Hosung Sohn

Chungnam National University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea

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Publications (9)26.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium kansasii (Mk) is an emerging pathogen that causes a pulmonary disease similar to tuberculosis. Macrophage apoptosis contributes to innate host defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent studies have suggested that lithium significantly enhances the cytotoxic activity of death stimuli in many cell types. We examined the effect of lithium on the viability of host cells and intracellular Mk in infected macrophages. Lithium treatment resulted in a substantial reduction in the viability of intracellular Mk in macrophages. Macrophage cell death was significantly enhanced after adding lithium to Mk-infected cells but not after adding to uninfected macrophages. Lithium-enhanced cell death was due to an apoptotic response, as evidenced by augmented DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. Reactive oxygen species were essential for lithium-induced apoptosis. Intracellular scavenging by N-acetylcysteine abrogated the lithium-mediated decrease in intracellular Mk growth as well as apoptosis. These data suggest that lithium is associated with control of intracellular Mk growth through modulation of the apoptotic response in infected macrophages.
    The Journal of Microbiology 02/2014; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterial proteins interact with host macrophages and modulate their functions and cytokine gene expression profile. The protein Rv0652 is abundant in culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis K-strain, which belongs to the Beijing family, compared with levels in the H37Rv and CDC1551 strains. Rv0652 induces strong antibody responses in patients with active tuberculosis. We investigated pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by Rv0652 in murine macrophages and the roles of signalling pathways. In RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages, recombinant Rv0652 induced predominantly tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production, which was dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB. Specific signalling pathway inhibitors revealed that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways were essential for Rv0652-induced TNF production, whereas the ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways, but not the p38 pathway, were critical for MCP-1 production in macrophages. Rv0652-stimulated TNF and MCP-1 secretion by macrophages occurred in a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent and MyD88-dependent manner. In addition, Rv0652 significantly up-regulated the expression of the mannose receptor, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules. These results suggest that Rv0652 can induce a protective immunity against M. tuberculosis through the macrophage activation.
    Immunology 02/2012; 136(2):231-40. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), a virulence factor involved in extrapulmonary dissemination and a strong diagnostic antigen against tuberculosis, is both surface-associated and secreted. The role of HBHA in macrophages during M. tuberculosis infection, however, is less well known. Here, we show that recombinant HBHA produced by Mycobacterium smegmatis effectively induces apoptosis in murine macrophages. DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, caspase activation, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage were observed in apoptotic macrophages treated with HBHA. Enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Bax activation were essential for HBHA-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by a restoration of the viability of macrophages pretreated with N-acetylcysteine, a potent ROS scavenger, or transfected with Bax siRNA. HBHA is targeted to the mitochondrial compartment of HBHA-treated and M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. Dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) and depletion of cytochrome c also occurred in both macrophages and isolated mitochondria treated with HBHA. Disruption of HBHA gene led to the restoration of ΔΨ(m) impairment in infected macrophages, resulting in reduced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that HBHA may act as a strong pathogenic factor to cause apoptosis of professional phagocytes infected with M. tuberculosis.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2011; 7(12):e1002435. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacteria encounter many different cells during infection within their hosts. Although alveolar epithelial cells play an essential role in host defense as the first cells to be challenged upon contact with mycobacteria, they may contribute to the acquisition of mycobacterial virulence by increasing the expression of virulence or adaptation factors prior to being ingested by macrophages on the side of pathogens. From this aspect, the enhanced virulence of nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSM) passed through human alveolar A549 epithelial cells (A-MSM) was compared to the direct infection of MSM (D-MSM) in THP-1 macrophages and mouse models. The intracellular growth rate and cytotoxicity of A-MSM were significantly increased in THP-1 macrophages. In addition, compared to D-MSM, A-MSM induced relatively greater interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and MCP-1 in THP-1 macrophages. As a next step, a more persistent A-MSM infection was observed in a murine infection model with the development of granulomatous inflammation. Finally, 58 genes induced specifically in A-MSM were partially identified by differential expression using a customized amplification library. These gene expressions were simultaneously maintained in THP-1 infection but no changes were observed in D-MSM. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these genes are involved mainly in bacterial metabolism including energy production and conversion, carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid transport, and metabolisms. Conclusively, alveolar epithelial cells promoted the conversion of MSM to the virulent phenotype prior to encountering macrophages by activating the genes required for intracellular survival and presenting its pathogenicity.
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology 02/2011; 200(3):177-91. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium massiliense is an emerging pathogen and very similar to Mycobacterium abscessus of rapidly growing mycobacteria in the phenotype and genotype. Pathogenic bacteria secrete a diversity of factors into extracellular medium which contribute to the bacterial pathogenicity. In the present study, we performed the comparative proteome analysis of culture filtrate proteins from a clinical isolate of M. massiliense and M. abscessus strains using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Interestingly, 9 proteins of M. massiliense were distinctly expressed from those of M. abscessus. Bioinformatic analysis of the identified proteins revealed that 3 unique proteins corresponded to serine/arginine rich protein, membrane protein from Streptomyces coelicolor, and one hypothetical protein from Corynebacterium efficiens YS-314, respectively. Culture filtrate proteins from M. massiliense induced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages in a dose-dependent manner but not that from M. abscessus. Taken together, the functional study on the identified proteins uniquely produced from M. massiliense may provide not only the clues for the different pathogensis, but also help develop the diagnostic tools for the differentiation between two mycobacterial species.
    The Journal of Microbiology 08/2010; 48(4):502-11. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium kansasii is a facultative intracellular pathogen causing pulmonary disease in immunocompetent patients. Little is known about the host defense against M. kansasii and its intracellular survival strategy inside macrophages. In the present study, we obtained six clinical isolates from patients with M. kansasii pulmonary disease and investigated the intracellular growth and cytotoxic effects of M. kansasii inside mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as well as cytokine secretion from BMDM. Interestingly, two isolates, SM-1 and 2693-20, displayed faster growth rates and higher levels of TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages when compared to the other strains. In addition, SM-1 and 2693-20 also induced massive cell death in BMDM and THP-1 acute monocytic leukemia cells, while the slow growing strains induced significantly lower levels of cell death. This cytotoxicity was mainly caused by necrosis, not apoptosis and it was TNF-alpha-independent. Caspase inhibitors failed to block M. kansasii-induced macrophage death. In addition, necrosis caused by the fast growing strains was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). When dissipation of DeltaPsi(m) was inhibited by the classical mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), macrophage necrosis was reduced. These results suggest that clinical isolates of M. kansasii that grow faster in macrophages induce higher levels of necrosis in a DeltaPsi(m) loss-dependent manner.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 03/2010; 48(5):160-7. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium abscessus, can be classified into two distinct types of clinical disease; the upper lobe fibrocavitary (UC) form and nodular bronchiectatic (NB) form. However, the relationship between mycobacterial strain virulence and disease type in the pulmonary M. abscessus diseases has not been reported. To determine the differential virulence between strains causing two forms of disease, we obtained clinical isolates from patients with the UC and NB form of pulmonary disease caused by M. abscessus. In present study, we investigated the intracellular growth of clinical isolates in macrophages and their pathogenicity in C57BL/6 mice. For the isolates from the UC form, intracellular macrophage growth was faster and higher levels of cytokines were induced in macrophages than for those from NB form. Moreover, severe lung inflammation was only observed in mice intranasally infected with the isolate from the UC form with the increase of bacterial load. These findings suggest that M. abscessus isolates from the UC form of pulmonary disease are more virulent than those from NB form. This differential virulence of clinical strains may be one of the important factors involved in the determination of the disease form of pulmonary M. abscessus disease.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 10/2009; 47(6):321-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfometuron methyl (SM) is an inhibitor of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first common enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway, and shows activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis both in vitro and in vivo. To develop AHAS inhibitor derivatives with more potent activity, 100 sulfonylurea analogues were screened for antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and then evaluated for intracellular activity using mouse macrophages. Three new compounds with antimycobacterial activity comparable with that of SM were identified. These compounds exhibit significant activity against intracellular M. tuberculosis (including the drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains), and NTM Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 07/2008; 31(6):567-71. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium abscessus has been identified as an emerging pulmonary pathogen in humans. Previously, it was documented that a spontaneously formed rough variant of M. abscessus causes persistent and invasive infection in mice, while a smooth isogenic variant does not. However, little is known for immune responses elicited by M. abscessus variants artificially induced by culture conditions and their culture filtrate antigens. Thus, morphological variants of M. abscessus type strain (ATCC19977T) were generated by an acidic and low oxygen culture conditions. Overall comparison between the variant and its original smooth strain showed that the rough variant was less virulent than original smooth strain in murine bone-marrow derived macrophage. To understand the basis for the difference, the protein expression pattern in the culture filtrates of each strain was analyzed by 1-dimensional electrophoresis. Generally, the protein expressions were more influenced by pH conditions than oxygen pressures. Interestingly, several proteins, mainly lower than 30 kDa molecular weight, were uniquely expressed in normal culture conditions. In contrast, several high molecular weight proteins (>55 kDa) were induced by acidic and low oxygen culture conditions. These findings not only provide new insights of association between morphological change and the virulence, but may also be useful in the design of immunological diagnosis and vaccines for M. abscessus infection.
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology 01/2008; 38:109-118.