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Publications (14)61.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Family structure, lack of reliable information, cost, and delay are usual concerns when deciding to perform BRCA analyses. Testing breast cancer tissues with four antibodies (MS110, lys27H3, vimentin, and KI67) in addition to grade evaluation enabled us to rapidly select patients for genetic testing identification. We constituted an initial breast cancer tissue microarray, considered as a learning set, comprising 27 BRCA1 and 81 sporadic tumors. A second independent validation set of 28 BRCA1 tumors was matched to 28 sporadic tumors using the same original conditions. We investigated morphological parameters and 21 markers by immunohistochemistry. A logistic regression model was used to select the minimal number of markers providing the best model to predict BRCA1 status. The model was applied to the validation set to estimate specificity and sensibility. In the initial set, univariate analyses identified 11 markers significantly associated with BRCA1 status. Then, the best multivariate model comprised only grade 3, MS110, Lys27H3, vimentin, and KI67. When applied to the validation set, BRCA1 tumors were correctly classified with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 81%. The performance of this model was superior when compared to other profiles. This study offers a new rapid and cost-effective method for the prescreening of patients at high risk of being BRCA1 mutation carriers, to guide genetic testing, and finally to provide appropriate preventive measures, advice, and treatments including targeted therapy to patients and their families.
    Pathobiology 04/2013; 80(5):219-227. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer a high risk of breast cancer (BC), but the magnitude of this risk seems to vary according to the study and various factors. Although controversial, there are data to support the hypothesis of allelic risk heterogeneity. METHODS: We assessed variation in BC risk according to factors related to pregnancies by location of mutation in the homogeneous risk region of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 990 women in the French study GENEPSO by using a weighted Cox regression model. RESULTS: Our results confirm the existence of the protective effect of an increasing number of full-term pregnancies (FTPs) toward BC among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (≥3 versus 0 FTPs: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33 to 0.81). Additionally, the HR shows an association between incomplete pregnancies and a higher BC risk, which reached 2.39 (95% CI = 1.28 to 4.45) among women who had at least three incomplete pregnancies when compared with women with zero incomplete pregnancies. This increased risk appeared to be restricted to incomplete pregnancies occurring before the first FTP (HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.63). We defined the TMAP score (defined as the Time of Breast Mitotic Activity during Pregnancies) to take into account simultaneously the opposite effect of full-term and interrupted pregnancies. Compared with women with a TMAP score of less than 0.35, an increasing TMAP score was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of BC (P trend = 0.02) which reached 1.97 (95% CI = 1.19 to 3.29) for a TMAP score >0.5 (versus TMAP ≤0.35). All these results appeared to be similar in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nevertheless, our results suggest a variation in BC risk associated with parity according to the location of the mutation in BRCA1. Indeed, parity seems to be associated with a significantly decreased risk of BC only among women with a mutation in the central region of BRCA1 (low-risk region) (≥1 versus 0 FTP: HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.55) (Pinteraction <10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that, taking into account environmental and lifestyle modifiers, mutation position might be important for the clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and could also be helpful in understanding how BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are involved in BC.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 07/2012; 14(4):R99. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of BRCA1/2 test results on carriers' reproductive decision-making and the factors determining their theoretical intentions about preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and prenatal diagnosis (PND). Unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers of childbearing age (N = 605; 449 women; 151 men) were included at least 1 year after the disclosure of their test results in a cross-sectional survey nested in a national cohort. Multivariate adjustment was performed on the data obtained in self-administered questionnaires. Response rate was 81.0%. Overall, 32.5% and 50% said that they would undergo PGD/PND, respectively, at a theoretical next pregnancy, whereas only 12.1% found termination of pregnancy (TOP) acceptable. Theoretical intentions toward PGD did not depend on gender/age, but were higher among those with no future childbearing plans (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5 (1.9-6.4)) and those having fewer relatives with cancer (AOR 1.5 95% CI (1.0-2.3)). Greater TOP acceptability was observed among males and those with lower educational levels; 85.4% of respondents agreed that information about PGD/PND should be systematically delivered with the test results. The closer to reproductive decision-making BRCA1/2 carriers are, i.e., when they are more likely to be making future reproductive plans, the less frequently they intend to have PGD. Carriers' theoretical intentions toward PND are discussed further.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 01/2012; 14(5):527-34. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations are considered as an extreme risk population for developing breast cancer. Prophylactic mastectomy provides a valid option to reduce such risk, impacting however, the quality of life. Medical prevention by aromatase inhibitor that has also recently shown to have preventive effect may thus be considered as an alternative. LIBER is an ongoing double-blind, randomized phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy of 5-year letrozole versus placebo to decrease breast cancer incidence in post-menopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (NCT00673335). We present data on the uptake of this trial. We compared characteristics of women in the LIBER trial (n = 113) to those of women enrolled in the prospective ongoing national GENEPSO cohort (n = 1,505). Uptake was evaluated through a survey sent to all active centres, with responses obtained from 17 to the 20 (85%) centres. According to the characteristics of the women enrolled in the GENEPSO cohort and the survey, approximately one-third of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were eligible for the trial. Five hundred and thirty-four women eligible from chart review have been informed by mail about the prevention trial and were invited to an oral information by participating centres. Forty-four percentage of them came to the dedicated medical visit. Uptake of drug prevention trial was 32% among women informed orally and 15% of all the eligible women. The main reasons of refusal were: potential side effects, probability to receive the placebo and lack of support from their physicians. Additionally, we noticed that prior prophylactic oophorectomy and previous unilateral breast cancer were more frequent in women enrolled in the LIBER trial than in the French cohort (93% vs. 60% and 50% vs. 39%, respectively). Based on an overall 15% uptake among all eligible subjects, greater and wider information of the trial should be offered to women with BRCA1/2 mutation to improve recruitment. Women with previous unilateral breast cancer or prior prophylactic oophorectomy are more likely to enter a medical prevention trial.
    Familial Cancer 11/2011; 11(1):77-84. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Perforin gene (PRF1) mutations have been identified in some patients diagnosed with the familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in patients with lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether patients with a familial aggregation of hematological malignancies harbor germline perforin gene mutations. For this purpose, 81 unrelated families from Tunisia and France with aggregated hematological malignancies were investigated. The variants detected in the PRF1 coding region amounted to 3.7% (3/81). Two of the three variants identified were previously described: the p.Ala91Val pathogenic mutation and the p.Asn252Ser polymorphism. A new p.Ala 211Val missense substitution was identified in two related Tunisian patients. In order to assess the pathogenicity of this new variation, bioinformatic tools were used to predict its effects on the perforin protein structure and at the mRNA level. The segregation of the mutant allele was studied in the family of interest and a control population was screened. The fact that this variant was not found to occur in 200 control chromosomes suggests that it may be pathogenic. However, overexpression of mutated PRF1 in rat basophilic leukemia cells did not affect the lytic function of perforin differently from the wild type protein.
    Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 09/2011; 9(1):9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 confer a high risk of breast cancer (BC), but the magnitude of this risk varies according to various factors. Although controversial, there are data to support the hypothesis of allelic-risk heterogeneity. We assessed variation in BC risk according to the location of mutations recorded in the French study GENEPSO. Since the women in this study were selected from high-risk families, oversampling of affected women was eliminated by using a weighted Cox-regression model. Women were censored at the date of diagnosis when affected by any cancer, or the date of interview when unaffected. A total of 990 women were selected for the analysis: 379 were classified as affected, 611 as unaffected. For BRCA1, there was some evidence of a central region where the risk of BC is lower (codons 374-1161) (HR = 0.59, P = 0.04). For BRCA2, there was a strong evidence for a region at decreased risk (codons 957-1827) (HR = 0.35, P = 0.005) and for one at increased risk (codons 2546-2968) (HR = 3.56, P = 0.01). Moreover, we found an important association between radiation exposure from chest X-rays and BC risk (HR = 4.29, P < 10(-3)) and a positive association between smoking more than 21 pack-years and BC risk (HR = 2.09, P = 0.04). No significant variation in BC risk associated with chest X-ray exposure, smoking, and alcohol consumption was found according to the location of the mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Our findings are consistent with those suggesting that the risk of BC is lower in the central regions of BRCA1/2. A new high-risk region in BRCA2 is described. Taking into account environmental and lifestyle modifiers, the location of mutations might be important in the clinical management of BRCA mutation carriers.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2011; 130(3):927-38. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the medical and psychosocial factors determining the time to prophylactic surgery of unaffected women carriers of a deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation. Prospective study on a French national cohort of unaffected BRCA1/2 carriers (N = 244); multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling. Median follow-up time was 2.33 years (range, 0.04-6.84 years). Time to surgery was shorter when the psychological impact of BRCA1/2 result disclosure was stated to be higher (P ≤ 0.01). Those who intended to opt for prophylactic surgery before being tested did so faster and more frequently after test disclosure than those who were undecided/opposed. The older the women were, the faster their uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (adjusted hazard ratio >2.95; P < 0.001) was; the uptake of those with at least two children was also faster (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.51; [1.38-4.55]). Those who opted most quickly for risk-reducing mastectomy more frequently had a younger child at the time of testing (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63 [1.56-13.74]). Time to surgery was shorter when there was a first-degree relative with ovarian/breast cancer (P ≤ 0.01). Time to prophylactic surgery depends on the stated psychological impact of disclosure and on women's cognitive anticipation of surgery after adjusting on sociodemographic characteristics.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 10/2010; 12(12):801-7. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Familial aggregation in patients with several haematological malignancies has been described, but the genetic basis for this familial clustering is not known. Few genes predisposing to familial haematological malignancies have been identified, among which RUNX1 and CEBPA have been described as predisposing genes to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent studies on RUNX1 suggest that germline mutations in this gene predispose to a larger panel of familial haematological malignancies than AML. In order to strengthen this hypothesis, we have screened CEBPA for germline mutations in several families presenting aggregation of hematological malignancies (including chronic or acute, lymphoid or myeloid leukemias, Hodgkin's or non Hodgkin's lymphomas, and myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic syndromes) with or without solid tumours. Although no deleterious mutations were found, we report two novel and rare variants of uncertain significance. In addition, we confirm that the in frame insertion c.1175_1180dup (p.P194_H195dup) is a germline polymorphism.
    Familial Cancer 12/2009; 8(4):581-584. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several reproductive and hormonal factors are known to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population, including parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. However, their effect on ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has only been investigated in a small number of studies. We used data on 2,281 BRCA1 carriers and 1,038 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study to evaluate the effect of reproductive and hormonal factors on ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers. Data were analyzed within a weighted Cox proportional hazards framework. There were no significant differences in the risk of ovarian cancer between parous and nulliparous carriers. For parous BRCA1 mutation carriers, the risk of ovarian cancer was reduced with each additional full-term pregnancy (P trend = 0.002). BRCA1 carriers who had ever used OC were at a significantly reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence intervals, 0.37-0.73; P = 0.0002) and increasing duration of OC use was associated with a reduced ovarian cancer risk (P trend = 0.0004). The protective effect of OC use for BRCA1 mutation carriers seemed to be greater among more recent users. Tubal ligation was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence intervals, 0.22-0.80; P = 0.008). The number of ovarian cancer cases in BRCA2 mutation carriers was too small to draw definitive conclusions. The results provide further confirmation that OC use, number of full-term pregnancies, and tubal ligation are associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers to a similar relative extent as in the general population.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2009; 18(2):601-10. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in two genes encoding cell cycle regulatory proteins have been shown to cause familial cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). About 20% of melanoma-prone families bear a point mutation in the CDKN2A locus at 9p21, which encodes two unrelated proteins, p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF). Rare mutations in CDK4 have also been linked to the disease. Although the CDKN2A gene has been shown to be the major melanoma predisposing gene, there remains a significant proportion of melanoma kindreds linked to 9p21 in which germline mutations of CDKN2A have not been identified through direct exon sequencing. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of large rearrangements in CDKN2A to the disease in melanoma-prone families using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. We examined 214 patients from independent pedigrees with at least two CMM cases. All had been tested for CDKN2A and CDK4 point mutation, and 47 were found positive. Among the remaining 167 negative patients, one carried a novel genomic deletion of CDKN2A exon 2. Overall, genomic deletions represented 2.1% of total mutations in this series (1 of 48), confirming that they explain a very small proportion of CMM susceptibility. In addition, we excluded a new gene on 9p21, KLHL9, as being a major CMM gene.
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2008; 99(2):364-70. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few germline BRCA2 rearrangements have been described compared with the large number of germline rearrangements reported in the BRCA1 gene. However, some BRCA2 rearrangements have been reported in families that included at least one case of male breast cancer. To estimate the contribution of large genomic rearrangements to the spectrum of BRCA2 defects. Quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) was used to screen the BRCA2 gene for germline rearrangements in highly selected families. QMPSF was previously used to detect heterozygous deletions/duplications in many genes including BRCA1 and BRCA2. We selected a subgroup of 194 high risk families with four or more breast cancers with an average age at diagnosis of < or = 50 years, who were recruited through 14 genetic counselling centres in France and one centre in Switzerland. BRCA2 mutations were detected in 18.6% (36 index cases) and BRCA1 mutations in 12.4% (24 index cases) of these families. Of the 134 BRCA1/2 negative index cases in this subgroup, 120 were screened for large rearrangements of BRCA2 using QMPSF. Novel and distinct BRCA2 deletions were detected in three families and their boundaries were determined. We found that genomic rearrangements represent 7.7% (95% confidence interval 0% to 16%) of the BRCA2 mutation spectrum. The molecular diagnosis of breast cancer predisposition should include screening for BRCA2 rearrangements, at least in families with a high probability of BRCA2 defects.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 09/2006; 43(9):e49. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The absence of detectable germline TP53 mutations in a fraction of families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) has suggested the involvement of other genes, but this hypothesis remains controversial. The density of Alu repeats within the TP53 gene led us to search genomic rearrangements of TP53 in families without detectable TP53 mutation. To this aim, we adapted the quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) method to the analysis of the 11 exons of TP53. We analysed 98 families, either fulfilling (six families) or partially meeting (92 families) the criteria for LFS, and in which classical methods had failed to reveal TP53 alterations. We identified, in a large family fulfilling the criteria for LFS, a complete heterozygous deletion of TP53. Additional QMPSF analyses indicated that this deletion, which partially removed the centromeric FLJ10385 locus, covered approximately 45 kb. This deletion was shown to result from a complex rearrangement involving two distinct Alu-mediated recombinations. We conclude that TP53 germline rearrangements occur as rare events, but must be considered in LFS families without detectable point TP53 mutation.
    Oncogene 03/2003; 22(6):840-6. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an inherited form of cancer, affecting children and young adults, and characterized by a wide spectrum of tumors, including soft-tissue and bone sarcomas, brain tumours, adenocortical tumours and premenopausal breast cancers. In most of the families, LFS results from germline mutations of the tumor suppressor TP53 gene encoding a transcriptional factor able to regulate cell cycle and apoptosis when DNA damage occurs. Recently, germline mutations of hCHK2 encoding a kinase, regulating cell cycle via Cdc25C and TP53, were identified in affected families. The LFS working group recommendations are the following: (i) positive testing (screening for a germline TP53 mutation in a patient with a tumor) can be offered both to children and adults in the context of genetic counseling associated to psychological support, to confirm the diagnosis of LFS on a molecular basis. This will allow to offer to the patient a regular clinical review in order to avoid a delay to the diagnosis of another tumor; (ii) the 3 indications for positive testing are: a proband with a tumor belonging to the narrow LFS spectrum and developed before age 36 and, at least, first- or second-degree relative with a LFS spectrum tumor, before age 46, or a patient with multiple primary tumors, 2 of which belonging to the narrow LFS spectrum, the first being developed before 36 or a child with an adenocortical tumour; (iii) presymptomatic testing must be restricted to adults; (iv) the young age of onset of the LFS tumors the prognosis of some tumors, the impossibility to ensure an efficient early detection and the risk for mutation carriers to develop multiple primary tumors justify that prenatal diagnosis might be considered in affected families.
    Bulletin du cancer 07/2001; 88(6):581-7. · 0.61 Impact Factor