[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Installation of impervious surface in urban area prevents the exchange of material and energy between soil and other environmental counterparts, thereby resulting in negative effects on soil function and urban environment. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 cm depth in Nanjing City, China, in which seven sites were selected for urban open soils, and fourteen sites with similar parent material were selected for the impervious-covered soils, to examine the effect of impervious surface on soil properties and microbial activities, and to determine the most important soil properties associated with soil organic carbon (SOC) transformation in the urban soils covered by impervious surfaces. Soil organic carbon and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations, potential carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization rates, basal respiration, and physicochemical properties with respect to C transformation were measured. Installation of impervious surface severely affected soil physicochemical properties and microbial activities, e.g., it significantly decreased total N contents, potential C mineralization and basal respiration rate (P < 0.01), while increased pH, clay and Olsen-P concentrations. Soil organic carbon in the sealed soils at 0-20 cm was 2.35 kg m−2, which was significantly lower than the value of 4.52 kg m−2 in the open soils (P < 0.05). Canonical correlation analysis showed WSOC played a major role in determining SOC transformation in the impervious-covered soil, and it was highly correlated with total N content and potential C mineralization rate. These findings demonstrate that installation of impervious surface in urban area, which will result in decreases of SOC and total N concentrations and soil microbial activities, has certain negative consequences for soil fertility and long-term storage of SOC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mobility and bioavailability of soil heavy metals strongly depend on their fractions. Secondary-phase fraction (SPF) of heavy metal, including acid-soluble, reducible and oxidizable fractions, is considered as direct and potential hazardous fraction to organisms. The ratio of SPF to the total concentration of heavy metal represents its bioavailability. In this study, 126 topsoil samples were collected in Kunshan, Jiangsu, China. Fraction concentrations of heavy metals, and their bioavailability and spatial distributions were determined, and relationships between their fractions and types of industry zones were analyzed. Results showed that Cd and Pb had the greatest SPFs among all metals (78.61% and 62.60%, respectively). Great SPFs of Cd and Pb were observed in the dyeing and paper-making industry zone, while great SPFs of Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni were in the smelting and plating industry zone. For most metals, fraction distributions were controlled by soil organic matter and clay contents. Spatial principal component analysis showed SPFs of heavy metals can be explained by two principle components (PCs). PC1 represented SPFs of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, while PC2 represented SPFs of Ni and Co. The spatial distributions of SPFs were influenced by geochemical character, industrial sewage irrigation and soil physico-chemical properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to continuous decreases in arable land area and continuous population increases, Chinese soil scientists face great challenges in meeting food demands, mitigating adverse environmental impacts, and sustaining or enhancing soil productivity under intensive agriculture. With the aim of promoting the application of soil science knowledge, this paper reviews the achievements of Chinese scientists in soil resource use and management, soil fertility, global change mitigation and soil biology over the last 30 years. During this period, soil resource science has provided essential support for the use and exploitation of Chinese soil resources, and has itself developed through introduction of new theories such as Soil Taxonomy and new technologies such as remote sensing. Soil fertility science has contributed to the alleviation and elimination of impeding physical and chemical factors that constrain availability of essential nutrients and water in soils, the understanding of nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and the increase in nutrient use efficiency for sustainable crop production. Chinese soil scientists have contributed to the understanding of the cropland's role in global change, particularly to the understanding of methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice fields and the effect of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on rice-wheat system. Soil biology research has progressed in biological N fixation, distribution of fauna in Chinese soils, and bioremediation of polluted soils. A new generation of soil scientists has arisen in the last three decades. The gaps between research and application in these soil science fields are also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of soil heavy metals accumulation was studied in Kunshan City, a typical region of the fast economy development region in China. 126 soil samples were collected and analyzed, and evaluation indexes of soil heavy metal accumulation, which including total concentration of soil heavy metal index (THMI), soil available heavy metal index (AHMI) and fractionation of soil heavy metal index (FHMI), were established, and the heavy metal accumulation conditions of soil in this region were also discussed. Results showed as follows: the spatial variability of THMI was relative lower, with a mean value of 42.57%, whereas strong variability was found in AHMI and FHMI (especially active fraction of soil heavy metals), with the average value of 82.75% and 77.83%, respectively. Judging by each index reference standard of C Horizon, THMI was low-grade with a mean value of 1.01, while the AHMI and FHMI reached to medium accumulation and serious accumulation, with the average values of 2.46 and 4.32, respectively. The synthetic accumulation index of soil heavy metals (SHMI) was 2.56, reaching to medium grade level and with strong variability. 21.54% land area was in low-grade accumulation and 54.70% land area was in medium grade accumulation, while 23.76% land area was in serious accumulation under SHMI evaluation system. All the accumulation evaluation indexes in livestock breeding zone were the lowest, while the indexes in the smelting and plating zone were the highest, but the indexes difference between two zones were unobvious. There were markedly differences in soil types, which the accumulation indexes in Wushan soil were significantly higher than those in Huangni soil and Qingni soil.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 06/2010; 31(6):1608-16.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The statistical characteristics of plant uptake factor (PUF) of As, Cd and Pb for rice/wheat cereal were analyzed and summarized based on collected data in China. The data were selected and distinguished between field investigation and glasshouse experiment in which metal salts were added to clean soils as grown media. Results showed that the PUF median and range of As, Cd and Pb for rice cereal were 0.026 (0.004-0.090), 0.150 (0.014-1.470), 0.005 (0.001-0.031) and 0.010 (0.003-0.033), 0.360 (0.056-1.700), 0.002 (0.001-0.019) for field investigation and salt added experiment respectively. The PUF median and range of As, Cd and Pb for wheat cereal were 0.010 (0.001-0.110), 0.190 (0.030-2.110), 0.017 (0.001-0.075) and 0.010 (0.003-0.028), 0.150 (0.055-0.730), 0.001 (0.001-0.014) for field investigation and salt added experiment respectively. Significant PUF distribution differences were found between field investigation and salt added experiment. PUF provided not exactly predictive ability of metal uptake by crops since the PUF values were influenced by a variety of factors including the soil contamination levels, basic soils characteristics, the cultivation of the crops and other environmental conditions. However, the ln (PUF) followed Gaussian distribution (R2 = 0.38-0.94) which is useful for general risk assessment and soil benchmark derivation of contaminated croplands. Use of these statistical models is restricted to the range of data they have been derived, as extrapolation outside this range is often unreliable. Soil properties and surrounding environment of the crops should also be in accordance with the conditions PUF derived.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 02/2010; 31(2):488-95.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lead benchmarks for soil are mainly established based on blood lead concentration of children. This is because lead plays a dramatically negative role in children's cognitive development and intellectual performance and thus soil lead has been concerned as main lead exposure source for children. Based on the extensively collection of domestic available data, lead levels in air, drinking water are 0.12-1.0 microg x m(-3) and 2-10 microg x L(-1); ingestion of lead from food by children of 0-6 years old is 10-25 microg x d(-1); geometric mean of women blood lead 1concentration of child bearing age is 4.79 microg x dL(-1), with 1.48 GSD. Lead benchmarks for soil were calculated with the Integration Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model (IEUBK) and the Adult Lead Model (ALM). The results showed the lead criteria values for residual land and commercial/industrial land was 282 mg x kg(-1) and 627 mg x kg(-1) respectively, which was slightly lower compared with U.S.A. and U.K. Parameters sensitivity analysis indicated that lead exposure scenario of children in China was significantly different from children in developed countries and children lead exposure level in China was obviously higher. Urgent work is required for the relationship studies between lead exposure scenario and blood lead level of children and establishment of risk assessment guideline of lead contaminated soil based on human blood lead level.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 10/2009; 30(10):3036-42.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to study whether disposing electronic wastes and secondary metal smelting could cause an arsenic pollution in the environment or not, Luqiao town, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province was selected as a study area. The main purpose of this paper was to characterize arsenic contents in the local environment, including waters, sediments, soils and rice, and to assess the potential risk to humans. Additionally, the arsenic spatial distribution property and arsenic uptake-translocation rule in soil-rice system were also studied. The results showed that the average arsenic levels in the surface water and the groundwater were 8.26 microg/L and 18.52 microg/L, respectively, which did not exceed the limiting value of Chinese Environment Standards class III . Whereas,some groundwater exceeded the recommended standard by the WHO for drinking water (10 microg/L). The arsenic (on average 7.11 mg/kg) in paddy soils and arsenic (on average 6.17 mg/kg) in the vegetable garden soils were lower than the value recommended by the National Standard (level I). The average arsenic contents in brown rice and husks were 165.1 microg/kg and 144.2 microg/kg, which was also lower than the Chinese Foods Quality Standard. The arsenic contents between the corresponding soils-rice and husks-brown rice showed significantly positive correlations. By comparison, the arsenic contents of soils and husks collected around electroplating were relatively higher than most of other pollutant sources, indicating the electroplating may lead accumulation of arsenic in the paddy soil-rice system.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 07/2008; 29(6):1713-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of secondary smelting activities to the local resident's well beings, the contents of six elements-Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se-in human scalp hairs of residents in suburb Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and by atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS-930), respectively. The results showed that hair elemental contents were markedly higher than those in unpolluted area. The highest hair contents of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd reached 312, 513, 700 and 7.41 microg x g(-1), respectively, As and Se 10.08 and 0.85 microg x g(-1), respectively. Additionally, a significant relationship between Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and As in human hair was observed, which indicated at a certain degree that the elemental pollution was caused by similar source-small blast furnace smelting. Moreover, it showed that the Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As contents in hair of human who were above 40 years old was twice more than those whose age below 40. There was no apparent difference in average content of Cu, Zn, Cd, Se between male and female, except that Pb and As of male hair was higher than female, however, by statistic analysis showing no significant age and gender dependence.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 06/2008; 29(5):1376-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The method of factorial kriging based on the theory of coregionalization is developed by the combination of multi-statistics, geostatistics and GIS. Soil available heavy metals of 126 topsoil samples in Kunshan city, a typical region of Yangtze River Delta, were analyzed, and the spatial distribution pattern was investigated by the method of factorial kriging. Based on the analysis of multi-scale spatial structure characteristics of available heavy metals, we discussed the pollution source and cause of this spatial distribution by means of spatial scale-correlation analysis and spatial principal component analysis. Our results show that all the available heavy metals distribute normally or lognormally with great variability, and the contamination of available Cd is the biggest. The available heavy metals are categorized into three spatial scales, i.e. nugget, short-range (15 km) and long-range (40 km), respectively, and a linear model of coregionalization comprising these three spatial scales is fitted to the experimental auto-and cross-variograms of the soil available heavy metals. Significant relationship is found between Cd and Zn in the three scales. The spatial correlation of available heavy metals in short-range and long-rang are stronger than it in nugget, while the long-rang has more obvious negative correlation than the other two spatial scales. The results of spatial principal component analysis show the pollution sources are different in the three spatial scales. The kriging interpolation method was applied to work out the distribution maps of first and second principal component of available heavy metal, which indicate that available heavy metal concentrations in the soils are closely related to their industry activity, sewage irrigation and soil characteristics.
Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.] 01/2008; 28(12):2758-65.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study used GIS technology, remote sensing images of 1949, 1966, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996 and 2000, to analyze the spatial process of urbanization and its impact on the soil resources in Yixing city, southeast China. The results showed that the urban area grew more than three-fold during 51 years and the loss of paddy soil accounted for 82.9% of all soil loss. According to the expansion dynamics and the results of spatial metrics, the urban expansion process in Yixing could be divided into four steps, the initial step (1949–1966), the almost standstill step (1966–1981), the preparation step (1981–1984) and the rapid growing step (after 1984). The study also indicated that the urban expansion was encouraged by the transportation system, however, restricted by the rivers, lakes and hills. The local government's decision also affected the spatial process of urban expansion. The spatial process of Yixing urban expansion might reflect the spatial process of urbanization of southeast China, the region with a rapidly growing economy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 137Cs vertical distributions in uncultivated and cultivated soils, developed from Quaternary red clay, granite, argillaceous shale, and red sandstone, were studied to develop reliable guidelines for selecting reference sites in southeastern China, which is dominated by strong acidic and/or clay-textured soils, and examine their reliability by comparing them to the reported 137Cs reference inventory data to see whether they agreed with the global distribution pattern. It was observed that a relatively high proportion of 137Cs was concentrated in the surface layers of soils with relatively high clay content. In the paddy soils developed from granite more 137Cs penetrated to depths below the plow layer (about 45.3%), when compared to those from the other three parent materials. The relatively low soil Cs inventories on crests excluded using the crest as the 137Cs reference site; instead the paddy field on the hillock plain was selected. Furthermore, within a specific county characterized by great systematic spatial variations of rainfall and topography across the landscape, a significant (P < 0.01) and positive linear relationship (r2 = 0.81) between local 137Cs inventory and corresponding local annual rainfall was observed. Thus, for areas with large variations in rainfall, a single uniform value of local 137Cs reference inventory should be used with caution.