Axel Pflueger

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Scottsdale, AZ, United States

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Publications (7)19.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical outcomes in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and renal artery stenosis (RAS) following renal artery (RA) stent placement with and without embolic protection device (EPD) usage. Eighteen patients who had RA stent placement with EPD were matched to control patients (RA stent only). Blood pressure, number of hypertensive medications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 months before the procedure and after 12 months were determined. An increase of ≥ 20% in eGFR at 12 months from baseline was defined as "improvement," decrease of ≥ 20% as "deterioration," and an eGFR change between those values as "stabilization" at 12 months. At 12 months, stage 4 patients treated with EPD had significantly higher eGFR than controls (P = .01). There was no statistical difference in blood pressure outcomes between the 2 groups. Patients with stage 4 CRI did significantly better with EPD than those treated without it.
    Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 06/2012; 46(6):447-54. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    Alina Livshits, Axel Pflueger
    03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0245-8
  • Andrew D Calvin, Sanjay Misra, Axel Pflueger
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a leading cause of iatrogenic renal failure. Multiple studies have shown that patients with diabetic nephropathy are at high risk of CIAKI. This Review presents an overview of the pathogenesis of CIAKI in patients with diabetic nephropathy and discusses the currently available and potential future strategies for CIAKI prevention.
    Nature Reviews Nephrology 09/2010; 6(11):679-88. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is the most-common form of in-hospital drug-induced acute kidney injury and occurs in 1 to over 50% of patients undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) administration. Numerous risk factors for CIAKI have been described, the most prominent among them is pre-existing kidney disease such as diabetic nephropathy. The pathogenesis of CIAKI appears to be caused, at least in part, by renal vasoconstriction and renal ischemia leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Diabetes is associated with increased sensitivity to renal vasoconstrictors including CM agents and is also associated with dysfunctional renal handling of ROS, making diabetics particularly susceptible to CIAKI. At present, there are limited srtategies for the prevention of CIAKI among them the administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and intravenous hydration. In light of the rising prevalence of diabetes worldwide and the high risk it represents for the development of CIAKI and CIAKI-associated cardiovascular mortality, a lucid understanding of the pathogenesis of CIAKI and diabetic nephropathy is indispensable. The current review addresses the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of CIAKI in the diabetic renal milieu and discusses current and potential novel treatment modalities for the prevention of CIAKI in diabetic patients.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 07/2009; 15(6):RA125-36. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various forms of renal replacement therapies (RRT) are available to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery. The objective of this review is to assess the incidence of postoperative AKI that necessitates the application of haemofiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), to determine the factors that influence the outcome in these patients. In addition, the review aims to assess the outcomes of postoperative early haemofiltration as compared to late intensive haemofiltration. Different forms of RRT such as intermittent haemodialysis, continuous haemofiltration, or hybrid forms which combine advantages of both are now available for application in cardiac surgery patients, and will be discussed in this article. The underlying disease, its severity and stage, the aetiology of AKI, clinical and haemodynamic status of the patient, the resources available, and different costs of therapy may all influence the choice of the RRT strategy. AKI, with its risk of uraemic complications, represents an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients after cardiac surgery. Whether early initiation of RRT is associated with improved survival is unknown, and also clear guidelines on RRT durations are still lacking. In particular, it remains unclear whether haemodynamically unstable patients who develop septic shock pre- and postoperatively can benefit from early RRT initiation. In addition, it is not known whether in AKI patients undergoing cardiac surgery RRT modalities can eliminate significant amounts of clinically relevant inflammatory mediators. This review gives an update of information available in the literature on possible mechanisms underlying AKI and the recent developments in continuous renal replacement treatment modalities.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2009; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe restenosis and clinical outcomes with drug-eluting stents (DESs) and compare them to those of bare metal stents (BMSs) in the treatment of symptomatic atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) in the same patients. A retrospective study was performed of all patients with RAS treated with a DES (Taxus Express 2 or Cypher). DESs were used for RASs with luminal vessel diameters of 4 mm or smaller and BMSs were used for those larger than 4 mm. Sixteen patients (eight women; mean age, 72 years +/- 8) underwent treatment of 27 RASs for worsening renal function (n = 10) and uncontrolled hypertension (n = 6). Eighteen RASs were treated with 23 DESs (Cypher, n = 12; Taxus, n = 11) and nine were treated with BMSs. The average follow-up was 22 months +/- 10. After the procedure, the mean systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (P < .05), with no change in the mean diastolic pressure, serum creatinine, or number of antihypertensive medications. By Kaplan-Meier estimates, the 1- and 2-year patency rates for DESs were 78% and 68%, respectively; and for BMSs, the respective rates were 58% and 47% (P = NS). The average diameters of RASs were 3.4 mm +/- 0.6 in the DES group and 5.3 mm +/- 0.6 in the BMS group (P < .05). There were two technical failures (7.7%) in the DES group. There was one minor complication and a non-flow-limiting dissection. DESs were used to treat RASs with good technical results and low restenosis rates compared with BMSs despite the smaller artery diameters in the DES group.
    Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 06/2008; 19(6):833-9. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast nephropathy needs to be evaluated in clinical settings. We performed a retrospective cohort study at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, to assess the risk of contrast nephropathy associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate, N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of sodium bicarbonate with N-acetylcysteine from April 2004 to May 2005. Contrast nephropathy was defined as postexposure creatinine elevation of > or =25% or >0.5 mg/dl within 7 d of contrast exposure. A total of 11,516 contrast exposures in 7977 patients had creatinine values available for review before and after contrast exposure. More than 90% of exposures to agents prophylactic for contrast nephropathy were available for analysis. Sodium bicarbonate was used in 268 cases, N-acetylcysteine was used in 616 cases, and both agents were used in combination in 221 cases of contrast exposure. After adjustment for total volume of hydration, medications, age, gender, prior creatinine, contrast iodine load, prior exposure to contrast material, type of imaging study, heart failure, hypertension, renal failure, multiple myeloma, and diabetes mellitus, use of sodium bicarbonate alone was associated with an increased risk of contrast nephropathy compared with no treatment (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 4.18; P < 0.001). N-acetylcysteine alone and in combination with sodium bicarbonate was not associated with any significant difference in the incidence of contrast nephropathy. The use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate was associated with increased incidence of contrast nephropathy. Use of sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast nephropathy should be evaluated further rather than adopted into clinical practice.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2008; 3(1):10-8. · 5.07 Impact Factor