[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-tailed macaque-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is beneficial to yield embryonic stem cells from iSCNT embryos with similar genetic background as human, which can be used as materials for medical and basic research. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of concentrations and treatment duration of two histone deacetylase inhibitors-Trichostatin A (TSA) and Valproic acid (VPA) and two different embryo culture media (PZM-3 and HECM-10) on the in vitro development of iSCNT embryos. The results suggested that when PZM-3 was used as the embryo culture medium, the blastocyst rate of 10 nmol/L TSA treatment for 48 h was significantly higher than the control group (22.78% vs 9.86%, P< 0.05). However, neither in PZM-3 nor in HECM-10, 2-10 mmol/L VPA treatment did not increase the in vitro developmental potential of iSCNT embryos. It was concluded that TSA treatment could enhance the in vitro developmental potential of long-tailed macaque-pig iSCNT embryos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SummaryReprogramming of DNA methylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos is incomplete, and aberrant DNA methylation patterns are related to the inefficiency of SCNT. To facilitate nuclear reprogramming, this study investigated the effect of treating Guangxi Bama minipig donor cells with trichostatin A (TSA), 5-aza-2'-deoxycytine (5-aza-dC), or combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC prior to nuclear transfer. Analyses showed that there were no major changes in cell-cycle status among all groups. We monitored the transcription of DNMT1, DNMT3a, HDAC1 and IGF2 genes in donor cells. Transcription levels of HDAC1 were decreased significantly after treatment with a combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC, along with a significantly increased level of IGF2 (P < 0.05). Although treatment of donor cells with either TSA or 5-aza-dC alone resulted in non-significant effects in blastocyst formation rate and DNA methylation levels, a combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC significantly improved the development rates of minipig SCNT embryos to blastocyst (25.6% vs. 16.0%, P < 0.05). This change was accompanied by decreased levels of DNA methylation in somatic cells and blastocyst (P < 0.05). Thus in combination with TSA, lower concentrations of 5-aza-dC may produce a potent demethylating activity, and lead to the significantly enhanced blastocyst development percentage of Bama minipig SCNT embryos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flow-cytometry sorting technology has been successfully used to separate the X- and Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa for production of sex-preselected buffalo. However, an independent technique should be employed to validate the sorting accuracy. In the present study, X-chromosomes of bovine were micro-dissected from the metaphase spreads by using glass needles. Then X-chromosomes were then amplified by PCR and labelled with Cy3-dUTP for use as a probe in hybridization of the unsorted and sorted buffalo spermatozoa -chromosome. The results revealed that 47.7% (594/1246) of the unsorted buffalo spermatozoa were positive for X- chromosome probe, which was conformed to the sex ratio in buffalo (X:Y spermatozoa=1:1); 9.6% (275/2869) of the Y-sorted buffalo spermatozoa and 86.1% (1529/1776) of the X-sorted buffalo spermatozoa showed strong X-chromosome FISH signals. Flow cytometer re-analysis revealed that the proportions of X- and Y-bearing spermatozoa in the sorted X and Y semen was 89.6% and 86.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences between results assayed by flow-cytometry re-analysis and by FISH in this study. In conclusion, FISH probe derived from bovine X- chromosomes could be used to verify the purity of X and Y sorted spermatozoa in buffalo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation is a rapidly expanding field of research, and cloned miniature pigs are considered to be good model animals for its development. Although many animal species have been cloned, the success rate is very low, especially in the pig. To optimize the protocols for somatic cell nuclear transfer in the Guangxi Bama minipig, the relationship between cell cycle synchronization and nuclear histone acetylation levels were investigated. The results showed that the cells were efficiently synchronized by either serum starvation or contact inhibition. The level of nuclear histone acetylation in G0/G1 donor cells had similar variation trends in serum starvation and contact inhibition groups. When the synchronized donor cells were introduced into the enucleated oocytes, 8.8% (serum starvation group) or 9.7% (contact inhibition group) of the reconstructed embryos developed to blastocysts. After embryo transfer, one healthy male Guangxi Bama minipig was obtained. To evaluate the fertility of the cloned pig and its offspring, a series of mating experiments were done. Ninety-eight F1 generation crossbred piglets were born, of which 93 piglets survived. Also, the F1 pigs gave birth to 22 F2 generation piglets, of which 14 piglets survived. In conclusion, a Guangxi Bama minipig was successfully cloned from cultured newborn male gonad fibroblast cells, and the cloned minipig and its offspring had normal fertility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Miniature pigs are valuable for research in xenotransplantation and as models for investigating human diseases. Although many mammalian species have been cloned, the success rates have been very low, especially in the pig. In the present study, an attempt was made to optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocols for use in the production of the Guangxi Bama mini-pig. Firstly, mini-pig fibroblast cells from a new-born Guangxi Bama piglet were isolated and cultured. Cell type was identified by fluorescence immunocytochemistry (ICC); the cells expressed cimentin, but not cytoceratin and follicular stimulation hormone receptor (FSHR). Secondly, the optimal cell cycle synchronization protocol for treating fibroblast cells from the newborn piglet's testicle was investigated by contact inhibition and serum starvation. When fibroblast cells were treated by contact inhibition, a higher fusion (66.0% vs. 58.3%, p > 0.05) and blastocyst production (20.8% vs. 15.1, p > 0.05) rates were obtained than with serum starvation. Thirdly, to examine the ability of old cells to be morphologically remodelled after activation, testicular fibroblasts (passage 10-14) were introduced into enucleated oocytes; enlarged nuclei were formed in most of the reconstructed embryos at 6 h and enlarged nuclei or distinct pseudopronuclei were formed in nearly all the reconstructed embryos at 12 h. The old donor cell could be morphologically remodelled correctly and was competent to support embryo development to the blastocyst in vitro. Fourthly, the in vitro development potential of the cloned embryos was investigated using two types of donor cell: ear fibroblasts and low or high passage testicular fibroblasts. The rate of fusion was highest using low passage testicle fibroblasts (84.5% vs. 69.8% and 80.0%, p < 0.05), as was development to the blastocyst stage (14.6% vs. 7.7% and 6.3%, p < 0.05). Finally, the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) on parthenogenetic and cloned embryo development was examined. The PHA had no significant effect on the parthenogenetic embryos, but cloned embryo development to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased by PHA (10 microg/ml), (13.4% vs. 5.6% and 5.6%, p < 0.05).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged residence of postovulatory oocyte in the oviduct or prolonged culture in vitro can lead to oocyte aging, which significantly affects pre- and post-implantation embryo development. In this study, we employed bisulfite sequencing and COBRA methods to investigate the DNA methylation status of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of Snrpn and Peg1/Mest, two maternally imprinted genes, in postovulatory oocytes aged in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that Snrpn DMR was clearly demethylated in oocytes aged in vivo at 29h post-hCG and in denuded oocytes aged in vitro for the same time period. However, Peg1/Mest did not show any demethylation in all aged groups at 29h post-hCG. These data indicate that oocytes undergo time-dependent demethylation of Snrpn DMR during the process of postovulatory aging.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2008; 371(1):16-21. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.03.105 · 2.28 Impact Factor