) is an acute stressor that may induce significant maternal anxiety. To promote good clinical management of expectant mothers in this situation, including adequate screening for possible psychiatric interventions, data are needed regarding the psychosocial functioning of women scheduled for fECHO procedures.
To investigate the association between fECHO and maternal anxiety.
Pregnant women answered two questionnaires before first fECHO. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) assessed how subjects feel "now" (state) versus how they "usually feel" (trait). Separate state and trait anxiety scores were calculated; scores were compared between the study cohort and a gestational age-matched historical cohort of 31 pregnant women who did not undergo fECHO. A second questionnaire developed by the investigators ascertained pregnancy specific concerns and characteristics.
Forty subjects were enrolled. The mean state score of the fECHO cohort (42.1 +/- 15.1) differed from the historical cohort (32.8 +/- 11.3; p = 0.006); however there was no difference between trait scores (34.7 +/- 10.8 vs. 35.4 +/- 12.8; p = 0.8). A multivariate linear regression model controlling for race and maternal age demonstrated that fECHO was a strong independent predictor of maternal state anxiety score (p = 0.004, beta = 10.4).
Pregnant women presenting for fECHO report high anxiety levels compared with women not presenting for fECHO. Clinician awareness and sensitivity are recommended and further investigation of modifiers of anxiety in this high risk group should be explored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) is increasingly common. However, the current impact of prenatal diagnosis on neonatal outcomes is unclear. Between January 2004 and January 2008, a retrospective chart review of infants who underwent surgical repair of CHD before discharge at our institution was conducted. Obstetric and perioperative variables were recorded. Of 439 neonates, 294 (67%) were diagnosed prenatally (PREdx). Infants with PREdx had a lower mean birth weight (3.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.6 kg, p = 0.002) and gestational age (37.9 +/- 2.1 vs. 38.6 +/- 2.4 wk, p < 0.001) than those with postnatal diagnosis (POSTdx). Severe lesions were more likely to be PREdx: Neonates with single-ventricle (SV) physiology (n = 130 patients [31.2%]) had increased odds of PREdx (n = 113/130, odds ratio [OR] 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-8.2, p < 0.001). PREdx was associated with decreased preoperative intubation (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.95, p = 0.033), administration of antibiotics (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.15-0.36, p < 0.001), cardiac catheterization (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.34-0.85, p = 0.01), and emergency surgery (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06-0.5, p < 0.001) compared with POSTdx infants. There was no difference in APGAR scores, preoperative pH, day of life of surgery, operative complications, hospital length of stay, or overall mortality in the PREdx versus POSTdx groups, even when controlling for lesion severity. PREdx was not independently associated with neonatal mortality, despite having included more severe cardiac lesions. PREdx was significantly associated with decreased neonatal morbidity in terms of decreased use of preoperative ventilator, administration of antibiotics, cardiac catheterization, and emergency surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigation of the incidence and distribution of congenital structural cardiac malformations among the offspring of mothers with diabetes type 1 and of the influence of periconceptional glycemic control.
Multicenter retrospective clinical study, literature review, and meta-analysis. The incidence and pattern of congenital heart disease in the own study population and in the literature on the offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers were compared with the incidence and spectrum of the various cardiovascular defects in the offspring of nondiabetic mothers as registered by EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. Medical records were, in addition, reviewed for HbA(1c) during the 1st trimester.
The distribution of congenital heart anomalies in the own diabetic study population was in accordance with the distribution encountered in the literature. This distribution differed considerably from that in the nondiabetic population. Approximately half the cardiovascular defects were conotruncal anomalies. The authors' study demonstrated a remarkable increase in the likelihood of visceral heterotaxia and variants of single ventricle among these patients. As expected, elevated HbA(1c) values during the 1st trimester were associated with offspring fetal cardiovascular defects.
This study shows an increased likelihood of specific heart anomalies, namely transposition of the great arteries, persistent truncus arteriosus, visceral heterotaxia and single ventricle, among offspring of diabetic mothers. This suggests a profound teratogenic effect at a very early stage in cardiogenesis. The study emphasizes the frequency with which the offspring of diabetes-complicated pregnancies suffer from complex forms of congenital heart disease. Pregnancies with poor 1st-trimester glycemic control are more prone to the presence of fetal heart disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: : Investigation of the incidence and distribution of congenital structural cardiac malformations among the offspring of mothers with diabetes type 1 and of the influence of periconceptional glycemic control. METHODS: : Multicenter retrospective clinical study, literature review, and meta-analysis. The incidence and pattern of congenital heart disease in the own study population and in the literature on the offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers were compared with the incidence and spectrum of the various cardiovascular defects in the offspring of nondiabetic mothers as registered by EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. Medical records were, in addition, reviewed for HbA(1c) during the 1st trimester. RESULTS: : The distribution of congenital heart anomalies in the own diabetic study population was in accordance with the distribution encountered in the literature. This distribution differed considerably from that in the nondiabetic population. Approximately half the cardiovascular defects were conotruncal anomalies. The authors' study demonstrated a remarkable increase in the likelihood of visceral heterotaxia and variants of single ventricle among these patients. As expected, elevated HbA(1c) values during the 1st trimester were associated with offspring fetal cardiovascular defects. CONCLUSION: : This study shows an increased likelihood of specific heart anomalies, namely transposition of the great arteries, persistent truncus arteriosus, visceral heterotaxia and single ventricle, among offspring of diabetic mothers. This suggests a profound teratogenic effect at a very early stage in cardiogenesis. The study emphasizes the frequency with which the offspring of diabetes-complicated pregnancies suffer from complex forms of congenital heart disease. Pregnancies with poor 1st-trimester glycemic control are more prone to the presence of fetal heart disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the incidence of aortic root dilatation in pectus excavatum.
Retrospective medical record review and echocardiographic reanalysis.
Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian.
Surgical candidates with pectus excavatum (n = 37) and age-matched controls (n = 44) referred for an echocardiogram from 1994 to 2002.
Two-dimensional and color Doppler transthoracic echocardiograms.
The aortic annulus and root were measured and z scores were calculated and compared. Medical records were reviewed for genetic evaluation.
Patients with pectus excavatum and age-matched controls were reanalyzed. There was no difference in age, weight, height, or body surface area between patients and controls. There were no differences in the mean aortic annulus diameter, mean aortic annulus z score, or mean aortic root measurements. However, the aortic root z score was significantly higher in the pectus excavatum group compared with the controls: 0.9 (SD, 1.06) vs 0.0 (SD, 1.25) (P = .001). There were more patients with an aortic root z score of 2 or greater in the pectus excavatum group (9 of 37 patients) than in the control group (0 of 43 controls), with a calculated odds ratio of 29.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.59). Genetic evaluation was performed in 5 patients with a pectus excavatum and dilated aortic root; 2 of them received diagnoses of Marfan syndrome.
Aortic root dilatation is more common in patients with pectus excavatum than in a control population. Echocardiographic screening may be useful in the identification of aortic root dilatation in patients with isolated pectus excavatum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the rate of spontaneous closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) in very-low-birth-weight infants. This prospective observational study included 65 infants whose birth weight (BW) < 1500 g. Echocardiograms were done on day of life (DOL) 3 and 7, weekly for the first month, and bimonthly until ligation, discharge, or death. Treatment was reserved for infants with heart failure, acute renal impairment, or those with significant persistent or escalating respiratory support. Chi-square tests, Student T tests, and logistic regression models were used to identify possible associations between spontaneous ductal closure by DOL 7 and predictor variables. Patterns of spontaneous DA closure over time were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The DA closed spontaneously in 49% infants by DOL 7. Rates of spontaneous closure by DOL 7 differed significantly by BW strata: 67% for BW > 1000 g, 31% for BW <or= 1000 g ( P < 0.01). Ninety-seven percent of infants > 1000 g did not require intervention, and the DA closed spontaneously prior to discharge in 94%. In a logistic regression model, only BW > 1000 g and male gender were significantly associated with spontaneous closure by 1 week of life. The median time to spontaneous closure differed significantly between infants in the two BW strata: 7 days for > 1000 g versus 56 days for <or= 1000 g ( P < 0.001). Intervention for the patent DA in infants > 1000 g BW is rarely indicated. In infants <or= 1000 g BW, deferring treatment decisions until at least 1 week of life may avoid unnecessary treatment exposure.
American Journal of Perinatology 10/2008; 25(10):661-6. DOI:10.1055/s-0028-1090594 · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of prenatal diagnosis on parental understanding of congenital heart disease (CHD) in newborns.
Consenting parents of newborns with CHD answered questions about the cardiac lesion, surgical repair, follow-up management, risk for CHD in future children, and maternal education before neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. A total understanding score was calculated (0-10) as the sum of five subscores: physician score, CHD score, surgery score, follow-up score, and reproduction score. Each category was scored as 0 (none correct), 1 (some correct), or 2 (all correct). The prenatal and postnatal diagnoses scores were compared.
From June 2006 to November 2006, 50 families completed the questionnaire. Of these 50 families, 26 reported a prenatal diagnosis. The mean infant age when the parents were approached was 17.3 +/- 13.3 days. The summary understanding score for the entire group was 6.3 +/- 2.4 of 10. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated a difference in scores between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis groups (p = 0.02) when control was used for maternal education. Prenatal diagnosis and maternal education (p < 0.01) had independent effects on the score.
Prenatal diagnosis increases parental understanding of neonatal CHD. Nevertheless, parental understanding remains suboptimal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate all complications that occurred during or after cardiac catheterizations for Amplatzer PFO device closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO), determine the cause of the complications and recommend techniques to minimize complications in the future.
Rare complications were reported to the manufacturer of the Amplatzer PFO occluder since the introduction of the device.
A panel of independent physicians reviewed all complications reported to the manufacturer to determine whether the complication was related to the device or related to the cardiac catheterization procedure. Demographic data, echocardiograms, operative reports, and time to occurrence of complications were reviewed.
A total of 11 events were reported. Only two patients had device related complications (erosion), an incidence of 0.018%. Two patients were found to have additional atrial septal defect after PFO closure. Two patients were thought to have an inflammatory reaction without any serious sequelae. Five complications were related to the cardiac catheterization procedure (atrial appendage perforation).
Device related complications after Amplatzer PFO occluder placement are extremely rare. Cardiac catheterization related complications appear to be the most common cause of the hemodynamic compromise. Careful manipulation of catheters and wires, recognition of the location of the catheter by fluoroscopy and echocardiography will decrease the risk of such complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrops fetalis is the final common hemodynamic pathway for a variety of fetal cardiovascular pathologies, including high-output states associated with fetal anemia or arteriovenous fistulas, and abnormalities of both cardiac structure and rhythm. Hydrops fetalis secondary to cardiovascular decompensation is usually accompanied by increases in fetal systemic venous pressure as evidenced by alterations in venous Doppler blood flow velocities. We present two cases of severe fetal aortic stenosis with left ventricular fibroelastosis and mitral regurgitation, and in-utero closure or stenosis of the foramen ovale, with severe hydrops fetalis, despite normal systemic venous Doppler flow profiles. These cases have led us to reconsider the presumed etiology of cardiovascular-based hydrops fetalis in fetuses with severely impaired left ventricular pump function and secondary mitral regurgitation. We hypothesize that raised pulmonary venous pressure, with only mildly increased central venous pressure, may impact negatively on pulmonary lymphatic flow, decrease serum oncotic pressure, increase venous hydrostatic pressure, and lead to hydrops fetalis.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2008; 31(1):96-9. DOI:10.1002/uog.5238 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systolic ventricular function has been demonstrated to remain unchanged following bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA). The effects of BCPA on diastolic ventricular performance have not been critically assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in diastolic ventricular function indices early after BCPA. Nineteen patients were enrolled prospectively. Transthoracic echocardiograms were performed at a median of 4 days prior to and 5 days subsequent to BCPA. Diastolic and systolic echocardiographic indices of ventricular performance were measured for the dominant ventricle. End diastolic volume decreased postoperatively (71.1 +/- 21.1 vs 68.08 +/- 17.9 ml/m2, p = 0.05). Tei index increased postoperatively (0.51 +/- 0.2 vs 0.62 +/- 0.1, p = 0.002), whereas inflow Doppler E velocity (70.3 +/- 13 vs 56.3 +/- 24.7 cm/sec, p = 0.04), E/A ratio (1.18 +/- 0.52 vs 0.84 +/- 0.2, p = 0.02), tissue Doppler E' velocity (9.5 +/- 2.5 vs 6.4 +/- 3.2 cm/sec, p = 0.03) and diastolic flow propagation velocity (56.5 +/- 12 vs 52.8 +/- 11 cm/sec, p = 0.04) all decreased. There was no change in ventricular mass, area change fraction, heart rate, or inflow Doppler A or tissue Doppler A' and S' velocities. This study demonstrated that diastolic indices of ventricular performance are altered indicating decreased diastolic function early following BCPA. Whether this observation is a result of a change in ventricular mass:volume ratio, loading conditions of the ventricle, ventricular geometry, or the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass remains to be determined.