P J Elmer

Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (37)337.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of a 24-week, placebo-controlled, two-period, crossover trial of sodium supplementation in 112 normotensive African Americans, aged 25 to 64 years, with average blood pressure (BP) of 105/70 mm Hg. Estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 133.6 mmol; the average urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio was 0.74. Variability-adjusted BP change was the difference in BP level after the respective treatment periods, divided by the intra-person standard deviation of the average BP obtained at 3 consecutive screening visits during a 4-week period. The urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio and the total urine sodium content were 37.8% and 26.5% higher, respectively, at the end of the sodium treatment period. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP change (mm Hg) (95% CI) was systolic 1.2 (0, 2.4), and diastolic 0.7 (-0.3, 1.8); cuff BP change was systolic 0.9 (-1, 2.9), and diastolic 1.4 (0.1, 2.7). Variability-adjusted BP change was systolic 0.2 (-0.4, 0.8) and diastolic 0.4 (-0.1, 0.9). Though variability-adjusted and unadjusted SBP change correlated highly (r = 0.941, P<.001), only the former correlated with body mass index (r = 0.224, P<.05), a known correlate of salt sensitivity. While total urinary sodium content in timed urine collections and urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio correlated (r = 0.727, P<.001), neither correlated with cuff BP changes. Change in urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratios of 3 consecutive pooled overnight 8-hour urine collections correlated with changes in 24-hour ambulatory SBP (r = 0.294, P<.001) and DBP (r = 0.193, P<.05); however, change in total urinary sodium content was uncorrelated. Total urinary sodium content of these pooled collections (P = .001), but not the urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio, was positively related to urinary creatinine excretion per kilogram of body weight, the latter being an indicator of urine collection duration. The lack of effect of the duration of urine collection on the urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio is advantageous in individuals who may report inaccurately the duration of their urine collection. Sequential regression analyses demonstrated that the urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio conveyed all of the changes in urinary sodium excretion information contained in aggregate urinary sodium excretion-and more. Variability-adjusted BP change was the more sensitive metric of BP response to dietary sodium manipulations, than unadjusted BP change. Thus, variability-adjusted BP change and the urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio appear to be incrementally better metrics of salt sensitivity than those traditionally used.
    Ethnicity & disease 02/2002; 12(1):10-9. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high Na/low K environment of modern society is related to the genesis of hypertension and stroke. There is prior evidence of racial, geographical, and social class differences in Na and K intake and blood pressure. Baseline data from the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) was used to assess urinary Na and K excretion profiles by race, clinic geographic area, and education. Participants were adult black and white hypertensive patients from the Birmingham, Alabama, and Chicago, Illinois, area. Level of education was categorized as: less than college graduate and college graduate or more. Two overnight urine samples were collected and analyzed for Na and K at entry from 154 blacks and 281 whites. The urinary Na:K ratio was significantly higher in both blacks (5.1 v 3.8, P < .001) and whites (4.1 v 3.4, P < .005) in Birmingham compared with Chicago. This was primarily due to the lower excretion of urinary K in blacks (12.8 v 16.9 mmol/8 h, P < .01) and whites (14.0 v 16.5 mmol/8 h, P < .01). The highest urinary Na:K ratio was observed in blacks in Birmingham with lower education level; urinary Na excretion was high in blacks with a lower education level in both cities. No such differences were seen in whites. Although TOMHS was not population-based, these findings suggest the possibility that potassium intake among persons with stage 1 hypertension is related to geographic area in both blacks and whites, and sodium intake is inversely related to education level in blacks.
    American Journal of Hypertension 01/1999; 12(1 Pt 1):69-72. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high Na/low K environment of modern society is related to the genesis of hypertension and stroke. There is prior evidence of racial, geographical, and social class differences in Na and K intake and blood pressure. Baseline data from the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) was used to assess urinary Na and K excretion profiles by race, clinic geographic area, and education. Participants were adult black and white hypertensive patients from the Birmingham, Alabama, and Chicago, Illinois, area. Level of education was categorized as: less than college graduate and college graduate or more. Two overnight urine samples were collected and analyzed for Na and K at entry from 154 blacks and 281 whites. The urinary Na:K ratio was significantly higher in both blacks (5.1 v 3.8, P < .001) and whites (4.1 v 3.4, P < .005) in Birmingham compared with Chicago. This was primarily due to the lower excretion of urinary K in blacks (12.8 v 16.9 mmol/8 h, P < .01) and whites (14.0 v 16.5 mmol/8 h, P < .01). The highest urinary Na:K ratio was observed in blacks in Birmingham with lower education level; urinary Na excretion was high in blacks with a lower education level in both cities. No such differences were seen in whites. Although TOMHS was not population-based, these findings suggest the possibility that potassium intake among persons with stage 1 hypertension is related to geographic area in both blacks and whites, and sodium intake is inversely related to education level in blacks.Keywords: Sodium; potassium; blacks; whites; race; education
    American Journal of Hypertension 12/1998; 12(1):69-72. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, blacks have higher rates of hypertension than whites. A possible contributing factor to this higher rate of hypertension could be dietary differences between blacks and whites relating to sodium and potassium intake, which in turn could be related to socioeconomic differences between blacks and whites. Baseline data from the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) was used to assess differences in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and the Na:K ratio between black and white participants, and also to explore the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) and urinary electrolyte excretion within each ethnic group. Participants were men and women ages 45 to 69 with stage I diastolic hypertension (DBP < or = 99 mm Hg). Level of education and annual household income were used as indicators of SES. Two overnight urine samples were collected and analyzed for Na and K at entry on 172 black and 710 white participants. Blacks had a significantly higher mean Na:K ratio than whites, 4.3 v 3.6 (P < .001). This was primarily due to higher urinary Na excretion in blacks than whites, 57.8 v 52.7 mmol/8 h (P = .05). Analysis by education and income level showed that higher levels of urinary Na and Na:K in blacks than whites was restricted to those with lower education and income levels. For higher education and income levels, blacks had slightly lower levels of urinary Na and Na:K than whites. Correspondingly, education and income levels were related to urinary Na and Na:K in blacks but not in whites. This suggests that lower SES blacks could benefit from interventions to reduce dietary Na and increase dietary K, which would decrease their urinary Na:K ratio and may make them less prone to developing hypertension.
    American Journal of Hypertension 09/1997; 10(9 Pt 1):979-84. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Problems with sexual function have been a long-standing concern in the treatment of hypertension and may influence the choice of treatment regimens and decisions to discontinue drugs. The Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) provides an excellent opportunity for examination of sexual function and effects of treatment on sexual function in men and women with stage I diastolic hypertension because of the number of drug classes studied, the double-blind study design, and the long-term follow-up. TOMHS was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of 902 hypertensive individuals (557 men, 345 women), aged 45 to 69 years, treated with placebo or one of five active drugs (acebutolol, amlodipine maleate, chlorthalidone, doxazosin maleate, or enalapril maleate). All participants received intensive lifestyle counseling regarding weight loss, dietary sodium reduction, alcohol reduction (for current drinkers), and increased physical activity. Sexual function was ascertained by physician interviews at baseline and annually during follow-up. At baseline, 14.4% of men and 4.9% of women reported a problems with sexual function. In men, 12.2% had problems obtaining and/or maintaining an erection; 2.0% of women reported a problem having an orgasm. Erection problems in men at baseline were positively related to age, systolic pressure, and previous antihypertensive drug use. The incidences of erection dysfunction during follow-up in men were 9.5% and 14.7% through 24 and 48 months, respectively, and were related to type of antihypertensive therapy. Participants randomized to chlorthalidone reported a significantly higher incidence of erection problems through 24 months than participants randomized to placebo (17.1% versus 8.1%, P = .025). Incidence rates through 48 months were more similar among treatment groups than at 24 months, with nonsignificant differences between the chlorthalidone and placebo groups. Incidence was lowest in the doxazosin group but was not significantly different from the placebo group. Incidence for acebutolol, amlodipine, and enalapril groups was similar to that in the placebo group. In many cases, erection dysfunction did not require withdrawal of medication. Disappearance of erection problems among men with problems at baseline was common in all groups but greatest in the doxazosin group. Incidence of reported sexual problems in women was low in all treatment groups. In conclusion, long-term incidence of erection problems in treated hypertensive men is relatively low but is higher with chlorthalidone treatment. Effects of erection dysfunction with chlorthalidone appear relatively early and are often tolerable, and new occurrences after 2 years are unlikely. The rate of reported sexual problems in hypertensive women is low and does not appear to differ by type of drug. Similar incidence rates of erection dysfunction in placebo and most active drug groups caution against routine attribution of erection problems to antihypertensive medication.
    Hypertension 02/1997; 29(1 Pt 1):8-14. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, blacks have higher rates of hypertension than whites. A possible contributing factor to this higher rate of hypertension could be dietary differences between blacks and whites relating to sodium and potassium intake, which in turn could be related to socioeconomic differences between blacks and whites. Baseline data from the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) was used to assess differences in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and the Na:K ratio between black and white participants, and also to explore the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) and urinary electrolyte excretion within each ethnic group. Participants were men and women ages 45 to 69 with stage I diastolic hypertension (DBP ≤ 99 mm Hg). Level of education and annual household income were used as indicators of SES. Two overnight urine samples were collected and analyzed for Na and K at entry on 172 black and 710 white participants. Blacks had a significantly higher mean Na:K ratio than whites, 4.3 v 3.6 (P < .001). This was primarily due to higher urinary Na excretion in blacks than whites, 57.8 v 52.7 mmol/8 h (P = .05). Analysis by education and income level showed that higher levels of urinary Na and Na:K in blacks than whites was restricted to those with lower education and income levels. For higher education and income levels, blacks had slightly lower levels of urinary Na and Na:K than whites. Correspondingly, education and income levels were related to urinary Na and Na:K in blacks but not in whites. This suggests that lower SES blacks could benefit from interventions to reduce dietary Na and increase dietary K, which would decrease their urinary Na:K ratio and may make them less prone to developing hypertension.
    American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/1997; 10(9):979-984.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the sex-specific benefits and risks of treatment of stage 1 diastolic hypertension. Participants were African-American and white hypertensive men (n = 557) and women (n = 345) (age range, 45 to 69 years) with a diastolic blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg. Participants were randomized to treatment with placebo, chlorthalidone (15 mg/d), acebutolol hydrochloride (400 mg/d), doxazosin mesylate (2 mg/d), amlodipine besylate (5 mg/d), or enalapril maleate (5 mg/d); all were given nutritional-hygienic intervention. After 4 years, women who were randomized to lifestyle intervention only were less likely to be receiving step 1 therapy alone (placebo) than men who were randomized to placebo therapy (46% vs 66%, respectively, P < .01). There were significantly greater decreases in the mean systolic blood pressure in both men and women who were assigned to treatment with active drugs compared with those participants who were receiving placebo therapy; differences among treatments with active drugs were similar between men and women. Men experienced larger falls in their total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels regardless of the treatment assignment than did women; however, there were no significant sex-by-treatment interactions. Quality-of-life indexes were generally improved with active drug treatment compared with placebo therapy in both sexes; there was a sex-by-treatment interaction for the general health index. The relative risk (RR) for combined clinical events was similar in women (RR, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], (0.36 to 1.16) and in men (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.14) who were assigned to treatment with all active drugs combined, compared with those who were receiving placebo therapy. In these exploratory analyses, men and women who were assigned to treatment with active drugs experienced greater and generally similar benefits from treatment than those participants who were assigned to lifestyle intervention only.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 02/1996; 156(4):377-85. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: - To compare long-term plasma lipid changes among 6 antihypertensive treatment interventions for stage I (mild) hypertension. - Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. - Four academic clinical research units in the United States. - A total of 902 men and women, aged 45 to 69 years, with stage I diastolic hypertension (diastolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg), recruited from 11914 persons screened in their communities. - Participants were randomized to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) placebo, (2) beta-blocker (acebutolol), (3) calcium antagonist (amlodipine), (4) diuretic (chlorthalidone), (5) alpha1-antagonist (doxazosin), and (6) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril). All groups received intensive lifestyle counseling to achieve weight loss, dietary sodium and alcohol reduction, and increased physical activity. - Changes in plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides from baseline to annual visits through 4 years. - Mean changes in all plasma lipids were favorable in all groups. The degree of weight loss with fat-modified diet and exercise was significantly related to favorable lipid changes. Significant differences (P<.01) among groups for average changes during follow-up in each lipid were observed. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were greater with doxazosin and acebutolol (for plasma total cholesterol, 0.36 and 0.30 mmol/L [13.8 and 11.7 mg/dL], respectively), less with chlorthalidone and placebo (0.12 and 0.13 mmol/L [4.5 and 5.1 mg/dL], respectively). Decreases in triglycerides were greater with doxazosin and enalapril, least with acebutolol. Increases in HDL cholesterol were greater with enalapril and doxazosin, least with acebutolol. Significant relative increases in plasma total cholesterol with chlorthalidone compared with placebo at 12 months were no longer present at 24 months and beyond, when mean plasma total cholesterol for the chlorthalidone group fell below baseline. Analyses of participants continuing to receive chlorthalidone throughout the 4 years of follow-up indicated this was not due solely to an increasing percentage of participants changing or discontinuing use of medication during follow-up. - Weight loss with a fat-modified diet plus increased exercise produces favorable long-term effects on blood pressure and all plasma lipid fractions of adults with stage I hypertension; blood pressure reduction is enhanced to a similar degree by addition of a drug from any one of 5 classes of antihypertensive medication. These drugs differ quantitatively in influencing the degree of long-term favorable effects on blood lipids obtained with nutritional-hygienic treatment.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1996; 275(20):1549-56. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. —To compare long-term plasma lipid changes among 6 antihypertensive treatment interventions for stage I (mild) hypertension.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1996; 275(20):1549-1556. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Questions regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacologic approaches for the treatment of stage 1 hypertension were addressed as part of the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS), a 4-year, randomized clinical trial (N = 902). This report describes the lifestyle intervention program used in TOMHS, presents data on the lifestyle changes observed, and focuses on the effect of weight loss on blood pressure and blood lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or one of five different antihypertensive medications. All took part in a lifestyle intervention program to reduce weight and sodium and alcohol intake and to increase physical activity. Substantial changes from baseline levels were achieved for all lifestyle intervention variables. Mean weight change was -10.5 lb (-5.6%) at 1 year, -8.5 lb (-4.5%) at 2 years, -7.4 lb (-4.0%) at 3 years, and -5.7 lb (-3.0%) at 4 years. At 4 years, 70% of participants remained below baseline weight and 34% maintained a weight loss of 10 lb or greater. Mean change in urinary sodium excretion was -12.5 mmol/8 hr (-23%) at 1 year, -10.7 mmol/8 hr (-20%) at 2 years, -8.4 mmol/8 hr (-16%) at 3 years, and -4.6 mmol/8 hr (-9%) at 4 years. Alcohol intake declined by 1.6 drinks/week among drinkers at 4 years. Reported leisure physical activity increased by 86% at 1 year and remained 50% above baseline at 4 years. Beneficial changes in blood pressure and serum lipids were associated with these changes. These results support a role for lifestyle interventions as the initial treatment for stage 1 hypertension and demonstrate that such interventions can be successfully implemented in the clinical setting.
    Preventive Medicine 08/1995; 24(4):378-88. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable interest in the feasibility of incorporating nutritional and lifestyle changes into blood pressure treatment and cardiovascular disease risk reduction programs in clinical practice settings. TOMHS was a multi-center, randomized trial comparing a non-drug lifestyle intervention plus placebo with 5 groups receiving the lifestyle intervention plus one of five active antihypertensive drugs. Participants were 902 men and women, age 45–69, with mild hypertension (DPB 90–99mmHg.) All patients received diet and lifestyle intervention provided by registered dietitians through a series of group and individual sessions. The program included an initial 6 month intensive education program followed by at least quarterly individual assessment and counseling sessions with the dietitians. The goals were: weight loss ≥ 10lbs.; 25% reduction in dietary sodium; 150minutes/week of moderate physical activity (600kcal);
    Journal of The American Dietetic Association - J AMER DIET ASSN. 01/1995; 95(9).
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    ABSTRACT: The Minnesota Heart Health Program is a 13-year research and demonstration project to reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease in whole communities. Three pairs of communities were matched on size and type; each pair had one education site and one comparison site. After baseline surveys, a 5- to 6-year program of mass media, community organization, and direct education for risk reduction was begun in the education communities, whereas surveys continued in all sites. Many intervention components proved effective in targeted groups. However, against a background of strong secular trends of increasing health promotion and declining risk factors, the overall program effects were modest in size and duration and generally within chance levels. These findings suggest that even such an intense program may not be able to generate enough additional exposure to risk reduction messages and activities in a large enough fraction of the population to accelerate the remarkably favorable secular trends in health promotion activities and in most coronary heart disease risk factors present in the study communities.
    American Journal of Public Health 10/1994; 84(9):1383-93. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation estimated regression toward the mean in the evaluation of a blood cholesterol educational program in which the probability of return for a follow-up measure was positively related to the initial measure--a situation the authors term "stochastic censoring." The situation in which selection is by a fixed cutpoint is well known. The authors estimate the extent of regression toward the mean when selection is probabilistically related to an initially higher blood cholesterol level. A Monte Carlo method is proposed, conditional on the observed data, for estimating the regression toward the mean and its precision. In 106 simulations, regression toward the mean was estimated to be 0.012 mmol/liter (standard deviation (SD), 0.032 mmol/liter). Similar estimates were obtained using Empirical Bayes shrinkage estimates of baseline cholesterol (regression toward the mean = 0.0106 mmol/liter) and numeric integration (0.0109 mmol/liter). The observed reduction in blood cholesterol was 0.271 mmol/liter (SD, 0.061 mmol/liter); after correction for regression toward the mean, the estimate of the true educational effect was 0.259 mmol/liter (SD, 0.069 mmol/liter). Functions are presented that will enable investigators to predict regression toward the mean and its standard deviation under the conditions that errors are gaussian and stochastic censoring can be approximated by a logistic model.
    American Journal of Epidemiology 03/1994; 139(4):422-31. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare six antihypertensive interventions for the treatment of mild hypertension. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Four hypertension screening and treatment centers in the United States. Hypertensive men and women, aged 45 to 69 years, with diastolic blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg. Sustained nutritional-hygienic advice to all participants to reduce weight, dietary sodium intake, and alcohol intake, and increase physical activity. Participants were randomly allocated to take (1) placebo (n = 234); (2) chlorthalidone (n = 136); (3) acebutolol (n = 132); (4) doxazosin mesylate (n = 134); (5) amlodipine maleate (n = 131); or (6) enalapril maleate (n = 135). Blood pressure, quality of life, side effects, blood lipid levels and analysis of other serum components, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic changes, and incidence of cardiovascular events over an average of 4.4 years of follow-up. Blood pressure reductions were sizable in all six groups, and were significantly greater for participants assigned to drug treatment than placebo (-15.9 vs -9.1 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and -12.3 vs -8.6 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure; P < .0001). After 4 years, 59% of participants assigned to placebo and 72% of participants given drug treatment continued on their initial medication as monotherapy. A smaller percentage of participants assigned to the drug-treatment groups died or experienced a major nonfatal cardiovascular event than those assigned to the placebo group (5.1% vs 7.3%; P = .21). After including other clinical events, the percentage of participants affected was 11.1% for those in the drug-treatment groups and 16.2% for those in the placebo group (P = .03). Incidence rates of most resting electrocardiographic abnormalities were lower and quality of life was improved more for those assigned to drug-treatment groups rather than the placebo group. Differences among the five drug treatments did not consistently favor one group in terms of regression of left ventricular mass, blood lipid levels, and other outcome measures. As an initial regimen, drug treatment in combination with nutritional-hygienic intervention was more effective in preventing cardiovascular and other clinical events than was nutritional-hygienic treatment alone. Drug-treatment group differences were minimal. Pending results from large-scale clinical trials to evaluate drug treatments for their effect on cardiovascular clinical events, these findings support the recommendations of the new fifth Joint National Committee report regarding treatment choices for people with stage 1 ("mild") hypertension.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/1993; 270(6):713-24. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazide diuretics are known to raise total and LDL cholesterol. To assess whether chlorthalidone affected levels of putatively atherogenic small, dense LDL (LDL 3), we conducted a 12 week double blind randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial in 34 nonsmoking men aged 35 to 57 years with mild hypertension (DBP 90 to 104 mm Hg). Our a priori hypothesis that chlorthalidone raised LDL 3 levels was not confirmed. However, the fall in LDL 3 (P = .03) and total cholesterol (P = .08) associated with weight loss was attenuated by chlorthalidone. Since weight loss is commonly prescribed during the clinical management of hypertensives with concomitant hypercholesterolemia, consideration should be given to the attenuating effect of chlorthalidone on cholesterol reduction in the management of these patients.
    American Journal of Hypertension 08/1993; 6(7 Pt 1):636-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1993; 270(6):713-724. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between sodium and blood pressure is a centuries-old question. A substantial body of epidemiological and experimental data has accumulated that strongly implicates NaCl as having a causal role in the genesis of arterial hypertension. Prospective studies that have been performed in diverse populations that have manipulated NaCl exposure by diet or infusion have repeatedly documented an NaCl pressor effect. Further, similar studies in biracial populations have also demonstrated a greater prevalence of "salt sensitivity" in blacks compared with whites. The reasons for this observation are not entirely clear; however, intrinsic or hypertension-induced renal abnormalities that limit natriuretic capacity, reduced Na+,K(+)-ATPase pump activity, other membrane ion transport disturbances, differential exposure to psychological stressors, greater insulin resistance, and dietary factors (reduced Ca+ and K+ intake) have all been suggested as possibly playing a role. Salt sensitivity appears to be a widespread phenomenon. However, it is critically important to determine what factors account for racial differences in salt sensitivity. Moreover, the prevalence of salt sensitivity in the general population is unknown. Current definitions of salt sensitivity are varied and unidirectional. In comparison with bidirectional criteria (blood pressure increase with salt loading and blood pressure decrease with salt restriction), they are probably inadequate to identify salt-sensitive individuals who manifest less extreme blood pressure change after dietary sodium or plasma volume manipulations. More sensitive criteria for diagnosing salt sensitivity will facilitate a better understanding of racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of salt sensitivity.
    Hypertension 02/1991; 17(1 Suppl):I115-21. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of dietary sodium on blood pressure in normotensive adults is not well characterized. The Study of Sodium and Blood Pressure (SNaP) is a randomized, double-blind crossover trial using a placebo or 96 meq sodium in 4-week treatment periods separated by a 2-week washout period. Before capsule treatment periods, participants were instructed in a low sodium diet for 10 weeks to reduce urinary sodium excretion to less than 35 meq/8 hr. The low sodium diet was continued throughout the capsule treatment periods. Participants (n = 48; 47 white, 1 black) were 79% male and had an average age of 52 years, a body mass index of 27.6, and a baseline blood pressure of 131/84 mm Hg. Baseline overnight urinary sodium excretion was 51 meq/8 hr and 19 meq/8 hr after the low sodium diet run-in period, before the capsule treatment periods began. Resting, seated blood pressure was measured twice at each visit in a standard fashion. Differences between sodium and placebo treatment periods were as follows: systolic blood pressure, 123.9 versus 120.3 mm Hg, respectively (p less than 0.001); diastolic blood pressure, 78.7 versus 76.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.005); and sodium excretion, 51.3 versus 30.9 meq/8 hr, respectively (p less than 0.001). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased significant amounts in normotensive adults on a low sodium diet supplemented with 96 meq/day sodium. Long-term effects and dose-response relations need further study.
    Hypertension 02/1991; 17(1 Suppl):I21-6. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    P J Elmer, R H Grimm, J Flack, B Laing
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional-nonpharmacological approaches for the treatment and prevention of hypertension are of great interest. Sodium reduction is one of the primary methods recommended for these purposes. The general public is interested in the reduction of dietary sodium intake and has responded with a decrease in table salt use, the purchase of lowered sodium food products, and the use of food labels to help guide food purchases. Countervailing trends in the use of convenience foods and dining out increase the difficulty for individuals to lower sodium intake. Clinical trials that have used sodium reduction alone or in combination with other lifestyle therapies have demonstrated the feasibility of reducing dietary sodium intake from 30% to 50% for up to 4 years, in a variety of populations. Trials that used lifestyle and weight loss interventions have also achieved significant reductions in body weight and alcohol consumption and increases in physical activity. A variety of studies indicate that long-term sodium reduction is feasible and that it is acceptable to patients. No negative consequences of these interventions have been observed, and in some cases improvement in the intake of other nutrients has occurred. Nonpharmacological interventions have resulted in hypertension control in significant proportions of the trial populations. These studies demonstrate that the foregoing types of interventions can significantly contribute to hypertension treatment and prevention.
    Hypertension 02/1991; 17(1 Suppl):I182-9. · 6.87 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
337.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–1999
    • Hennepin County Medical Center
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
    • Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 1988–1995
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • School of Public Health
      Minneapolis, MN, United States