[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant myxoma virus (MYXV) can be produced without a loss of infectivity, and its highly specific host range makes it an ideal vaccine vector candidate, although careful examination of its interaction with the immune system is necessary. Similar to rabbit bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), ovine dendritic cells can be infected by SG33, a MYXV vaccine strain, and support recombinant antigen expression. The frequency of infected cells in the nonhost was lower and the virus cycle was abortive in these cell types. Among BM-DC subpopulations, Langerhans cell-like DCs were preferentially infected at low multiplicities of infection. Interestingly, ovine BM-DCs remained susceptible to MYXV after maturation, although apoptosis occurred shortly after infection as a function of the virus titer. When gene expression was assessed in infected BM-DC cultures, type I interferon (IFN)-related and inflammatory genes were strongly upregulated. DC gene expression profiles were compared with the profiles produced by other poxviruses in interaction with DCs, but very few commonalities were found, although genes that were previously shown to predict vaccine efficacy were present. Collectively, these data support the idea that MYXV permits efficient priming of adaptive immune responses and should be considered a promising vaccine vector along with other poxviruses.
Journal of Virology 08/2011; 85(24):12982-94. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiling studies of mastitis in ruminants have provided key but fragmented knowledge for the understanding of the disease. A systematic combination of different expression profiling studies via meta-analysis techniques has the potential to test the extensibility of conclusions based on single studies. Using the program Pointillist, we performed meta-analysis of transcription-profiling data from six independent studies of infections with mammary gland pathogens, including samples from cattle challenged in vivo with S. aureus, E. coli, and S. uberis, samples from goats challenged in vivo with S. aureus, as well as cattle macrophages and ovine dendritic cells infected in vitro with S. aureus. We combined different time points from those studies, testing different responses to mastitis infection: overall (common signature), early stage, late stage, and cattle-specific.
Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of affected genes showed that the four meta-analysis combinations share biological functions and pathways (e.g. protein ubiquitination and polyamine regulation) which are intrinsic to the general disease response. In the overall response, pathways related to immune response and inflammation, as well as biological functions related to lipid metabolism were altered. This latter observation is consistent with the milk fat content depression commonly observed during mastitis infection. Complementarities between early and late stage responses were found, with a prominence of metabolic and stress signals in the early stage and of the immune response related to the lipid metabolism in the late stage; both mechanisms apparently modulated by few genes, including XBP1 and SREBF1.The cattle-specific response was characterized by alteration of the immune response and by modification of lipid metabolism. Comparison of E. coli and S. aureus infections in cattle in vivo revealed that affected genes showing opposite regulation had the same altered biological functions and provided evidence that E. coli caused a stronger host response.
This meta-analysis approach reinforces previous findings but also reveals several novel themes, including the involvement of genes, biological functions, and pathways that were not identified in individual studies. As such, it provides an interesting proof of principle for future studies combining information from diverse heterogeneous sources.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of humans and animals and emerging antibiotic-resistant strains have further increased the concern of this health issue. Host genetics influence susceptibility to S. aureus infections, and the genes determining the outcome of infections should be identified to find alternative therapies to treatment with antibiotics. Here, we used outbred animals from a divergent selection based on susceptibility towards Staphylococcus infection to explore host immunogenetics.
We investigated how dendritic cells respond to heat-inactivated S. aureus and whether dendritic cells from animals showing different degrees of susceptibility had distinct gene expression profiles. We measured gene expression levels of in vitro S. aureus-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at three different time points (0, 3 and 8 hrs) by using 15 k ovine Agilent microarrays. Furthermore, differential expression of a selected number of genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Gene signatures of stimulated DCs were obtained and showed that genes involved in the inflammatory process and T helper cell polarization were highly up-regulated upon stimulation. Moreover, a set of 204 genes were statistically differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant animals, and grouped them according to their predisposition to staphylococcal infection. Interestingly, over-expression of the C1q and Ido1 genes was observed in the resistant line and suggested a role of classical pathway of complement and early regulation of inflammation pathways, respectively. On the contrary, over expression of genes involved in the IL1R pathway was observed in susceptible animals. Furthermore, the leucocyte extravasation pathway was also found to be dominant in the susceptible line.
We successfully obtained Staphylococcus aureus associated gene expression of ovine BM-DC in an 8-hour kinetics experiment. The distinct transcriptional profiles of dendritic cells obtained from resistant and susceptible animals may explain susceptibility towards S. aureus infections in a broader context.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e22147. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of a genetic basis for host responses to bacterial intramammary infections has been widely documented, but the underlying mechanisms and the genes are still largely unknown. Previously, two divergent lines of sheep selected for high/low milk somatic cell scores have been shown to be respectively susceptible and resistant to intramammary infections by Staphylococcus spp. Transcriptional profiling with an 15K ovine-specific microarray of the milk somatic cells of susceptible and resistant sheep infected successively by S. epidermidis and S. aureus was performed in order to enhance our understanding of the molecular and cellular events associated with mastitis resistance.
The bacteriological titre was lower in the resistant than in the susceptible animals in the 48 hours following inoculation, although milk somatic cell concentration was similar. Gene expression was analysed in milk somatic cells, mainly represented by neutrophils, collected 12 hours post-challenge. A high number of differentially expressed genes between the two challenges indicated that more T cells are recruited upon inoculation by S. aureus than S. epidermidis. A total of 52 genes were significantly differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible animals. Further Gene Ontology analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, leukocyte adhesion, cell migration, and signal transduction. Close biological relationships could be established between most genes using gene network analysis. Furthermore, gene expression suggests that the cell turn-over, as a consequence of apoptosis/granulopoiesis, may be enhanced in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible line.
Gene profiling in resistant and susceptible lines has provided good candidates for mapping the biological pathways and genes underlying genetically determined resistance and susceptibility towards Staphylococcus infections, and opens new fields for further investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas studies on dendritic cells in rodents rely largely on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), no data are available about BM-DCs in sheep, a species that is largely used for immunology and transplantation studies. We have developed a culture protocol to produce ovine BM-DCs, using 6x(His)-tagged recombinant GM-CSF which was purified from baculovirus-infected insect cells. When ovine bone marrow progenitors were cultured in the presence of recombinant GM-CSF, large numbers of CD11c-positive cells were generated after 6-7 days. The phenotypic appearance of BM-DCs was assessed by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Two DC subsets were identified that expressed different levels of MHC class II molecules, differed in receptor-mediated endocytosis, and could be separated on CD11b expression. When separated cells were incubated with microbial products, they react differently to those that are considered the TLR2 and TLR4 agonists in other species. Indeed, although CD11b(int/hi) cells were partially resistant to maturation induced by lipoteichoic acid or lipopolysaccharide, MHC class II upregulation was observed on CD11b(dull) cells. Moreover, these cells had strong stimulatory capacity for CD4 T cells when assayed in allogeneic reactions. This protocol will help analyzing ovine DC interactions with pathogens, and enables future studies on the development of vaccines.
Journal of Immunological Methods 09/2008; 339(1):1-10. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myxoma virus (MYXV), a leporide-specific poxvirus, represents an attractive candidate for the generation of safe and non-replicative vaccine vectors for other species. With the aim of developing new recombinant vaccines for ruminants, we evaluated the safety and the immunogenicity of recombinant MYXV in sheep. In vitro studies indicated that ovine primary fibroblasts were not permissive for MYXV and that infection of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred at a low rate. Although non-specific activation significantly improved the susceptibility of lymphocytes, MYXV infection remained abortive. Histological and immunohistochemical examination at the inoculation sites revealed the development of an inflammatory process and allowed the detection of sparse infected cells in the dermis. In addition, inoculated sheep developed an antibody response directed against MYXV and the product of the transgene. Overall, these results provide the first line of evidence on the potential of MYXV as a viral vector for ruminants.
Journal of General Virology 07/2008; 89(Pt 6):1371-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor