[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.
Asian Journal of Andrology 06/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Panax ginseng (PG) is a medicinal herb which has been used to improve male reproduction in traditional Korean medicine. This study investigated the effect of PG on spermatogenesis and the regulation of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which has a crucial role in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance. PG was administered to 8-week-old male Wistar rats (1.0 g/kg/day, p.o.) for 56 consecutive days, the sperm formation period of the rat. Sperm analysis, RT-PCR and western blot assays were then carried out. The PG-treated group had significantly enhanced sperm counts, GDNF mRNA level and protein level. These results suggest that PG induces spermatogenesis and GDNF activation in rat testes.
Phytotherapy Research 02/2011; 25(2):308-11. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the oncological safety and technical outcomes following nipple areola skin-sparing mastectomy (NASSM), skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM), and mastectomy.
Cosmetic issues associated with breast cancer surgery are important. The original SSM technique included removal of the gland and the nipple areola complex (NAC). However, the risk of tumor involvement of the NAC has been overestimated.
This retrospective study included 520 patients who underwent SSM (368 patients) or NASSM (152 patients) with immediate breast reconstruction using a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap, and 1990 patients who underwent a mastectomy between July 2001 and December 2006. The indications for NASSM were any stage, any tumor size, and any tumor areola distance. Briefly, the NAC was preserved when the shape, color, and palpation of the nipple were normal.
The median follow-up durations for NASSM and SSM were 60 and 67 months, respectively. Complete nipple areola necrosis developed in 11 (9.6%) NASSM patients. The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 89% and 87.2% for NASSM and SSM, respectively (P = 0.695). The 5-year overall survival rates were similar for NASSM and SSM (97.1% and 95.8%, respectively; P = 0.669). Local failure occurred in 3 (2%) NASSM and 3 (0.8%) SSM patients (P = 0.27). There were 2 (1.3%) nipple areola recurrences in NASSM patients. The LRRs were similar for NASSM and mastectomy patients.
NASSM with immediate transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous reconstruction is a viable surgical treatment in breast cancer patients in any stage. Recurrence and complication rates for NASSM were similar to those for standard surgical breast cancer treatments.
Annals of surgery 03/2010; 251(3):493-8. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multicentric or multifocal breast cancer is considered a limitation for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Studies showing that all quadrants of the breast drain via common afferent lymphatic channels indicate that multiple tumors do not affect lymphatic drainage. We therefore assessed the accuracy of SLNB in patients with multiple breast tumors.
Of the 942 breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB using radioisotope at Asan Medical Center between January 2003 and December 2006, 803 had unifocal and 139 had multiple tumors. Axillary dissection after SLNB was performed on 884 patients, 757 with unifocal and 127 with multiple tumors. All patients underwent lymphatic scintigram for removal of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). The clinical characteristics and accuracy of SLNB was compared in patients with unifocal and multiple breast cancer.
In the multiple tumor group, 2.68 +/- 0.84 SLNs were identified in 136 of 139 patients (identification rate, 97.84%); 81.5% of SLNs were identified by scintigram. The incidence of axillary metastases was 29.50% (41/139). SLNB accuracy was 97.63% (124/127), with a false negative (FN) rate of 7.89% (3/38). In the unifocal group, 2.67 +/- 0.96 SLNs were identified in 787 of 803 patients (identification rate, 98.00%); 84.8% of SLNs were identified by scintigram. The incidence of axillary metastasis was 22.04% (177/803). SLNB accuracy was 98.02% (742/757), with a FN rate of 8.62% (15/174). The accuracy and FN rate of SLNB did not differ significantly between unifocal and multiple breast cancer.
The accuracy of SLNB in multiple breast cancer is comparable to its accuracy in unifocal cancer. These findings indicate that SLNB can be used an as alternative to complete axillary lymph node dissection in patients with multiple breast tumors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2008; 109(3):503-6. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gallic acid is added to foods to prevent oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation and can be obtained by the hydrolysis of tannic acid which can be found in tea, coffee, red wine, and immature fruits. Tannic acid has also been used as a food additive. In the present study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on mouse spermatogonia, mouse spermatocytes, and mouse Sertoli cells in vitro. First, each cell line was cultured with predetermined concentrations of gallic acid for 3h to access the effects of gallic acid on in vitro growth of testicular cells and MTT cytotoxicity assay was used to measure cell viability. Secondly, intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide in mouse spermatogonia, mouse spermatocytes, and mouse Sertoli cells treated with gallic acid were analyzed using dihydrorhodamine 123 as a probe to evaluate the pro-oxidative property of gallic acid. The results obtained indicate that gallic acid inhibits the growth and proliferation of testicular cells in a dose-dependent manner and increases the intracellular level of hydrogen peroxide in mouse spermatogonia significantly (p<0.05). It can be suggested that gallic acid exerts cytotoxic effects on testicular cells by its pro-oxidative activity. In conclusion, gallic acid-induced cytotoxicity in mouse spermatogonia, mouse spermatocytes, and mouse Sertoli cells in vitro may be of toxicological research interest considering the testicular toxic potential of gallic acid.
Toxicology in Vitro 02/2008; 22(1):159-63. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundCombined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma is a very rare form of primary liver cancer containing components
of both tumor types. We evaluated the effectiveness of surgical treatment and factors related to survival and recurrence.
Patients and MethodsOf the 2427 patients who underwent hepatectomy or liver transplantation because of a primary hepatic malignancy from January
1989 to July 2006 at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, 29 had hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma as a single
mixed or transitional tumor. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed.
ResultsDisease-free survival rates at 6months, 1year, and 3years were 51.1%, 38.3%, and 25.6%, respectively. Univariate analysis
showed that CA 19–9 above 37U/ml was predictive of low overall survival (P=.03) and that TNM stage was significantly associated with disease-free survival (P=.04).
ConclusionsPatients with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma had poor postoperative survival rates. High CA 19–9
level was associated with poorer survival, suggesting that the cholangiocarcinoma portion may be a major determining factor
for patient prognosis. Aggressive surgical treatment, including lymph node dissection, may improve survival in patients suspected
of or diagnosed with these tumors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 16(3):623-629. · 3.94 Impact Factor