[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We develop a generalized active contour formalism for image segmentation
based on shape templates. The shape template is subjected to a restricted
affine transformation (RAT) in order to segment the object of interest. RAT
allows for translation, rotation, and scaling, which give a total of five
degrees of freedom. The proposed active contour comprises an inner and outer
contour pair, which are closed and concentric. The active contour energy is a
contrast function defined based on the intensities of pixels that lie inside
the inner contour and those that lie in the annulus between the inner and outer
contours. We show that the contrast energy functional is optimal under certain
conditions. The optimal RAT parameters are computed by maximizing the contrast
function using a gradient descent optimizer. We show that the calculations are
made efficient through use of Green's theorem. The proposed formalism is
capable of handling a variety of shapes because for a chosen template,
optimization is carried with respect to the RAT parameters only. The proposed
formalism is validated on multiple images to show robustness to Gaussian and
Poisson noise, to initialization, and to partial loss of structure in the
object to be segmented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient signals such as plosives in speech or Castanets in audio do not have a specific modulation or periodic structure in time domain. However, in the spectral domain they exhibit a prominent modulation structure, which is a direct consequence of their narrow time localization. Based on this observation, a spectral-domain AM-FM model for transients is proposed. The spectral AM-FM model is built starting from real spectral zero-crossings. The AM and FM correspond to the spectral envelope (SE) and group delay (GD), respectively. Taking into account the modulation structure and spectral continuity, a local polynomial regression technique is proposed to estimate the GD function from the real spectral zeros. The SE is estimated based on the phase function computed from the estimated GD. Since the GD estimation is parametric, the degree of smoothness can be controlled directly. Simulation results based on synthetic transient signals generated using a beta density function are presented to analyze the noise-robustness of the SEGD model. Three specific applications are considered: (1) SEGD based modeling of Castanet sounds; (2) appropriateness of the model for transient compression; and (3) determining glottal closure instants in speech using a short-time SEGD model of the linear prediction residue.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 05/2013; 133(5):2788-802. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We address the reconstruction problem in frequency-domain optical-coherence tomography (FDOCT) from undersampled measurements within the framework of compressed sensing (CS). Specifically, we propose optimal sparsifying bases for accurate reconstruction by analyzing the backscattered signal model. Although one might expect Fourier bases to be optimal for the FDOCT reconstruction problem, it turns out that the optimal sparsifying bases are windowed cosine functions where the window is the magnitude spectrum of the laser source. Further, the windowed cosine bases can be phase locked, which allows one to obtain higher accuracy in reconstruction. We present experimental validations on real data. The findings reported in this Letter are useful for optimal dictionary design within the framework of CS-FDOCT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We address the problem of high-resolution reconstruction in frequency-domain optical-coherence tomography (FDOCT). The traditional method employed uses the inverse discrete Fourier transform, which is limited in resolution due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. We propose a reconstruction technique based on zero-crossing (ZC) interval analysis. The motivation for our approach lies in the observation that, for a multilayered specimen, the backscattered signal may be expressed as a sum of sinusoids, and each sinusoid manifests as a peak in the FDOCT reconstruction. The successive ZC intervals of a sinusoid exhibit high consistency, with the intervals being inversely related to the frequency of the sinusoid. The statistics of the ZC intervals are used for detecting the frequencies present in the input signal. The noise robustness of the proposed technique is improved by using a cosine-modulated filter bank for separating the input into different frequency bands, and the ZC analysis is carried out on each band separately. The design of the filter bank requires the design of a prototype, which we accomplish using a Kaiser window approach. We show that the proposed method gives good results on synthesized and experimental data. The resolution is enhanced, and noise robustness is higher compared with the standard Fourier reconstruction.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 10/2012; 29(10):2080-91. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a new class of continuously defined parametric snakes using a special kind of exponential splines as basis functions. We have enforced our bases to have the shortest possible support subject to some design constraints to maximize efficiency. While the resulting snakes are versatile enough to provide a good approximation of any closed curve in the plane, their most important feature is the fact that they admit ellipses within their span. Thus, they can perfectly generate circular and elliptical shapes. These features are appropriate to delineate cross sections of cylindrical-like conduits and to outline bloblike objects. We address the implementation details and illustrate the capabilities of our snake with synthetic and real data.
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 04/2012; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a Riesz transform approach to the demodulation of digital holograms. The Riesz transform is a higher-dimensional extension of the Hilbert transform and is steerable to a desired orientation. Accurate demodulation of the hologram requires a reliable methodology by which quadrature-phase functions (or simply, quadratures) can be constructed. The Riesz transform, by itself, does not yield quadratures. However, one can start with the Riesz transform and construct the so-called vortex operator by employing the notion of quasi-eigenfunctions, and this approach results in accurate quadratures. The key advantage of using the vortex operator is that it effectively handles nonplanar fringes (interference patterns) and has the ability to compensate for the local orientation. Therefore, this method results in aberration-free holographic imaging even in the case when the wavefronts are not planar. We calibrate the method by estimating the orientation from a reference hologram, measured with an empty field of view. Demodulation results on synthesized planar as well as nonplanar fringe patterns show that the accuracy of demodulation is high. We also perform validation on real experimental measurements of Caenorhabditis elegans acquired with a digital holographic microscope.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 01/2012; 29(10):2118-2129. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We address the problem of exact complex-wave reconstruction in digital holography. We show that, by confining the object-wave modulation to one quadrant of the frequency domain, and by maintaining a reference-wave intensity higher than that of the object, one can achieve exact complex-wave reconstruction in the absence of noise. A feature of the proposed technique is that the zero-order artifact, which is commonly encountered in hologram reconstruction, can be completely suppressed in the absence of noise. The technique is noniterative and nonlinear. We also establish a connection between the reconstruction technique and homomorphic signal processing, which enables an interpretation of the technique from the perspective of deconvolution. Another key contribution of this paper is a direct link between the reconstruction technique and the two-dimensional Hilbert transform formalism proposed by Hahn. We show that this connection leads to explicit Hilbert transform relations between the magnitude and phase of the complex wave encoded in the hologram. We also provide results on simulated as well as experimental data to validate the accuracy of the reconstruction technique.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 06/2011; 28(6):983-92. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The notion of the 1-D analytic signal is well understood and has found many applications. At the heart of the analytic signal concept is the Hilbert transform. The problem in extending the concept of analytic signal to higher dimensions is that there is no unique multidimensional definition of the Hilbert transform. Also, the notion of analyticity is not so well understood in higher dimensions. Of the several 2-D extensions of the Hilbert transform, the spiral-phase quadrature transform or the Riesz transform seems to be the natural extension and has attracted a lot of attention mainly due to its isotropic properties. From the Riesz transform, Larkin et al. constructed a vortex operator, which approximates the quadratures based on asymptotic stationary-phase analysis. In this paper, we show an alternative proof for the quadrature approximation property by invoking the quasi-eigenfunction property of linear, shift-invariant systems. We show that the vortex operator comes up as a natural consequence of applying this property. We also characterize the quadrature approximation error in terms of its energy as well as the peak spatial-domain error. Such results are available for 1-D signals, but their counterpart for 2-D signals have not been provided. We also provide simulation results to supplement the analytical calculations. Index Terms— Riesz transform, spiral-phase quadrature transform, quadrature model, analytic signal, Parseval theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2011, May 22-27, 2011, Prague Congress Center, Prague, Czech Republic; 01/2011
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We address the problem of speech enhancement in real-world noisy scenarios. We propose to solve the problem in two stages, the first comprising a generalized spectral subtraction technique, followed by a sequence of perceptually-motivated post- processing algorithms. The role of the post-processing algorithms is to compensate for the effects of noise as well as to suppress any artifacts created by the first-stage processing. The key post- processing mechanisms are aimed at suppressing musical noise and to enhance the formant structure of voiced speech as well as to denoise the linear-prediction residual. The parameter values in the techniques are fixed optimally by experimentally evaluating the enhancement performance as a function of the parameters. We used the Carnegie-Mellon university Arctic database for our experiments. We considered three real-world noise types: fan noise, car noise, and motorbike noise. The enhancement performance was evaluated by conducting listening experiments on 12 subjects. The listeners reported a clear improvement (MOS improvement of 0.5 on an average) over the noisy signal in the perceived quality (increase in the mean-opinion score (MOS)) for positive signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs). For negative SNRs, however, the improvement was found to be marginal.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a novel approach to represent transients using spectral-domain amplitude-modulated/frequency -modulated (AM-FM) functions. The model is applied to the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform (FT) of the transient. The suitability of the model lies in the observation that since transients are well-localized in time, the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier spectrum have a modulation structure. The spectral AM is the envelope and the spectral FM is the group delay function. The group delay is estimated using spectral zero-crossings and the spectral envelope is estimated using a coherent demodulator. We show that the proposed technique is robust to additive noise. We present applications of the proposed technique to castanets and stop-consonants in speech.
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2011, May 22-27, 2011, Prague Congress Center, Prague, Czech Republic; 01/2011 · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We address the problem of computing the level-crossings of an analog signal from samples measured on a uniform grid. Such a problem is important, for example, in multilevel analog-to-digital (A/D) converters. The first operation in such sampling modalities is a comparator, which gives rise to a bilevel waveform. Since bilevel signals are not bandlimited, measuring the level-crossing times exactly becomes impractical within the conventional framework of Shannon sampling. In this paper, we propose a novel sub-Nyquist sampling technique for making measurements on a uniform grid and thereby for exactly computing the level-crossing times from those samples. The computational complexity of the technique is low and comprises simple arithmetic operations. We also present a finite-rate-of-innovation sampling perspective of the proposed approach and also show how exponential splines fit in naturally into the proposed sampling framework. We also discuss some concrete practical applications of the sampling technique.
Signal Processing and Communications (SPCOM), 2010 International Conference on; 08/2010
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we derive a fast, novel time-domain algorithm to compute the nth-order moment of the power spectral density of the photoelectric current as measured in laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). It is well established that in the LDF literature these moments are closely related to fundamental physiological parameters, i.e. concentration of moving erythrocytes and blood flow. In particular, we take advantage of the link between moments in the Fourier domain and fractional derivatives in the temporal domain. Using Parseval's theorem, we establish an exact analytical equivalence between the time-domain expression and the conventional frequency-domain counterpart. Moreover, we demonstrate the appropriateness of estimating the zeroth-, first- and second-order moments using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we briefly discuss the feasibility of implementing the proposed algorithm in hardware.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 07/2010; 55(13):N383-94. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the context of fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, determining the optimal way to exploit the time-resolved information has been receiving much attention and different features of the time-resolved signals have been introduced. In this article, the authors revisit and generalize the notion of feature, considering the projection of the measurements onto some basis functions. This leads the authors to propose a novel approach based on the wavelet transform of the measurements.
A comparative study between the reconstructions obtained from the proposed wavelet-based approach and the reconstructions obtained from the reference temporal moments is provided. An inhomogeneous cubic medium is considered. Reconstructions are performed from synthetic measurements assuming Poisson noise statistics. In order to provide fairly comparable reconstructions, the reconstruction scheme is associated with a particular procedure for selecting the regularization parameter.
In the noise-free case, the reconstruction quality is shown to be mainly driven by the number of selected features. In the presence of noise, however, the reconstruction quality depends on the type of the features. In this case, the wavelet approach is shown to outperform the moment approach. While the optimal time-resolved reconstruction quality, which is obtained considering the whole set of time samples, is recovered using only eight wavelet functions, it cannot be attained using moments. It is finally observed that the time-resolved information is of limited utility, in terms of reconstruction, when the maximum number of detected photons is lower than 10(5).
The wavelet approach allows for better exploiting the time-resolved information, especially when the number of detected photons is low. However, when the number of detected photons decreases below a certain threshold, the time-resolved information itself is shown to be of limited utility.
Medical Physics 06/2010; 37(6):2890-900. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We address the issue of noise robustness of reconstruction techniques for frequency-domain optical-coherence tomography (FDOCT). We consider three reconstruction techniques: Fourier, iterative phase recovery, and cepstral techniques. We characterize the reconstructions in terms of their statistical bias and variance and obtain approximate analytical expressions under the assumption of small noise. We also perform Monte Carlo analyses and show that the experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. It turns out that the iterative and cepstral techniques yield reconstructions with a smaller bias than the Fourier method. The three techniques, however, have identical variance profiles, and their consistency increases linearly as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio.
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 04/2010; · 2.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present experimental investigation of a new reconstruction method for off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). This method effectively suppresses the object auto-correlation, commonly called the zero-order term, from holographic measurements, thereby suppressing the artifacts generated by the intensities of the two beams employed for interference from complex wavefield reconstruction. The algorithm is based on non-linear filtering, and can be applied to standard DHM setups, with realistic recording conditions. We study the applicability of the technique under different experimental configurations, such as topographic images of microscopic specimens or speckle holograms.