[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, several studies addresses the novel link between sleep and dopaminergic neurotransmission, focusing most closely on the mechanisms by which Parkinson's disease (PD) and sleep may be intertwined. Therefore, variations in the activity of afferents during the sleep cycles, either at the level of DA cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) or at the level of dopamine (DA) terminals in limbic areas may impact functions such as memory. Accordingly, we performed striatal and hippocampal neurochemical quantifications of DA, serotonin (5-HT) and metabolites of rats intraperitoneally treated with haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg) or piribedil (8 mg/kg) and submitted to REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) and sleep rebound (REB). Also, we evaluated the effects of REMSD on motor and cognitive parameters and SNpc c-Fos neuronal immunoreactivity. The results indicated that DA release was strongly enhanced by piribedil in the REMSD group. In opposite, haloperidol prevented that alteration. A c-Fos activation characteristic of REMSD was affected in a synergic manner by piribedil, indicating a strong positive correlation between striatal DA levels and nigral c-Fos activation. Hence, we suggest that memory process is severely impacted by both D2 blockade and REMSD and was even more by its combination. Conversely, the activation of D2 receptor counteracted such memory impairment. Therefore, the present evidence reinforce that the D2 receptor is a key player in the SNpc neuronal activation mediated by REMSD, as a consequence these changes may have direct impact for cognitive and sleep abnormalities found in patients with PD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to hyperalgesia and edema induced by TRPA1 activation. The injection of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 50, 100, or 300 µg/paw) into the rat's hind paw induced dose and time-dependent hyperalgesia and edema, which were blocked by the selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC 030031 (1,200 µg/paw), or by treatment with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (four daily intrathecal injections of 5 nmol). These results demonstrate that the hyperalgesia and edema induced by AITC depend on TRPA1 activation. AITC-induced hyperalgesia and edema were significantly reduced by treatment with neurokinin 1 (L-703,606, 38 µg/paw) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP8-37 , 5 µg/paw) receptor antagonists, with a mast cell degranulator (compound 48/80, four daily injections of 1, 3, 10, and 10 µg/paw) or with H1 (pyrilamine, 400 µg/paw), 5-HT1A (wAy-100,135, 450 µg/paw) or 5-HT3 (tropisetron, 450 µg/paw) receptor antagonists. Pre-treatment with a selectin inhibitor (fucoidan, 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced AITC-induced hyperalgesia, edema, and neutrophil migration. Finally, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin, 100 µg/paw), a β1 (atenolol, 6 µg/paw) or a β2 (ICI 118, 551, 1.5 µg/paw) adrenoceptor antagonist also significantly reduced AITC-induced hyperalgesia and edema. Together, these results demonstrate that TRPA1 mediates some of the key inflammatory mechanisms, suggesting a key role of this receptor in pain and inflammation.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 03/2013; 18(1):62-74. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel important in setting nociceptive threshold. It is expressed in nociceptive C-fibers and in non-neuronal cells involved in pro-inflammatory mediators' release. We asked whether TRPA1 contributes to carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in rats, and if so, whether this contribution is mediated by mechanisms involved in inflammation such as cytokine release and neutrophil migration and/or by a direct sensitization of the primary afferent nociceptors. Pharmacological blockade of local TRPA1 by its selective antagonist HC 030031 prevented and reversed carrageenan -induced hyperalgesia, which was detected either by a mechanical or chemical (low dose of capsaicin) stimulus. However, it did not affect either carrageenan-induced cytokines expression or neutrophil migration. The neuronal TRPA1 gene silencing induced by intrathecal pre-treatment with antisense oligodoexynucleotide completely prevented carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia over 24 hours and significantly reduced TRPA1 expression in the dorsal root ganglia cells (L5-6), which was not affected by carrageenan treatment. We conclude that TRPA1 plays an important role in the development and maintenance of carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia by directly contributing to nociceptor excitability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ascending nociceptive control is a novel spino-striato-rostral ventral medulla pain modulation pathway that mediates heterosegmental pain-induced analgesia, i.e., noxious stimulus-induced antinociception. In this study, we used the dorsal immobility response in rats as a model of the defensive responses. We demonstrated that the activation of ascending nociceptive control by peripheral noxious stimulation and spinal AMPA and mGluR1 receptor blockade significantly potentiated the duration of the dorsal immobility response in rats via an opioid-dependent mechanism in the nucleus accumbens. These results demonstrated the functional role of ascending nociceptive control in the modulation of defensive responses and spinal glutamatergic receptors in the dorsal immobility response. The immobility response is an antipredator behavior that reflects the underlying state of fear, and ascending nociceptive control may modulate fear.
Brain research 06/2012; 1464:24-9. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently demonstrated that gonadal steroid hormones decrease formalin-induced temporomandibular joint nociception in rats. Given that the attenuation of inflammation is a potential mechanism underlying this antinociceptive effect, we evaluated the effect of gonadal steroid hormones on formalin-induced temporomandibular joint inflammation. Plasma extravasation, a major sign of acute inflammation, and neutrophil migration, an important event related to tissue injury, were evaluated. Formalin induced significantly lower temporomandibular joint plasma extravasation and neutrophil migration in proestrus females than in males and in diestrus females. Since estradiol serum level is high in proestrus females and low in diestrus females and in males, these findings suggest that the high physiological level of estradiol decreases temporomandibular joint inflammation. Estradiol but not progesterone administration in ovariectomized females significantly decreased formalin-induced plasma extravasation and neutrophil migration, an effect that was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780. Plasma extravasation and neutrophil migration were not affected by orchiectomy, but testosterone or estradiol administration in orchidectomized males significantly decreased them. The androgen receptor antagonist flutamide blocked the anti-inflammatory effect of testosterone while ICI 182780 blocked that of estradiol in males. Previous intravenous administration of a nonspecific selectin inhibitor significantly decreased formalin-induced temporomandibular joint nociception and neutrophil migration in males, revealing a potent and positive correlation between temporomandibular joint nociception and inflammation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of estradiol and testosterone in the temporomandibular joint region and suggest that this effect may mediate, at least in part, the antinociceptive effect of these hormones.
European journal of pain (London, England) 02/2012; 16(2):204-16. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular joint pain-related conditions are generally characterized by local inflammation; however, little studies have focused on the role of gonadal hormones in the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. Therefore, we asked whether gonadal steroid hormones affect formalin-induced cytokines expression in the rat temporomcandibular joint. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 was significantly higher in males than in diestrus and proestrus females and was decreased by orchiectomy and restored by testosterone replacement. The expression of IL-6 was significantly higher in diestrus and proestrus females than in males, and was decreased by ovariectomy and restored by estradiol or progesterone administration. We conclude that testosterone increases the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and CINC-1, and estradiol and progesterone increase the expression of IL-6. New clinical approaches based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators are starting to supplant traditional immunosuppressive therapies and gonadal hormones may influence their effectiveness or clinical dosage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to decrease central side effects associated with the use of opioids, some strategies have been developed by targeting peripheral opioid receptors. In this context, kappa receptors are of major interest, since, in contrast to other opioid receptors, their activation is not associated with potent peripheral side effects. We have recently demonstrated that local activation of kappa opioid receptors significantly decreases formalin-induced temporomandibular joint nociception; however, whether it also decreases temporomandibular joint inflammation is not known. To address this issue, we evaluated if a specific kappa opioid receptor agonist, U50,488 (trans-(1S,2S)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide hydrochloride hydrate), administered into the temporomandibular joint decreases formalin-induced plasma extravasation and neutrophil migration. Ipsilateral, but not contralateral, administration of U50,488 into the temporomandibular joint blocked formalin-induced plasma extravasation and neutrophil migration in a dose-dependent manner. This anti-inflammatory effect was reversed by the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, administration of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-BNI (nor-binaltorphimine dihydrochloride). This study demonstrates that local activation of kappa opioid receptors decreases two important parameters of temporomandibular joint inflammation, that is, plasma extravasation and neutrophil migration, in a dose-dependent and antagonist-reversible manner. This anti-inflammatory effect taken together with the potent antinociceptive effect, suggests that drugs targeting peripheral kappa opioid receptors are promising for the treatment of inflammatory temporomandibular joint pain and probably, other articular pain conditions with an inflammatory basis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors have recently demonstrated that the high serum estradiol level during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle and that the administration of estradiol or progesterone in ovariectomized female and of testosterone in orchiectomized male rats significantly decrease formalin-induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) nociception. In this study, the authors investigate the contribution of endogenous opioids to this antinociceptive effect of gonadal hormones in the TMJ formalin test. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was administrated either in the surrounding of the trigeminal sensory complex or in the TMJ region. The antinociceptive effect induced by endogenous estradiol in proestrus females and by exogenous estradiol in ovariectomized females was blocked by the administration of naloxone in the surrounding of the trigeminal sensory complex, but not in the TMJ region. The antinociceptive effect induced by the administration of progesterone in ovariectomized females and of testosterone in orchiectomized males was blocked by the administration of naloxone either in the surrounding of the trigeminal sensory complex or in the TMJ region. The authors conclude that central and peripheral opioid mechanisms mediate the antinociceptive effect of progesterone and testosterone, and central opioid mechanisms mediate the antinociceptive effect of estradiol. These findings suggest that the enhanced pain perception during low gonadal hormone periods in women and animals may be mediated by a decrease in endogenous opioid activity. This suggestion helps explain the higher severity of some pain conditions, such as temporomandibular dysfunctions in women than in men, that have no hormonal fluctuations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we have reported that high physiological estradiol level during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle or systemic estradiol administration in ovariectomized rats decreases formalin-induced temporomandibular joint nociception. However, the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of estradiol are presently unknown. In this study, we used the temporomandibular joint formalin model in rats to investigate whether estradiol decreases nociception by a peripheral non-genomic mechanism, and if so, whether this mechanism is mediated by the activation of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway and of opioid receptors. The administration of estradiol into the ipsilateral, but not into the contralateral temporomandibular joint significantly reduced formalin-induced temporomandibular joint nociception in ovariectomized and diestrus but not in proestrus females. However, the administration of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 into the ipsilateral, but not into the contralateral temporomandibular joint blocked the antinociceptive effect of serum estradiol in proestrus females, suggesting that the physiological effect of estradiol in nociception is mediated, at least in part, by a peripheral mechanism. The administration of estradiol into the ipisilateral temporomandibular joint did not affect formalin-induced nociception in male rats. The antinociceptive effect of temporomandibular joint estradiol administration in ovariectomized and diestrus females was mimicked by estradiol conjugated with bovine serum albumin, which does not diffuse through the plasma membrane, and was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780. The administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (nitro-l-arginine) or of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor (1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiasolo (4,2-a) quinoxalin-1-one) into the ipsilateral, but not into the contralateral temporomandibular joint blocked the antinociceptive effect of estradiol and of estradiol conjugated with bovine serum albumin, while the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone had no effect. These findings suggest that estradiol decreases temporomandibular joint nociception in female rats through a peripheral non-genomic activation of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sex and ovarian hormones on formalin- and glutamate-induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) nociception in rats. The influence of sex and ovarian hormones on the nociceptive behavior induced by formalin or glutamate was virtually the same. The nociceptive behavior of males was similar to that of females in the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle but was significantly lower than that in the diestrus phase. Since the serum level of estradiol but not of progesterone was significantly higher in the proestrus than in the diestrus phase, these data suggest that females with lower endogenous serum level of estradiol have an exacerbation of TMJ nociception. The nociceptive behavior of ovariectomized rats was similar to that of diestrus females and significantly greater than that of proestrus females. Although the administration of estradiol or progesterone in ovariectomized females significantly reduced TMJ nociception, the combination of both hormones did not increase the antinociceptive effect induced by each of them. These findings suggest that estradiol and progesterone decrease TMJ nociception in an independent way. PERSPECTIVE: We report that ovarian hormones have an antinociceptive effect on the TMJ formalin and glutamate nociceptive behavior models. Therefore, the greater prevalence and severity of TMJ pain in women of reproductive age may be a consequence of hormonal fluctuation during the reproductive cycle, in that during low endogenous estradiol serum level TMJ pain sensitivity is increased, enhancing the risk of females experiencing TMJ pain.
The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 08/2008; 9(7):630-8. · 3.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethanol withdrawal increases nociception after the injection of formalin into the rat's temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Little is known about the neurological basis for hyperalgesia induced by ethanol withdrawal, but it has been reported that ethanol can potentiate the response of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) in superficial tissues. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that peripheral TRPV1 could be involved on nociceptive behavioral responses induced by the injection of formalin into the TMJ region of rats exposed to chronic ethanol administration and ethanol withdrawal. Behavioral hyperalgesia was verified 12 h after ethanol withdrawal in rats that drank an ethanol solution (6.5%) for 10 days. In another group submitted to the same ethanol regimen, the selective vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (300, 600 or 1200 microg/25 microl) or an equal volume of vehicle were injected into the TMJ regions 30 min before the TMJ formalin test. The local injections of capsazepine reduced the increased nociceptive responses induced by ethanol withdrawal. The effect of capsazepine on rats that did not drink ethanol was not significant. These results indicate that the peripheral TRPV1 can contribute to the hyperalgesia induced by ethanol withdrawal on deep pain conditions.
Life Sciences 12/2007; 81(23-24):1622-6. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lower prevalence of many pain conditions, including temporomandibular dysfunctions, in men than in women has not as yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone on the risk of development of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and on acute persistent TMJ pain. The TMJ formalin test was used as an experimental assay in the rat. Intra-TMJ 0.5% formalin induced a significant nociceptive behavior in naive female rats and gonadectomized male rats but not in naive male rats, suggesting that naive male rats have a lower risk for development of TMJ pain. The finding that the serum level of testosterone but not of estrogen and progesterone significantly decreased in gonadectomized male rats suggests that testosterone is the hormone underlying the decreased naive male rat's risk for development of TMJ pain. The magnitude of the nociceptive behaviors induced by intra-TMJ 1.5% formalin was similar in gonadectomized and naive male rats. Therefore, in contrast to the protective role of testosterone in TMJ pain development, testosterone, at physiological serum levels, does not appear to modulate acute persistent TMJ pain induced by the TMJ injection of 1.5% formalin. At a supraphysiological serum level, however, testosterone significantly attenuated 1.5% formalin-induced nociception in male rats but not in female rats. This antinociceptive effect was not mediated by estrogen derived from testosterone aromatization, because estrogen administration did not affect 1.5% formalin-induced TMJ nociception in gonadectomized male rats. PERSPECTIVE: The present findings not only help to explain the lower prevalence of TMJ pain in males versus females but also show that testosterone reduces TMJ pain at supraphysiological serum levels.
Journal of Pain 06/2007; 8(5):437-42. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes a novel method for direct subarachnoid drug delivery to the medullary dorsal horn region of rats, without introducing a catheter. The reliability of the method was demonstrated by a pharmacological validation; that is, morphine administration to the medullary region blocked the nociceptive response to formalin injected in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region, an effect that was prevented by co-administration of naloxone. The method proposed offers many advantages over the existing methods for medullary drug delivery with catheter implantation. It is easy to be employed, it does not induce any sign of motor impairment, and it does not require the neck surgery performed to implant a catheter in the medullary dorsal horn region. Therefore, it is a useful method for subarachnoid drug delivery in behavioral trigeminal pain studies, particularly when nociceptive behavioral measures that require normal neck muscle activity to occur, such as head withdraw or head flinch, are evaluated.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 11/2005; 148(2):108-12. · 2.11 Impact Factor