J Andrew Bradley

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (95)605.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab depletes B cells in the treatment of lymphoma and autoimmune disease, and contributes to alloantibody reduction in transplantation across immunological barriers. The effects of rituximab on T cells are less well described. T follicular helper cells (Tfh) provide growth and differentiation signals to germinal center (GC) B cells to support antibody production, and suppressive T follicular regulatory cells (Tfr) regulate this response. In mice, both Tfh and Tfr are absolutely dependent on B cells for their formation and on the GC for their maintenance. Here, we demonstrate that rituximab treatment results in a lack of GC B cells in human lymph nodes without affecting the Tfh or Tfr cell populations. These data demonstrate that human Tfh and Tfr do not require an on-going GC response for their maintenance. The persistence of Tfh and Tfr following rituximab treatment may permit rapid reconstitution of the pathological GC response once the B cell pool begins to recover. Strategies for maintaining remission after rituximab therapy will need to take this persistence of Tfh into account.
    Blood 09/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in developmental biology have shown that monozygous twins may not be as phenotypically identical as once believed, and the mechanisms responsible for such differences are now becoming clearer. Whether such phenotypic differences are capable of triggering graft rejection of an organ transplanted between identical twins remains unknown but the risks seem low, and long-term transplant outcome is excellent. Available evidence to guide immunosuppressive therapy in this setting is limited but a prudent approach would include the use of steroids together with a calcineurin inhibitor after transplantation. However, once the inevitable inflammatory response associated with transplant surgery has resolved, cautious reduction and eventually withdrawal of immunosuppression should be possible.
    Transplantation 08/2014; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is variation in time to listing and rates of listing for transplantation between renal units in the UK. While research has mainly focused on healthcare organization, little is known about patient perspectives of entry onto the transplant waiting list. This qualitative study aimed to explore patients' views and experiences of kidney transplant listing. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients aged under 75, who were on dialysis and on the transplant waiting list, not on the waiting list, undergoing assessment for listing or who had received a transplant. Patients were recruited from a purposive sample of nine UK renal units, which included transplanting and non-transplanting units and units with high and low wait-listing patterns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Fifty-three patients (5–7 per renal unit) were interviewed. Patients reported that they had received little information about the listing process. Some patients did not know if they were listed or had found they were not listed when they had thought they were on the list. Others expressed distress when they felt they had been excluded from potential listing based on age and/or comorbidity and felt the process was unfair. Many patients were not aware of pre-emptive transplantation and believed they had to be on dialysis before being able to be listed. There was some indication that pre-emptive transplantation was discussed more often in transplant than non-transplant units. Lastly, some patients were reluctant to consider family members as potential donors as they reported they would feel ‘guilty’ if the donor suffered subsequent negative effects. Conclusions: Findings suggest a need to review current practice to further understand individual and organizational reasons for the renal unit variation identified in patient understanding of transplant listing. The communication of information warrants attention to ensure patients are fully informed about the listing process and opportunity for pre-emptive transplantation in a way that is meaningful and understandable to them.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Renal transplantation is a successful treatment for patients with renal failure but its long-term efficacy is limited by untreatable transplant vasculopathy (TA). Endothelial damage contributes to TA and is potentially repairable by circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). The frequency and function of EPC is variably influenced by end-stage renal failure (ESRF). This study aimed to characterise the late-outgrowth EPC (LO-EPC) from ESRF patients with a view to utilising autologous LO-EPC for endothelial repair following renal transplantation. LO-EPC isolated from ESRF patients and healthy volunteers were characterised phenotypically and functionally and their integrin expression profile was determined.ESRF patients generated more LO-EPC colonies than healthy controls, had higher plasma levels of IL-1rα, IL-16, IL-6, MIF, VEGF, Prolactin and PLGF. Patients' LO-EPC displayed normal endothelial cell morphology, increased secretion of PLGF, MCP-1 and IL-1β, decreased senescence and normal network formation in vitro and in vivo , but demonstrated decreased adhesion to extracellular matrix. Integrin gene profiles and protein expression were comparable in patients and healthy volunteers. In some patients, mesenchymal stem cells were co-isolated from peripheral blood and these could be differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro . This is the first study to characterise LO-EPC from ESRF patients. Their behaviour in vitro reflects the presence of elevated trophic factors; their ability to proliferate in vitro and angiogenic function makes them candidates for prevention of transplant vasculopathy. Their impaired adhesion and the presence of MSC are areas for potential therapeutic intervention.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 06/2014; 100 Suppl 3:A113. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the relationship between donor mismatches at each HLA locus and development of HLA locus-specific antibodies in patients listed for repeat transplantation. HLA antibody screening was undertaken using single-antigen beads in 131 kidney transplant recipients returning to the transplant waiting list following first graft failure. The number of HLA mismatches and the calculated reaction frequency of antibody reactivity against 10,000 consecutive deceased organ donors were determined for each HLA locus. Two-thirds of patients awaiting repeat transplantation were sensitized (calculated reaction frequency over 15%) and half were highly sensitized (calculated reaction frequency of 85% and greater). Antibody levels peaked after re-listing for repeat transplantation, were independent of graft nephrectomy and were associated with length of time on the waiting list (odds ratio 8.4) and with maintenance on dual immunosuppression (odds ratio 0.2). Sensitization was independently associated with increasing number of donor HLA mismatches (odds ratio 1.4). All mismatched HLA loci contributed to the development of HLA locus-specific antibodies (HLA-A: odds ratio 3.2, HLA-B: odds ratio 3.4, HLA-C: odds ratio 2.5, HLA-DRB1: odds ratio 3.5, HLA-DRB3/4/5: odds ratio 3.9, and HLA-DQ: odds ratio 3.0 (all significant)). Thus, the risk of allosensitization following failure of a first renal transplant increases incrementally with the number of mismatches at all HLA loci assessed. Maintenance of re-listed patients on dual immunosuppression was associated with a reduced risk of sensitization.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 April 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.106.
    Kidney International 04/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is essential to minimize the unnecessary discard of procured deceased donor kidneys, but information on discard rates and the extent to which discard can be avoided are limited. Analysis of the UK Transplant Registry revealed that the discard rate of procured deceased donor kidneys has increased from 5% in 2002-3 to 12% in 2011-12. A national offering system for hard-to-place kidneys was introduced in the UK in 2006 (the Declined Kidney Scheme), but just 13% of kidneys that were subsequently discarded until 2012 were offered through the scheme. In order to examine the appropriateness of discard, 20 consecutive discarded kidneys from 13 deceased donors were assessed to determine if surgeons agreed with the decision that they were not implantable. Donors had a median (range) age of 67 (31-80) yr. Kidneys had been offered to a median of 3 (1-12) centers before discard. Four (20%) of the discarded kidneys were thought to be usable, and nine (45%) were possibly usable. As a result of these findings, major changes to the UK deceased donor kidney offering system have been implemented, including simultaneous offering and broader entry criteria for hard-to-place kidneys. Organizational changes are necessary to improve utilization of deceased donor kidneys.
    Clinical Transplantation 02/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal transplantation is potentially curative in renal failure but long-term efficacy is limited by untreatable chronic rejection. Endothelial damage contributes to chronic rejection and is potentially repairable by circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). The frequency and function of EPC is variably influenced by end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Here we isolated and functionally characterised the late outgrowth EPC (LO-EPC) from ESRF patients to investigate their potential for endothelial repair. ESRF patients generated more LO-EPC colonies than healthy controls, had higher plasma levels of IL-1rα, IL-16, IL-6, MIF, VEGF, Prolactin and PLGF. Patients' LO-EPC displayed normal endothelial cell morphology, increased secretion of PLGF, MCP-1 and IL-1β, and normal network formation in vitro and in vivo. They demonstrated decreased adhesion to extracellular matrix. Integrin gene profiles and protein expression were comparable in patients and healthy volunteers. In some patients, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were co-isolated and could be differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro. This is the first study to characterise LO-EPC from ESRF patients. Their behaviour in vitro reflects the presence of elevated trophic factors; their ability to proliferate in vitro and angiogenic function makes them candidates for prevention of chronic rejection. Their impaired adhesion and the presence of MSC are areas for potential therapeutic intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Transplant International 01/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed graft function (DGF) after renal transplantation can be diagnosed according to several different definitions, complicating comparison between studies that use DGF as an endpoint. This is a particular problem after transplantation with kidneys from donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys, because DGF is common, and its relationship to early graft failure may differ depending on the definition of DGF. The presence of DGF in 213 donation after brain death (DBD) and 312 DCD kidney transplants from October 2005 to August 2011 was determined according to 10 different, but widely used, definitions (based on dialysis requirements, creatinine changes, or both). The relationship of DGF to graft function and graft survival was determined. The incidence of DGF varied widely depending on the definition used (DBD; 24%-70%: DCD; 41%-91%). For kidneys from DCD donors, development of DGF was only associated with poorer 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate for 1 of 10 definitions of DGF, and no definition of DGF was associated with impaired graft survival. Conversely, for DBD kidneys, DGF, as defined in 9 of 10 different ways, was associated with poorer 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate and inferior graft survival. Importantly, the predictive power for poorer transplant outcome was comparable for all definitions of DGF. No definition of DGF is superior. We suggest that the most widely used and most easily calculated definition-the use of dialysis in the first postoperative week-should be universally adopted as the definition of DGF clinically and as a study endpoint.
    Transplantation 09/2013; · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 09/2013; 33(5):479-81.
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    ABSTRACT: B cells play an important role in renal allograft pathology, particularly in acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF; also known as BLyS) is a cytokine that enhances B-cell survival and proliferation. We analyzed serum BAFF levels in 32 patients undergoing antibody-incompatible (Ai) renal transplantation and 319 antibody-compatible transplant recipients and sought to determine whether there was a correlation with acute rejection and with transplant function and survival. We demonstrate that, in patients undergoing Ai transplantation, elevated serum BAFF levels at baseline (before both antibody removal/desensitization and transplantation) are associated with an increased risk of subsequent AMR. In antibody-compatible transplant recipients at lower risk of AMR, no statistically significant association was observed between pretransplantation serum BAFF and AMR. These data raise the possibility that, in high immunologic risk patients undergoing Ai transplantation, the presence of elevated pretransplantation serum BAFF might identify those at increased risk of AMR. BAFF neutralization may be an interesting therapeutic strategy to explore in these patients, particularly because such agents are available and have already been used in the treatment of autoimmunity.
    Transplantation 07/2013; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the advent of cellular therapies, it has become clear that the success of future therapies in prolonging allograft survival will require an intimate understanding of the allorecognition pathways and effector mechanisms that are responsible for chronic rejection and late graft loss.Here, we consider current understanding of T-cell allorecognition pathways and discuss the most likely mechanisms by which these pathways collaborate with other effector mechanisms to cause allograft rejection. We also consider how this knowledge may inform development of future strategies to prevent allograft rejection.Although both direct and indirect pathway CD4 T cells appear active immediately after transplantation, it has emerged that indirect pathway CD4 T cells are likely to be the dominant alloreactive T-cell population late after transplantation. Their ability to provide help for generating long-lived alloantibody is likely one of the main mechanisms responsible for the progression of allograft vasculopathy and chronic rejection.Recent work has suggested that regulatory T cells may be an effective cellular therapy in transplantation. Given the above, adoptive therapy with CD4 regulatory T cells with indirect allospecificity is a rational first choice in attempting to attenuate the development and progression of chronic rejection; those with additional properties that enable inhibition of germinal center alloantibody responses hold particular appeal.
    Transplantation 05/2013; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In transplantation, direct-pathway CD8 T cells that recognize alloantigen on donor cells require CD4 help for activation and cytolytic function. The ability of indirect-pathway CD4 T cells to provide this help remains unexplained, because a fundamental requirement for epitope linkage is seemingly broken. The simultaneous presentation, by host dendritic cells (DCs), of both intact MHC class I alloantigen and processed alloantigen would deliver linked help, but has not been demonstrated definitively. In this study, we report that following in vitro coculture with BALB/c DCs, small numbers (∼1.5%) of C57BL/6 (B6) DCs presented acquired H-2(d) alloantigen both as processed allopeptide and as unprocessed Ag. This represented class I alloantigen provides a conformational epitope for direct-pathway allorecognition, because B6 DCs isolated from cocultures and transferred to naive B6 mice provoked cytotoxic CD8 T cell alloimmunity. Crucially, this response was dependent upon simultaneous presentation of class II-restricted allopeptide, because despite acquiring similar amounts of H-2(d) alloantigen upon coculture, MHC class II-deficient B6 DCs failed to elicit cytotoxic alloimmunity. The relevance of this pathway to solid-organ transplantation was then confirmed by the demonstration that CD8 T cell cytotoxicity was provoked in secondary recipients by transfer of DCs purified from wild-type, but not from MHC class II-deficient, C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c heart transplants. These experiments demonstrate that representation of conformationally intact MHC alloantigen by recipient APC can induce cytotoxic alloimmunity, but simultaneous copresentation of processed allopeptide is essential, presumably because this facilitates linked recognition by indirect-pathway CD4 Th cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Use of kidneys donated after controlled circulatory death has increased the number of transplants undertaken in the UK but there remains reluctance to use kidneys from older circulatory-death donors and concern that kidneys from circulatory-death donors are particularly susceptible to cold ischaemic injury. We aimed to compare the effect of donor age and cold ischaemic time on transplant outcome in kidneys donated after circulatory death versus brain death. METHODS: We used the UK transplant registry to select a cohort of first-time recipients (aged ≥18 years) of deceased-donor kidneys for transplantations done between Jan 1, 2005, and Nov 1, 2010. We did univariate comparisons of transplants from brain-death donors versus circulatory-death donors with χ(2) tests for categorical data and Wilcoxon tests for non-parametric continuous data. We used Kaplan-Meier curves to show graft survival. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for donor and recipient factors associated with graft-survival with tests for interaction effects to establish the relative effect of donor age and cold ischaemia on kidneys from circulatory-death and brain-death donors. FINDINGS: 6490 deceased-donor kidney transplants were done at 23 centres. 3 year graft survival showed no difference between circulatory-death (n=1768) and brain-death (n=4127) groups (HR 1·14, 95% CI 0·95-1·36, p=0·16). Donor age older than 60 years (compared with <40 years) was associated with an increased risk of graft loss for all deceased-donor kidneys (2·35, 1·85-3·00, p<0·0001) but there was no increased risk of graft loss for circulatory-death donors older than 60 years compared with brain-death donors in the same age group (p=0·30). Prolonged cold ischaemic time (>24 h vs <12 h) was not associated with decreased graft survival for all deceased-donor kidneys but was associated with poorer graft survival for kidneys from circulatory-death donors than for those from brain-death donors (2·36, 1·39-4·02, p for interaction=0·004). INTERPRETATION: Kidneys from older circulatory-death donors have equivalent graft survival to kidneys from brain-death donors in the same age group, and are acceptable for transplantation. However, circulatory-death donor kidneys tolerate cold storage less well than do brain-death donor kidneys and this finding should be considered when developing organ allocation policy. FUNDING: UK National Health Service Blood and Transplant; Cambridge National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre.
    The Lancet 12/2012; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Essential help for long-lived alloantibody responses is theoretically provided only by CD4 T cells that recognize target alloantigen, processed and presented by the allospecific B cell. We demonstrate that in an alloresponse to multiple MHC disparities, cognate help for class-switched alloantibody may also be provided by CD4 T cells specific for a second "helper" alloantigen. This response was much shorter-lived than when help was provided conventionally, by Th cell recognition of target alloantigen. Nevertheless, long-lasting humoral alloimmunity developed when T cell memory against the helper alloantigen was first generated. Costimulatory blockade abrogated alloantibody produced through naive Th cell recognition of target alloantigen but, crucially, blockade was ineffective when help was provided by memory responses to the accessory helper alloantigen. These results suggest that memory Th cell responses against previously encountered graft alloantigen may be the dominant mechanism for providing help to generate new specificities of alloantibody in transplant patients receiving immunosuppression.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fcγ receptors (FcγR) provide important immunoregulation. Targeting inhibitory FcγRIIb may therefore prolong allograft survival, but its role in transplantation has not been addressed. FcγRIIb signaling was examined in murine models of acute or chronic cardiac allograft rejection by transplanting recipients that either lacked FcγRIIb expression (FcγRIIb(-/-)) or overexpressed FcγRIIb on B cells (B cell transgenic [BTG]). Acute heart allograft rejection occurred at the same tempo in FcγRIIb(-/-) C57BL/6 (B6) recipients as wild type recipients, with similar IgG alloantibody responses. In contrast, chronic rejection of MHC class II-mismatched bm12 cardiac allografts was accelerated in FcγRIIb(-/-) mice, with development of more severe transplant arteriopathy and markedly augmented effector autoantibody production. Autoantibody production was inhibited and rejection was delayed in BTG recipients. Similarly, whereas MHC class I-mismatched B6.K(d) hearts survived indefinitely and remained disease free in B6 mice, much stronger alloantibody responses and progressive graft arteriopathy developed in FcγRIIb(-/-) recipients. Notably, FcγRIIb-mediated inhibition of B6.K(d) heart graft rejection was abrogated by increasing T cell help through transfer of additional H2.K(d)-specific CD4 T cells. Thus, inhibitory FcγRIIb signaling regulates chronic but not acute rejection, most likely because the supra-optimal helper CD4 T cell response in acute rejection overcomes FcγRIIb-mediated inhibition of the effector B cell population. Immunomodulation of FcγRIIb in clinical transplantation may hold potential for inhibiting progression of transplant arteriopathy and prolonging transplant survival.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The likelihood for immunological rejection of Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)-mismatched induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) limits their therapeutic potential. Here we show how a tissue bank from 150 selected homozygous HLA-typed volunteers could match 93% of the UK population with a minimal requirement for immunosuppression. Our model provides a practical approach for using existing HLA-typed samples to generate an iPSC stem cell bank that circumvents prospective typing of a large number of individuals.
    Cell stem cell 08/2012; 11(2):147-52. · 23.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The third edition of the joint British Transplantation Society/Renal Association guidelines for living donor kidney transplantation was published in May 2011. The guideline has been extensively revised since the previous edition in 2005 and has used the GRADE system to rate the strength of evidence and recommendations. This article summarizes the statements of recommendation contained in the guideline, which provide a framework for the delivery of living kidney donation in the United Kingdom and may be of wide international interest. It is recommended that the full guideline document is consulted for details of the relevant references and evidence base. This may be accessed at http://www.bts.org.uk/transplantation/standards-and-guidelines/ and http://www.renal.org/clinical/OtherGuidelines.aspx (transplantation is welcome to add a web link in this article to/through its own Web site to increase traffic).
    Transplantation 04/2012; 93(7):666-73. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The durable alloantibody responses that develop in organ transplant patients indicate long-lived plasma cell output from T-dependent germinal centers (GCs), but which of the two pathways of CD4 T cell allorecognition is responsible for generating allospecific T follicular helper cells remains unclear. This was addressed by reconstituting T cell-deficient mice with monoclonal populations of TCR-transgenic CD4 T cells that recognized alloantigen only as conformationally intact protein (direct pathway) or only as self-restricted allopeptide (indirect pathway) and then assessing the alloantibody response to a heart graft. Recipients reconstituted with indirect-pathway CD4 T cells developed long-lasting IgG alloantibody responses, with splenic GCs and allospecific bone marrow plasma cells readily detectable 50 d after heart transplantation. Differentiation of the transferred CD4 T cells into T follicular helper cells was confirmed by follicular localization and by acquisition of signature phenotype. In contrast, IgG alloantibody was not detectable in recipient mice reconstituted with direct-pathway CD4 T cells. Neither prolongation of the response by preventing NK cell killing of donor dendritic cells nor prior immunization to develop CD4 T cell memory altered the inability of the direct pathway to provide allospecific B cell help. CD4 T cell help for GC alloantibody responses is provided exclusively via the indirect-allorecognition pathway.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(6):2643-52. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the deceased donor factors associated with outcome after kidney transplantation and to develop a clinically applicable Kidney Donor Risk Index. Data from the UK Transplant Registry on 7620 adult recipients of adult deceased donor kidney transplants between 2000 and 2007 inclusive were analyzed. Donor factors potentially influencing transplant outcome were investigated using Cox regression, adjusting for significant recipient and transplant factors. A United Kingdom Kidney Donor Risk Index was derived from the model and validated. Donor age was the most significant factor predicting poor transplant outcome (hazard ratio for 18-39 and 60+ years relative to 40-59 years was 0.78 and 1.49, respectively, P<0.001). A history of donor hypertension was also associated with increased risk (hazard ratio 1.30, P=0.001), and increased donor body weight, longer hospital stay before death, and use of adrenaline were also significantly associated with poorer outcomes up to 3 years posttransplant. Other donor factors including donation after circulatory death, history of cardiothoracic disease, diabetes history, and terminal creatinine were not significant. A donor risk index based on the five significant donor factors was derived and confirmed to be prognostic of outcome in a validation cohort (concordance statistic 0.62). An index developed in the United States by Rao et al., Transplantation 2009; 88: 231-236, included 15 factors and gave a concordance statistic of 0.63 in the UK context, suggesting that our much simpler model has equivalent predictive ability. A Kidney Donor Risk Index based on five donor variables provides a clinically useful tool that may help with organ allocation and informed consent.
    Transplantation 12/2011; 93(3):314-8. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major cause of organ transplant failure that responds poorly to treatment. Endothelial activation, dysfunction and apoptosis contribute to CAV, whereas strategies for protecting endothelium and maximizing endothelial repair may diminish it. Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (LO-EPC) can home to areas of injury and integrate into damaged vessels, implying a role in vascular repair; however, in an allograft, LO-EPC would be exposed to the hazardous microenvironment associated with transplant-related ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) injury and persistent inflammation. We evaluated the in vitro effect of I/R injury and the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α on LO-EPC phenotype and function. We show that LO-EPC are intrinsically more tolerant than mature EC to I/R injury induced apoptosis, maintaining their proliferative, migratory and network formation capacity. Under inflammatory conditions, LO-EPC were activated and released higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, upregulated adhesion molecule expression, and were more susceptible to apoptosis. Lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of the protective gene A20 in LO-EPC maintained their angiogenic phenotype and function, and protected them against TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, reducing ICAM-1 expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Administration of ex vivo modified LO-EPC overexpressing A20 might effect vascular repair of damaged allografts and protect from CAV.
    Transplant International 11/2011; 25(2):229-41. · 3.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
605.16 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2012
    • Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      • Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (Tissue Typing) Laboratory
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • NHS Blood and Transplant
      Watford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2003
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom