Morten L Kringelbach

Aarhus University, Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark

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Publications (117)603.98 Total impact

  • Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Peter C. Whybrow, Morten L. Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement traditional self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are most affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 03/2015; DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00049 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The Sniffin’ Sticks 12-Identification test (SIT-12) is the most commonly applied Danish olfaction screening tool, however, it has never been validated in a Danish population. The screening score depends on familiarity with descriptors, which is strongly influenced by linguistic and cultural factors, why validation is mandatory. This study aims to validate the SIT-12 in a Danish population. Design: Prospective controlled study. Setting: Otorhinolaryngology department. Participants: The SIT-12 was applied to 100 normosmic, healthy adult Danish participants. Main outcome measures: Choice of descriptors was registered, along with nasal endoscopic examination, screening for cognitive impairment, depression, and sinonasal symptoms. Descriptors of the original version of SIT-12 were evaluated in 50 participants and misleading descriptors were identified. Modifications to these descriptors were subsequently validated in a comparable group of 50 participants. Results: Mean odorant identification score in the evaluation group was 11.0 of a possible 12, and 11.6 in the validation group (p<0.001). Among all odorant identification errors in the evaluation group, 60% were due to two incorrect descriptors having close resemblance to the correct descriptors, lemon and cinnamon. Two additional descriptors were unfamiliar to more than half the participants. There was a significant difference in the distribution of wrong identification answers between odorants in the evaluation group (p<0.001), but not in the validation group. Conclusions: The identified systematically wrong descriptors have been modified and validated in the Danish SIT-12.
    Clinical otolaryngology: official journal of ENT-UK; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/coa.12405 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronized, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance) but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behavior in both an experimental and observational setting. In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviors of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND). We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1). Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries). Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2). Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 02/2015; 9:26. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00026 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a remarkably effective clinical tool, used primarily for movement disorders. DBS relies on precise targeting of specific brain regions to rebalance the oscillatory behaviour of whole-brain neural networks. Traditionally, DBS targeting has been based upon animal models (such as MPTP for Parkinson’s disease) but has also been the result of serendipity during human lesional neurosurgery. There are, however, no good animal models of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, and progress in this area has been slow. In this paper, we use advanced tractography combined with whole-brain anatomical parcellation to provide a rational foundation for identifying the connectivity ‘fingerprint’ of existing, successful DBS targets. This knowledge can then be used pre-surgically and even potentially for the discovery of novel targets. First, using data from our recent case series of cingulate DBS for patients with treatment-resistant chronic pain, we demonstrate how to identify the structural ‘fingerprints’ of existing successful and unsuccessful DBS targets in terms of their connectivity to other brain regions, as defined by the whole-brain anatomical parcellation. Second, we use a number of different strategies to identify the successful fingerprints of structural connectivity across four patients with successful outcomes compared with two patients with unsuccessful outcomes. This fingerprinting method can potentially be used pre-surgically to account for a patient’s individual connectivity and identify the best DBS target. Ultimately, our novel fingerprinting method could be combined with advanced whole-brain computational modelling of the spontaneous dynamics arising from the structural changes in disease, to provide new insights and potentially new targets for hitherto impenetrable neuropsychiatric disorders.
    New Journal of Physics 01/2015; 17(1-1):015001. DOI:10.1088/1367-2630/17/1/015001 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crying is the most powerful auditory signal of infant need. Adults' ability to perceive and respond to crying is important for infant survival and in the provision of care. This study investigated a number of listener variables that might impact on adults' perception of infant cry distress, namely parental status, musical training, and empathy. Sensitivity to infant distress was tested using a previously validated task, which experimentally manipulated distress by varying the pitch of infant cries. This task required that participants discriminate between pitch differences and interpret these as differences in infant distress. Parents with musical training showed a significant advantage on this task when compared with parents without. The extent of the advantage was correlated with the amount of self-reported musical training. For non-parents, individual differences in empathy were associated with task performance, with higher empathy scores corresponding to greater sensitivity to infant distress. We suggest that sensitivity to infant distress can be impacted by a number of listener variables, and may be amenable to training.
    Frontiers in Psychology 12/2014; 5:1440. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01440 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: The study of human brain networks with in vivo neuroimaging has given rise to the field of connectomics, furthered by advances in network science and graph theory informing our understanding of the topology and function of the healthy brain. Here our focus is on the disruption in neuropsychiatric disorders (pathoconnectomics) and how whole-brain computational models can help generate and predict the dynamical interactions and consequences of brain networks over many timescales. We review methods and emerging results that exhibit remarkable accuracy in mapping and predicting both spontaneous and task-based healthy network dynamics. This raises great expectations that whole-brain modeling and computational connectomics may provide an entry point for understanding brain disorders at a causal mechanistic level, and that computational neuropsychiatry can ultimately be leveraged to provide novel, more effective therapeutic interventions, e.g., through drug discovery and new targets for deep brain stimulation. VIDEO ABSTRACT: Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 12/2014; 84(5):892-905. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.034 · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    Society for Neuroscience, Washington; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: In the absence of cognitive tasks and external stimuli, strong rhythmic fluctuations with a frequency ≈10Hz emerge from posterior regions of human neocortex. These posterior α-oscillations can be recorded throughout the visual cortex and are particularly strong in the calcarine sulcus, where the primary visual cortex is located. The mechanisms and anatomical pathways through which local alpha oscillations are coordinated however, are not fully understood. In this study, we used a combination of magnetoencephalography (MEG), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and biophysical modeling to assess the role of white-matter pathways in coordinating cortical α-oscillations. Our findings suggest that primary visual cortex plays a special role in coordinating α-oscillations in higher-order visual regions. Specifically, the amplitudes of α-sources throughout visual cortex could be explained by propagation of α-oscillations from primary visual cortex through white-matter pathways. In particular, α-amplitudes within visual cortex correlated with both the anatomical and functional connection strengths to primary visual cortex. These findings reinforce the notion of posterior α-oscillations as intrinsic oscillations of the visual system. We speculate that they might reflect a default-mode of the visual system during which higher-order visual regions are rhythmically primed for expected visual stimuli by α-oscillations in primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 10/2014; 106. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.10.057 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    Morten L. Kringelbach, Lauren DiPerna
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences 09/2014; 18(9). DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.009 · 21.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxytocin has been implicated in parent-infant attachment and social recognition. With respect to emotion recognition memory, both memory-enhancing and impairing effects have been observed, suggesting an influence of individual factors. We assessed the effects of oxytocin on memory for infant cues, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported childhood emotional maltreatment. Nulliparous females (N = 102) participated in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects study with intranasal oxytocin or placebo administration. Participants' memory was tested using the Baby Social Reward Task, where participants were asked to select the happier infant from a pair of two infants based on the information that they received about the infants' mood in the previous phase. Participants reporting more childhood emotional maltreatment were less accurate in this task after inhaling oxytocin. Our findings add to a growing body of literature showing that the effects of intranasal oxytocin on memory and social behavior are moderated by adverse early life experiences.
    Social Neuroscience 06/2014; DOI:10.1080/17470919.2014.932307 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sound moves us. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our responses to genuine emotional vocalizations, be they heartfelt distress cries or raucous laughter. Here, we present perceptual ratings and a description of a freely available, large database of natural affective vocal sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals, the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc) Sounds database. This database consists of 173 non-verbal sounds expressing a range of happy, sad, and neutral emotional states. Ratings are presented for the sounds on a range of dimensions from a number of independent participant samples. Perceptions related to valence, including distress, vocalizer mood, and listener mood are presented in Study 1. Perceptions of the arousal of the sound, listener motivation to respond and valence (positive, negative) are presented in Study 2. Perceptions of the emotional content of the stimuli in both Study 1 and 2 were consistent with the predefined categories (e.g., laugh stimuli perceived as positive). While the adult vocalizations received more extreme valence ratings, rated motivation to respond to the sounds was highest for the infant sounds. The major advantages of this database are the inclusion of vocalizations from naturalistic situations, which represent genuine expressions of emotion, and the inclusion of vocalizations from animals and infants, providing comparison stimuli for use in cross-species and developmental studies. The associated website provides a detailed description of the physical properties of each sound stimulus along with cross-category descriptions.
    Frontiers in Psychology 06/2014; 5:562. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00562 · 2.80 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood emotional maltreatment has been associated with a higher risk for maltreating one’s own offspring. In the current study, we explored a possible role of oxytocin in mediating the association between childhood emotional maltreatment and participants’ interpretation of infant facial expressions. Oxytocin levels were measured in 102 female participants using saliva samples. They rated the mood of thirteen infants with happy, sad and neutral facial expressions. Emotional maltreatment indirectly influenced responses to happy infant faces by modulating oxytocin levels: Higher self-reported emotional maltreatment was related to higher levels of salivary oxytocin which were in turn related to a more positive evaluation of happy infant expressions, but not to the evaluation of sad infant expressions. Oxytocin receptor polymorphism rs53576 did not moderate the relation between maltreatment experiences and salivary oxytocin levels. Early emotional maltreatment might indirectly affect emotional information processing by altering the oxytonergic system.
    Physiology & Behavior 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.04.028 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94446. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094446 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown promise for relieving nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms of refractory chronic pain. We assessed the efficacy of a new target for the affective component of pain, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A 49-year-old man with neuropathic pain underwent bilateral ACC DBS. Patient-reported outcome measures were collected before and 2 years after surgery using a Visual Analogue Scale, Short-Form 36 quality of life survey, McGill pain questionnaire, EuroQol-5D questionnaires (EQ-5D; Health State) and neuropsychological assessments. The patient improved with DBS. Two years after surgery, the Visual Analogue Scale decreased from 6.7 to 3.0, McGill pain questionnaire improved by 42% and EQ-5D Health State increased by 150%. Stimulating the ACC at 130 Hz, 330 µs and 3 V facilitated neuropathic pain relief. The DBS remained efficacious during the 2-year follow-up period. Affective ACC DBS can relieve chronic neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacotherapy and restore quality of life.
    Neuroreport 01/2014; 25(2):83-88. DOI:10.1097/WNR.0000000000000039 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Positive clinical outcomes are now well established for deep brain stimulation, but little is known about the effects of long-term deep brain stimulation on brain structural and functional connectivity. Here, we used the rare opportunity to acquire pre- and postoperative diffusion tensor imaging in a patient undergoing deep brain stimulation in bilateral subthalamic nuclei for Parkinson's Disease. This allowed us to analyse the differences in structural connectivity before and after deep brain stimulation. Further, a computational model of spontaneous brain activity was used to estimate the changes in functional connectivity arising from the specific changes in structural connectivity. We found significant localised structural changes as a result of long-term deep brain stimulation. These changes were found in sensory-motor, prefrontal/limbic, and olfactory brain regions which are known to be affected in Parkinson's Disease. The nature of these changes was an increase of nodal efficiency in most areas and a decrease of nodal efficiency in the precentral sensory-motor area. Importantly, the computational model clearly shows the impact of deep brain stimulation-induced structural alterations on functional brain changes, which is to shift the neural dynamics back towards a healthy regime. The results demonstrate that deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's Disease leads to a topological reorganisation towards healthy bifurcation of the functional networks measured in controls, which suggests a potential neural mechanism for the alleviation of symptoms. The findings suggest that long-term deep brain stimulation has not only restorative effects on the structural connectivity, but also affects the functional connectivity at a global level. Overall, our results support causal changes in human neural plasticity after long-term deep brain stimulation and may help to identify the underlying mechanisms of deep brain stimulation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86496. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086496 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown considerable promise for relieving nociceptive and neuropathic symptoms of refractory chronic pain. Nevertheless, for some patients, standard DBS for pain remains poorly efficacious. Pain is a multidimensional experience with an affective component: the unpleasantness. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a structure involved in this affective component, and targeting it may relieve patients’ pain. OBJECTIVE: To describe the first case series of ACC DBS to relieve the affective component of chronic neuropathic pain. METHODS: Sixteen patients (13 male and 3 female patients) with neuropathic pain underwent bilateral ACC DBS. The mean age at surgery was 48.7 years (range, 33-63 years). Patient-reported outcome measures were collected before and after surgery using a Visual Analog Scale, SF-36 quality of life survey, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and EQ-5D (EQ-5D and EQ-5D Health State) questionnaires. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (93.3%) transitioned from externalized to fully internalized systems. Eleven patients had data to be analyzed with a mean follow-up of 13.2 months. Post-surgery, the Visual Analog Scale score dropped below 4 for 5 of the patients, with 1 patient free of pain. Highly significant improvement on the EQ-5D was observed (mean, +20.3%; range, +0%-+83%; P = .008). Moreover, statistically significant improvements were observed for the physical functioning and bodily pain domains of the SF-36 quality-of-life survey: mean, +64.7% (range, −8.9%-+276%; P = .015) and mean +39.0% (range, −33.8%-+159%; P = .050), respectively. CONCLUSION: Affective ACC DBS can relieve chronic neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacotherapy and restore quality of life. ABBREVIATIONS: ACC, anterior cingulate cortex DBS, deep brain stimulation PAG, periventricular/periaqueductal gray area VP, ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei of the sensory thalamus
    Neurosurgery 01/2014; 74(6):628-637. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000321 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attractive individuals are perceived as having various positive personality qualities. Positive personality qualities can in turn increase perceived attractiveness. However, the developmental origins of the link between attractiveness and personality are not understood. This is important because infant attractiveness ('cuteness') elicits caregiving from adults, and infant personality ('temperament') shapes caregiving behaviour. While research suggests that adults have more positive attitudes towards cuter infants, it is not known whether positive infant temperament can increase the perception of infant cuteness. We investigated the impact of experimentally established infant temperament on adults' perception of cuteness and desire to view individual faces. Ataseline, adults rated the cuteness of, and keypressed to view, images of unfamiliar infants with neutral facial expressions. Training required adults to learn about an infant's 'temperament', through repeated pairing of the neutral infant face with positive or negative facial expressions and vocalizations. Adults then re-rated the original neutral infant faces. Post-training, there were significant changes from baseline: infants who were mostly happy were perceived as cuter and adults expended greater effort to view them. Infants who were mostly sad were not perceived as cuter and adults expended less effort to view them. Our results suggest that temperament has clear consequences for how adults perceive 'bonnie' babies. Perception of infant cuteness is not based on physical facial features alone, and is modifiable through experience.
    Developmental Science 12/2013; DOI:10.1111/desc.12112 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous (or resting-state) brain activity has attracted a growing body of neuroimaging research over the last decades. Whole-brain network models have proved helpful to investigate the source of slow (<0.1Hz) correlated hemodynamic fluctuations revealed in fMRI during rest. However, the mechanisms mediating resting-state long-distance correlations and the relationship with the faster neural activity remain unclear. Novel insights coming from MEG studies have shown that the amplitude envelopes of alpha- and beta-frequency oscillations (~8-30Hz) display similar correlation patterns as the fMRI signals. In this work, we combine experimental and theoretical work to investigate the mechanisms of spontaneous MEG functional connectivity. Using a simple model of coupled oscillators adapted to incorporate realistic whole-brain connectivity and conduction delays, we explore how slow and structured amplitude envelopes of band-pass filtered signals - fairly reproducing MEG data collected from 10 healthy subjects at rest - are generated spontaneously in the space-time structure of the brain network. Our simulation results show that the large-scale neuroanatomical connectivity provides an optimal network structure to support a regime with metastable synchronization. In this regime, different subsystems may temporarily synchronize at reduced collective frequencies (falling in the 8-30Hz range due to the delays) while the global system never fully synchronizes. This mechanism modulates the frequency of the oscillators on a slow time-scale (<0.1Hz) leading to structured amplitude fluctuations of band-pass filtered signals. Taken overall, our results reveal that the structured amplitude envelope fluctuations observed in resting-state MEG data may originate from spontaneous synchronization mechanisms naturally occurring in the space-time structure of the brain.
    NeuroImage 12/2013; 90. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.11.047 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neuropathology of schizophrenia remains unclear. Some insight has come from modern neuroimaging techniques, which offer an unparalleled opportunity to explore in vivo the structure and function of the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, it has been found that the large-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in schizophrenia - measured as the temporal correlations of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal - exhibit altered network topology, with lower small-world index. The origin of these rsFC alterations and link with the underlying structural connectivity remain unclear. In this work, we used a computational model of spontaneous large-scale brain activity to explore the role of the structural connectivity in the large-scale dynamics of the brain in health and schizophrenia. The structural connectomes from 15 adolescent patients with early-onset schizophrenia and 15 age- and gender-matched controls were built from diffusion tensor imaging data to detect the white matter tracts between 90 brain areas. Brain areas, simulated using a reduced dynamic mean-field model, receive excitatory input from other areas in proportion to the number of fibre tracts between them. The simulated mean field activity was transformed into BOLD signal, and the properties of the simulated functional networks were analyzed. Our results suggest that the functional alterations observed in schizophrenia are not directly linked to alterations in the structural topology. Instead, subtly randomized and less small-world functional networks appear when the brain operates with lower global coupling, which shifts the dynamics from the optimal healthy regime.
    Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.) 12/2013; 23(4):046111. DOI:10.1063/1.4851117 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years the study of the intrinsic brain dynamics in a relaxed awake state in the absence of any specific task has gained increasing attention, as spontaneous neural activity has been found to be highly structured at a large scale. This so called resting-state activity has been found to be comprised by nonrandom spatiotemporal patterns and fluctuations, and several Resting-State Networks (RSN) have been found in BOLD-fMRI as well as in MEG signal power envelope correlations. The underlying anatomical connectivity structure between areas of the brain has been identified as being a key to the observed functional network connectivity, but the mechanisms behind this are still underdetermined. Theoretical large-scale brain models for fMRI data have corroborated the importance of the connectome in shaping network dynamics, while the importance of delays and noise differ between studies and depend on the models' specific dynamics. In the current study, we present a spiking neuron network model that is able to produce noisy, distributed alpha-oscillations, matching the power peak in the spectrum of group resting-state MEG recordings. We studied how well the model captured the inter-node correlation structure of the alpha-band power envelopes for different delays between brain areas, and found that the model performs best for propagation delays inside the physiological range (5-10m/s). Delays also shift the transition from noisy to bursting oscillations to higher global coupling values in the model. Thus, in contrast to the asynchroneous fMRI state, delays are important to consider in the presence of oscillation.
    NeuroImage 11/2013; 87. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.11.009 · 6.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
603.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • Aarhus University
      • • Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience CFIN
      • • Department of Clinical Medicine
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2000–2015
    • University of Oxford
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
      • • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2014
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      • Nuffield Department of Surgery
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012–2013
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      • Center of Brain and Cognition (CBC)
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of Groningen
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Psychology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States