[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor gene deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC1), which encodes a protein with strong RhoGAP (GTPase activating protein) activity and weak Cdc42GAP activity, is inactivated in various human malignancies. Following Dlc1 inactivation, mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) with a conditional Dlc1 knockout allele reproducibly underwent neoplastic transformation. In addition to inactivation of Dlc1 and increased activity of Rho and Cdc42, transformation depended on the subsequent decreased expression of the Cdk4/6 inhibitors p15Ink4b and p16Ink4a together with increased expression and activation of Cdk4/6. The level of expression of these cell cycle regulatory genes was relevant to human tumors with low DLC1 expression. Analysis of publicly available annotated datasets of lung and colon cancer with gene expression microarray profiles indicated that, in pairwise comparisons, low DLC1 expression occurred frequently together (p<0.01) with downregulation of p15Ink4b or p16Ink4a or upregulation of CDK4 or CDK6. In addition, an unfavorable prognosis (p<0.05) was associated with low DLC1 and low p15Ink4b in lung cancer and colon cancer, low DLC1 and low p16Ink4a in lung cancer, low DLC1 and high CDK4 in lung cancer, and low DLC1 and high CDK6 in colon cancer. Thus, several genes and biochemical activities collaborate with the inactivation of DLC1 to give rise to cell transformation in MEFs, and the identified genes are relevant to human tumors with low DLC1 expression.
Cancer Research 09/2012; 72(22). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-2368 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deleted in liver cancer (DLC1), a tumor suppressor gene in multiple cancers, is recurrently down regulated or inactivated by epigenetic mechanisms in primary prostate carcinomas (PCAs). In this study the methylation and acetylation profile of the DLC1 promoter region was examined in three PCA cell lines with low or undetectable DLC1 expression: LNCaP, its derivative C4-2B-2, and 22Rv1. Two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA) induced histone acetylation of the DLC1 promoter in all three lines. DLC1 promoter methylation and deacetylation were detected in LNCaP and C4-2B-2 cells while in 22Rv1 cells DLC1 is silenced by deacetylation. Treatment with SAHA or TSA efficiently increased DLC1 expression in all lines, particularly in 22Rv1 cells, and activated the DLC1 promoter through the same Sp1 sites. The 22Rv1 cell line was selected to evaluate the efficacy of combined DLC1 transduction and SAHA treatment on tumor growth in athymic mice. Individually, DLC1 transduction and SAHA exposure reduced the tumor size by 75-80% compared to controls and in combination almost completely inhibited tumor growth. The antitumor effect was associated with the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of RhoA activity. SAHA alone significantly reduced RhoA activity, showing that this RhoGTPase is a target for SAHA. These results, obtained with a reliable preclinical in vivo test, predict that combined therapeutic agents targeting the pathways governing DLC1 function and HDAC inhibitors may be beneficial in management of prostate cancer.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 420(2):325-30. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.02.158 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is a major contributing alteration in the initiation or progression of cancer. The human tumor suppressor gene DLC1 (deleted in liver cancer 1) is frequently downregulated or silenced in multiple cancers, predominantly by epigenetic mechanisms. With the current considerable interest and progress in epigenetic therapy, a number of promising antineoplastic agents, particularly histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, have been developed and used successfully in clinical trials. Both DLC1 and HDAC inhibitors exert antineoplastic functions, and their combined action could be exploited for a more effective cancer therapy. To evaluate the potential benefits of this approach, we examined the antineoplastic effects of adenoviral (Ad)-DLC1-mediated transduction and exposure to suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a powerful HDAC inhibitor, in two human cancer cell lines that lack intrinsic DLC1 expression, 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells and 7703K human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Consistent with the oncosuppressive function of DLC1 in several cancers, including prostate and liver cancer, transduction of 22Rv1 and 7703K cells with an Ad-DLC1 expression vector resulted in alterations of cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. A low concentration of SAHA (5 microM) efficiently restored the expression of DLC1 in 22Rv1 cells that lack DLC1 expression due to histone deacetylation but had a minimal effect in 7703K cells in which silencing of the DLC1 gene is due mainly to promoter hypermethylation. Regardless of the epigenetic mechanism of DLC1 inactivation, SAHA treatment of DLC1-transduced cells had a synergistic inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in both cell lines. In 22Rv1 cells, this combination regimen nearly abolished the formation of colonies in semisolid media as a measure of tumorigenicity in vitro. Current in vitro results validate this protocol as a potentially new therapeutic option in certain cancers.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2010; 36(4):999-1005. DOI:10.3892/ijo_00000580 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The process of cell dissemination from the primary tumors to distant sites is the most harmful event during cancer progression, and the leading cause of cancer death. We have previously demonstrated that restoration of DLC1 tumor suppressor gene expression in the DLC1-negative Focus and 7703K human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines induced caspase-3 mediated apoptosis, reduced cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo and diminished the ability to migrate through Matrigel, a property suggestive of metastatic potential in vivo. We now show that subcutaneous tumors developing after inoculation of Focus and 7703K cells into nude mice disseminate cells to liver and lung, and this process is markedly suppressed by restoration of DLC1 expression. Inhibition of tumor cell dissemination was associated with lower levels of RhoA activity, an increase in rounded cells and a reduction in actin stress fibers and focal adhesion molecules that are of critical importance in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In addition, DLC1 down-regulated the expression of osteopontin and matrix metalloproteinase-9, which are highly up-regulated in most primary HCC with associated metastases. These observations implicate the DLC1 gene in suppression of HCC cell dissemination and identify novel cellular and genetic alterations that contribute to prevention of metastasis, a life-threatening event in cancer progression.
International Journal of Oncology 07/2008; 32(6):1285-91. DOI:10.3892/ijo_32_6_1285 · 3.03 Impact Factor