Alexina Orsoni

Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié salpêtrière - Charles Foix, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (13)42.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: Statin treatment may impair glucose homeostasis and increase the risk of newonset diabetes mellitus, although this may depend on the statin, dose and patient population. We evaluated the effects of pitavastatin 4 mg/day on glucose homeostasis in patients with metabolic syndrome in the CAPITAIN trial. Findings were validated in a subset of patients enrolled in PREVAIL-US. Methods: Participants with a well-defined metabolic syndrome phenotype were recruited to CAPITAIN to reduce the influence of confounding factors. Validation and comparison datasets were selected comprising phenotypically similar subsets of individuals enrolled in PREVAILUS and treated with pitavastatin or pravastatin, respectively. Mean change from baseline in parameters of glucose homeostasis (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c], insulin, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index [QUICKI] and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and plasma lipid profile were assessed at 6 months (CAPITAIN) and 3 months (PREVAIL-US) after initiating treatment. Results: In CAPITAIN (n = 12), no significant differences from baseline in HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were observed at day 180 in patients treated with pitavastatin. A small (4%) increase in FPG from baseline to day 180 (P < 0.05), was observed. In the validation dataset (n = 9), no significant differences from baseline in glycaemic parameters were observed at day 84 (all comparisons P > 0.05). Similar results were observed for pravastatin in the comparison dataset (n = 14). Conclusions: Other than a small change in FPG in the CAPITAIN study, neutral effects of pitavastatin on glucose homeostasis were observed in two cohorts of patients with metabolic syndrome, independent of its efficacy in reducing levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. The small number of patients and relatively short follow-up period represent limitations of the study. Nevertheless, these data suggest that statin-induced diabetogenesis may not represent a class effect.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 12/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measured oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) pre- and postapheresis in 18 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and with low(∼10 mg/dl; range 10-11 mg/dl), intermediate (∼50 mg/dl; range 30-61 mg/dl), or high (>100 mg/dl; range 78-128 mg/dl) Lp(a) levels. By using enzymatic and immunoassays, the content of OxPL and Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were quantitated in lipoprotein density fractions plated in microtiter wells, as well as directly on apoB-100, Lp(a), and apoA-I immunocaptured within each fraction (i.e., OxPL/apoB and Lp-PLA(2)/apoB). In whole fractions, OxPL was primarily detected in the Lp(a)-containing fractions, whereas Lp-PLA(2) was primarily detected in the small, dense LDL and light Lp(a) range. In lipoprotein capture assays, OxPL/apoB and OxPL/apo(a) increased proportionally with increasing Lp(a) levels. Lp-PLA(2)/apoB and Lp-PLA(2)/apoA-I levels were highest in the low Lp(a) group but decreased proportionally with increasing Lp(a) levels. Lp-PLA(2)/apo(a) was lowest in patients with low Lp(a) levels and increased proportionally with increasing Lp(a) levels. Apheresis significantly reduced levels of OxPL and Lp-PLA(2) on apoB and Lp(a) (50-75%), particularly in patients with intermediate and high Lp(a) levels. In contrast, apheresis increased Lp-PLA(2)-specific activity (activity/mass ratio) in buoyant LDL fractions. The impact of apheresis on Lp(a), OxPL, and Lp-PLA(2) provides insights into its therapeutic benefits beyond lowering apoB-containing lipoproteins.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2012; 53(8):1670-8. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to assess whether plasminogen, which is homologous to lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], contains proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) and whether this has clinical relevance. OxPL measured on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL/apoB), primarily reflecting OxPL on Lp(a), independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The authors examined plasminogen from commercially available preparations and plasma from chimpanzees; gorillas; bonobos; cynomolgus monkeys; wild-type, apoE(-/-), LDLR(-/-), and Lp(a)-transgenic mice; healthy humans; and patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, stable CVD, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Phosphocholine (PC)-containing OxPL (OxPC) present on plasminogen were detected directly with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunologically with monoclonal antibody E06. In vitro clot lysis assays were performed to assess the effect of the OxPL on plasminogen on fibrinolysis. LC-MS/MS revealed that OxPC fragments were covalently bound to mouse plasminogen. Immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, density gradient ultracentrifugation, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses demonstrated that all human and animal plasma samples tested contained OxPL covalently bound to plasminogen. In plasma samples subjected to density gradient fractionation, OxPL were present on plasminogen (OxPL/plasminogen) in non-lipoprotein fractions but on Lp(a) in lipoprotein fractions. Plasma levels of OxPL/apoB and OxPL/apo(a) varied significantly (>25×) among subjects and also strongly correlated with Lp(a) levels. In contrast, OxPL/plasminogen levels were distributed across a relatively narrow range and did not correlate with Lp(a). Enzymatic removal of OxPL from plasminogen resulted in a longer lysis time for fibrin clots (16.25 vs. 11.96 min, p = 0.007). In serial measurements over 7 months, OxPL/plasminogen levels did not vary in normal subjects or in patients with stable CVD, but increased acutely over the first month and then slowly decreased to baseline in patients following AMI. These data demonstrate that plasminogen contains covalently bound OxPL that influence fibrinolysis. OxPL/plasminogen represent a second major plasma pool of OxPL, in addition to those present on Lp(a). OxPL present on plasminogen may have pathophysiological implications in AMI and atherothrombosis.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2012; 59(16):1426-37. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with functional alterations of HDL particles that reduce their capacity to mediate the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of LDL apheresis on the efficacy of the RCT pathway in FH patients. LDL apheresis markedly reduced abnormal accelerated cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer from HDL to LDL, thus reducing their CE content. Equally, we observed a major decrease (-53%; P < 0.0001) in pre-β1-HDL levels. The capacity of whole plasma to mediate free cholesterol efflux from human macrophages was reduced (-15%; P < 0.02) following LDL apheresis. Such reduction resulted from a marked decrease in the ABCA1-dependent efflux (-71%; P < 0.0001) in the scavenger receptor class B type I-dependent efflux (-21%; P < 0.0001) and in the ABCG1-dependent pathway (-15%; P < 0.04). However, HDL particles isolated from FH patients before and after LDL apheresis displayed a similar capacity to mediate cellular free cholesterol efflux or to deliver CE to hepatic cells. We demonstrate that rapid removal of circulating lipoprotein particles by LDL apheresis transitorily reduces RCT. However, LDL apheresis is without impact on the intrinsic ability of HDL particles to promote either cellular free cholesterol efflux from macrophages or to deliver CE to hepatic cells.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2012; 53(4):767-75. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Subnormal HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels are characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reflecting perturbed intravascular metabolism with compositional anomalies in HDL particles, including apoE enrichment. Does LDL-apheresis, which reduces HDL-cholesterol, apoAI, and apoE by adsorption, induce selective changes in HDL subpopulations, with relevance to atheroprotection? Five HDL subpopulations were fractionated from pre- and post-LDL-apheresis plasmas of normotriglyceridemic FH subjects (n = 11) on regular LDL-apheresis (>2 years). Apheresis lowered both plasma apoE (-62%) and apoAI (-16%) levels, with preferential, genotype-independent reduction in apoE. The mass ratio of HDL2:HDL3 was lowered from ~1:1 to 0.72:1 by apheresis, reflecting selective removal of HDL2 mass (80% of total HDL adsorbed). Pre-LDL-apheresis, HDL2 subpopulations were markedly enriched in apoE, consistent with ~1 copy of apoE per 4 HDL particles. Large amounts (50-66%) of apoE-HDL were removed by apheresis, preferentially in the HDL2b subfraction (-50%); minor absolute amounts of apoE-HDL were removed from HDL3 subfractions. Furthermore, pre-β1-HDL particle levels were subnormal following removal (-53%) upon apheresis, suggesting that cellular cholesterol efflux may be defective in the immediate postapheresis period. In LDL-receptor (LDL-R) deficiency, LDL-apheresis may enhance flux through the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and equally attenuate potential biglycan-mediated deposition of apoE-HDL in the arterial matrix.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2011; 52(12):2304-13. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are frequently observed in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and might be associated with functional alterations of HDL particles that may influence their efficaciousness in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We evaluated key steps of the reverse cholesterol transport, ie, cellular free cholesterol efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer from HDL to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, and hepatic HDL-CE uptake, in patients displaying FH (n = 12) and in healthy normolipidemic control subjects (n = 12). Large HDL2 particles isolated from FH patients displayed a reduced capacity to mediate free cholesterol efflux via both scavenger receptor-BI- and ABCG1-dependent pathways. A significant inverse relationship between scavenger receptor-BI-dependent HDL2 efflux capacity and carotid intima-media thickness (r = -0.473; P = 0.0186), as well as between ABCG1-dependent HDL2 efflux capacity and carotid intima-media thickness (r = -0.485; P = 0.0212), was detected. We also observed an elevated cholesteryl ester transfer protein-mediated CE transfer from HDL2 and HDL3 particles to low-density lipoprotein and a reduced capacity of HDL particles to deliver CEs to the liver. We demonstrated that the centripetal movement of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including the vessel wall, to feces is defective in FH, thereby emphasizing its atherogenicity.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2011; 31(7):1675-81. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) exert multiple antiatherogenic activities including protection of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidative stress. Beneficial effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiovascular disease may in part be related to the reduction of oxidative stress, potentially enhancing the antioxidative activity (AOX) of HDLs. This study aimed to assess the effect of 1 month's treatment with amlodipine on HDL AOX in hypertensive subjects. This was a prospective trial of amlodipine 10 mg/day administered for 1 month in primary-care patients with hypertension (n = 28), 46% of whom were obese and 57% of whom displayed the metabolic syndrome. The main outcome measure was HDL AOX, assessed as the capacity of small, dense HDL3c particles to attenuate LDL oxidation induced in vitro by an azo initiator (AAPH). Mean (± SD) systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP were reduced by amlodipine by 22.1 mmHg (± 13.2) and 10.4 mmHg (± 7.5), respectively (p < 0.001). Body mass index, waist circumference, and plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose did not change significantly. Amlodipine treatment did not modify HDL3c AOX in the whole study population; changes in AOX were, however, positively correlated with SBP (r = 0.37, p = 0.05 for maximal diene concentration; r = 0.34, p = 0.08 for LDL oxidation rate). When the population was divided into two subgroups according to the BP response to amlodipine (change in SBP below or above the median), HDL3c AOX was significantly improved in hyper-responders (BP-lowering response >22/10 mmHg) as compared with hypo-responders (BP-lowering response <22/10 mmHg: mean [± SD] change in the LDL oxidation rate in the presence of HDL3c, -6.8% [± 11.2] vs +1.9% [± 5.2], respectively, p = 0.04; maximal diene concentration, -8.6% [± 13.0] vs +1.9% [± 8.2], respectively, p < 0.05). By contrast, neither plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, nor the chemical composition of HDL3c were modified between the subgroups. In hypertensive patients, amlodipine treatment enhanced HDL AOX in subjects who had a BP reduction that exceeded the median response. This effect appears to be secondary to the hypotensive effect, rather than to the direct antioxidant properties, of the drug.
    American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 06/2011; 11(5):317-25. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2011; 57(14).
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2010; 11(2):109-109.
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2010; 11(2):23-23.
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2010; 11(2):76-76.
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2010; 11(2):116-116.
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) on apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) particles are strongly associated with lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]). In this study, we evaluated whether Lp[a] is preferentially the carrier of OxPL in human plasma. The content of OxPL on apoB-100 particles was measured with monoclonal antibody E06, which recognizes the phosphocholine (PC) headgroup of oxidized but not native phospholipids. To assess whether OxPLs were preferentially bound by Lp[a] as opposed to other lipoproteins, immunoprecipitation and ultracentrifugation experiments, in vitro transfer studies, and chemiluminescent ELISAs were performed. Immunoprecipitation of Lp[a] from human plasma with an apolipoprotein [a] (apo[a])-specific antibody demonstrated that more than 85% of E06 reactivity (i.e., OxPL) coimmunoprecipitated with Lp[a]. Ultracentrifugation experiments showed that nearly all OxPLs were found in fractions containing apo[a], as opposed to other apolipoproteins. In vitro transfer studies showed that oxidized LDL preferentially donates OxPLs to Lp[a], as opposed to LDL, in a time- and temperature-dependent manner, even in aqueous buffer. Approximately 50% of E06 immunoreactivity could be extracted from isolated Lp[a] following exposure of plasma to various lipid solvents. These data demonstrate that Lp[a] is the preferential carrier of PC-containing OxPL in human plasma. This unique property of Lp[a] suggests novel insights into its physiological function and mechanisms of atherogenicity.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 08/2008; 49(10):2230-9. · 4.39 Impact Factor