[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpain 7, a mammalian ortholog of yeast Cpl1/Rim13 and fungal PalB, is an atypical calpain that lacks a penta-EF-hand domain. Previously, we reported that a region containing a tandem repeat of microtubule-interacting and transport (MIT) domains in calpain 7 interacts with a subset of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III-related proteins, suggesting involvement of calpain 7 in the ESCRT system. Although yeast and fungal calpains are thought to be involved in alkaline adaptation via limited proteolysis of specific transcription factors, proteolytic activity of calpain 7 has not been demonstrated yet. In this study, we investigated the interaction between calpain 7 and a newly reported ESCRT-III family member, increased sodium tolerance-1 (IST1), which possesses two different types of MIT-interacting motifs (MIM1 and MIM2). We found that glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused tandem MIT domains of calpain 7 (calpain 7MIT) pulled down FLAG-tagged IST1 expressed in HEK293T cells. Coimmunoprecipitation assays with various deletion or point mutants of epitope-tagged calpain 7 and IST1 revealed that both repetitive MIT domains and MIMs are required for efficient interaction. Direct MIT–MIM binding was confirmed by a pulldown experiment with GST-fused IST1 MIM and purified recombinant calpain 7MIT. Furthermore, we found that the GST–MIM protein enhances the autolysis of purified Strep-tagged monomeric green fluorescent protein (mGFP)-fused calpain 7 (mGFP–calpain 7–Strep). The autolysis was almost completely abolished by 10 mmN-ethylmaleimide but only partially inhibited by 1 mm leupeptin or E-64. The putative catalytic Cys290-substituted mutant (mGFP–calpain 7C290S–Strep) showed no autolytic activity. These results demonstrate for the first time that human calpain 7 is proteolytically active, and imply that calpain 7 is activated in the ESCRT system.
Structured digital abstract
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpain 7 (also known as PalBH) is a mammalian homologue of the Aspergillus, atypical calpain PalB. Knowledge of the biochemical properties of calpain 7 is limited and its function is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the interactions of calpain 7 with all 11 ESCRT-III-related proteins, named charged multivesicular body proteins (CHMPs), and the subcellular localization of calpain 7. Pulldown assays using stable HEK293T transfectants of Strep-tagged calpain 7 revealed interactions of calpain 7 with a subset of FLAG-tagged CHMPs, among which CHMP1B was selected for further analyses. The N-terminal region containing a tandem repeat of MIT domains of calpain 7 was found to be necessary and sufficient for interaction with CHMP1B. Direct interaction was confirmed by a pulldown assay using recombinant proteins. Fluorescence microscopic analysis using HeLa cells revealed that overexpression of GFP-fused CHMPs or a dominant-negative construct of SKD1/Vps4B caused accumulation of epitope-tagged calpain 7 in a punctate pattern in the perinuclear area. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the most of endogenous calpain 7 is present in the cytosol but a small portion is present in particulate fractions. Punctate fluorescence signals of monomeric GFP-fused calpain 7 partly merged with those of endocytosed tetramethylrhodamine-labelled EGF. These results suggest that calpain 7 plays roles in the endosomal pathway by interacting with a subset of ESCRT-III-related proteins.
Journal of Biochemistry 07/2008; 143(6):731-45. DOI:10.1093/jb/mvn030 · 2.58 Impact Factor