David R Anderson

Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus, Provo, UT, United States

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Publications (26)49.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To respond to the question, "Do workplace health promotion programs work?" Methods: A compilation of the evidence on workplace programs' effectiveness coupled with recommendations for critical review of outcome studies. Also, reviewed are recent studies questioning the value of workplace programs. Results: Evidence accumulated over the past three decades shows that well-designed and well-executed programs that are founded on evidence-based principles can achieve positive health and financial outcomes. Conclusions: Employers seeking a program that "works" are urged to consider their goals and whether they have an organizational culture that can facilitate success. Employers who choose to adopt a health promotion program should use best and promising practices to maximize the likelihood of achieving positive results.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 08/2014; 56(9). DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000276 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the ability of the Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Scorecard to predict changes in health care expenditures. Individual employee health care insurance claims data for 33 organizations completing the HERO Scorecard from 2009 to 2011 were linked to employer responses to the Scorecard. Organizations were dichotomized into "high" versus "low" scoring groups and health care cost trends were compared. A secondary analysis examined the tool's ability to predict health risk trends. "High" scorers experienced significant reductions in inflation-adjusted health care costs (averaging an annual trend of -1.6% over 3 years) compared with "low" scorers whose cost trend remained stable. The risk analysis was inconclusive because of the small number of employers scoring "low." The HERO Scorecard predicts health care cost trends among employers. More research is needed to determine how well it predicts health risk trends for employees.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000081 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. METHODS:: Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. RESULTS:: Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. CONCLUSION:: Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 12/2012; 55(1). DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31827b73af · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To assess the influence of health risk change on changes in health care costs. METHODS:: Multivariate regression models examined change in health care costs concurrent with and following completion of two health assessments (HAs) approximately 1 year apart. Final models examined changes in costs for individuals with and without chronic conditions. RESULTS:: After controlling for chronic condition status, health risk changes between the first and second HA were associated with health care cost changes in the year following the second HA. Those with chronic conditions experienced reductions of $129 for each risk reduced and increases of $210 for each risk added. CONCLUSIONS:: Changes in health care costs were preceded by changes in health risk status, supporting the use of HA and biometric screening measures as leading indicators of the cost impact of health management programs.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 10/2012; DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31826b4996 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism. (Population Health Management 2012:15:293-301).
    Population Health Management 08/2012; 15(5):293-301. DOI:10.1089/pop.2012.0003 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the need for worksite cultures of health, the organizational factors that support worksite cultures of health, the tools that have been used to measure worksite cultures of health, and the research needs related to healthy worksite culture. A cross-sectional survey involving a sample of 500 companies representing a broad spectrum of industries and business sectors. A literature review was conducted. Similar to a culture of safety that encourages safer behaviors and enables a safer workplace, a culture of health provides a supportive work leadership with a favorable work environment and health-related policies that promote employee health and result in substantial decrease in employee health risks and medical costs. Worksite policies and environments supporting a culture of health are important to helping employees adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 03/2012; 54(4):414-9. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31824be25f · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Jessica Grossmeier · Paul E Terry · David R Anderson · Steven Wright
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    ABSTRACT: Although many employers offer some components of worksite-based population health management (PHM), most do not yet invest in comprehensive programs. This hesitation to invest in comprehensive programs may be attributed to numerous factors, such as other more pressing business priorities, reluctance to intervene in the personal health choices of employees, or insufficient funds for employee health. Many decision makers also remain skeptical about whether investment in comprehensive programs will produce a financial return on investment (ROI). Most peer-reviewed studies assessing the financial impact of PHM were published before 2000 and include a broad array of program and study designs. Many of these studies have also included indirect productivity savings in their assessment of financial outcomes. In contrast, this review includes only peer-reviewed studies of the direct health care cost impact of comprehensive PHM programs that meet rigorous methodological criteria. A systematic search of health sciences databases identified only 5 studies with program designs and study methods meeting these selection criteria published after 2007. This focused review found that comprehensive PHM programs can yield a positive ROI based on their impact on direct health care costs, but the level of ROI achieved was lower than that reported by literature reviews with less focused and restrictive qualifying criteria. To yield substantial short-term health care cost savings, the longer term financial return that can credibly be associated with a comprehensive, prevention-oriented population health program must be augmented by other financial impact strategies.
    Population Health Management 02/2012; 15(3):129-34. DOI:10.1089/pop.2010.0086 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • American journal of health promotion: AJHP 09/2011; 26(1):eiii-ev. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.26.1.c2 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Employee health promotion programs have been a visible facet of the American workplace for more than 30 years. During that time, a substantial amount of research on best practices has been conducted, but because of a lack of significant public investment in research funding there is still much to be done. Most researchers and practitioners familiar with the literature recognize the need to strengthen the evidence base for the field. In this edition of The Art of Health Promotion we examine the primary recommendations emerging from a recent federally sponsored effort to identify strategies for strengthening the evidence base for employee health promotion.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 09/2011; 26(1):TAHP1-6, iii. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.26.1.tahp · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Paul E Terry · David R Anderson
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 09/2011; 26(1):ev-evii. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.26.1.c3 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • American journal of health promotion: AJHP 03/2011; 25(4):ei-eviii. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.25.4.ei · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the effectiveness of a wellness program in a small company using four well-being indicators designed to measure dimensions of physical health, emotional health, healthy behavior, and basic access to health-related conditions and services. Indicator scores were obtained and compared between Lincoln Industries employees and workers in the neighboring Lincoln/Omaha community during 2009. Nearly all Lincoln Industries employees participated in the wellness program. Physical health, mental health, and healthy behavior were significantly greater for Lincoln Industries employees. Self-perceived access to basic needs was not significantly greater among Lincoln Industries employees. Well-being index scores provide evidence for the effectiveness of the wellness program in this small company setting with respect to better dimensions of physical health, emotional health, and healthy behavior than geographically similar workers.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 03/2011; 53(4):448-54. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182143ed0 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the level of participation and effectiveness of a worksite wellness program in a small business setting. Three years of wellness participation and risk data from Lincoln Industries was analyzed. All Lincoln Industry employees participated in at least some level of wellness programming. Significant improvements in body fat, blood pressure, and flexibility were observed across time. The largest improvements in risk were seen among older employees and those with the highest baseline values. This small business was able to improve the health of the entire workforce population by integrating wellness deeply into their culture and operations. Replication of this program in other small business settings could have a large impact on public health since 60 million adults in the United States work in small businesses.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 02/2011; 53(2):127-31. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e318209e18b · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Examine the long-term impact of a telephone-based weight management program among participants recruited from worksite settings. Pre/post quasi-experimental design comparing weight loss and related behaviors between program completers and noncompleters. Ten large private-sector and public-sector employers. Overweight or obese participants (n  =  1298) enrolled in a telephone-based weight management program. Individually tailored telephone-based weight management coaching program that included up to five calls over a median of 250 days. Weight, body mass index, and lifestyle behaviors assessed via health risk assessment at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Chi-square and one-way analysis of variance procedures were used to assess between-group differences in weight and associated behaviors, with criterion for significance set at p < .05. Among weight management program participants, 48% of program completers and 47% of noncompleters lost weight, but program completers averaged 2.6 times more weight loss than noncompleters. Improvements in physical activity, eating habits, and overall health status were reported for completers. The weight loss attained among participants who lost weight, along with the improvements in physical activity and nutrition practices, suggests that a telephone-based weight management program of modest intensity can have a positive impact on the health of obese or overweight worksite participants.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 01/2011; 25(3):186-9. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.081112-QUAN-281 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the performance of predictive models based on health care claims, health risk assessment (HRA), or both in prospectively identifying high-cost individuals with chronic conditions. Participants included 8056 employees who completed an HRA and were enrolled in a health plan for at least 6 months during the 36-month study period. Two-stage multivariate regression identified predictors of claims cost in four age-by-gender groups. All models predicted costs effectively, but the combined model performed better (R2 = 0.198 to 0.309) than either the claims-based (R2 = 0.168 to 0.263) or HRA-based model (R2 = 0.125 to 0.205). An HRA-based predictive model appears to be a reasonable alternative to claims-based predictive models for identifying individuals for chronic condition management outreach. Where practical, a combined model offers advantages of both approaches and meaningfully increases accuracy.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 06/2010; 52(6):635-46. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181e31792 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of financial incentives, communications strategy, and worksite culture on health risk assessment (HRA) participation rates. A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that influence employee participation, including incentive value, incentive design, communications strategy, and worksite culture. Large private-sector and public-sector employers. Thirty-six employers (n = 559,988 employees) that provided financial incentives to promote employee HRA participation. Organizations implemented the HRA as part of a more comprehensive worksite health promotion strategy that included follow-up interventions and a variety of other components. The primary outcome of interest was employee HRA participation. Information on program design and structure, as well as on HRA eligibility and participation, was collected for each organization via standard client report and semistructured interviews with account managers. General linear regression models were used to examine the extent to which factors influence HRA participation independently and when controlled for other factors. Incentive value (r2 = .433; p < .000), benefits-integrated incentive design (r2 = .184; p = .009), culture (r2 = .113; p = .045), and communications strategy (r = .300; p = .001) had positive bivariate associations with HRA participation rates. When all factors were included in the model, incentive value (p = .001) and communications strategy (p = .023) were significantly associated with HRA participation. Variance accounted for by all factors combined was R12 = .584. This study suggests that incentive value, incentive type, supportive worksite culture, and comprehensive communications strategy may all play a role in increasing HRA participation.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 05/2009; 23(5):343-52. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.08041134 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence demonstrates a relationship between excess health risk and preventable productivity loss. There is a need to quantify how much lost productivity is avoidable through employer-sponsored health management interventions. This study introduced the Normal Impairment Factor (NIF) to recognize the amount of productivity loss that cannot be mitigated through health management interventions. A health assessment questionnaire was administered to 772,750 employees, representing 106 employers within five industry sectors. Researchers used multivariate regression procedures to examine the association between preventable health risks and self-reported productivity loss. Back pain, mental well being, and stress risk were the strongest predictors of on-the-job productivity loss. A strong association was also detected between the number of health risks and productivity loss ranging from 3.4% for those at lowest risk (the NIF group) to 24.0% loss for those at risk for eight risks. This study demonstrated the utility of the NIF in estimating the level of productivity loss that cannot be regained through health management interventions.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 03/2009; 51(3):283-95. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31819eaac0 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of "best practice" program components across a select sample of organizations, and to explore differences in engagement rates and health risk reduction between organizations using "best-practice" and "common-practice" health management approaches. Using a retrospective approach, researchers assigned organizations to a "best practice" or "common-practice" group based on well-defined criteria. The study examined group differences in employee health assessment participation rates, health coaching program participation and completion rates, and organizational-level health risk reduction. Best-practice organizations achieved higher levels of engagement than common-practice organizations in both health assessment and health coaching programs. Population-level and intervention-level health risk reduction was 2.35 and 1.08 times higher, respectively, among best-practice organizations compared with common-practice organizations. This study demonstrates the contribution of quality program components to superior program engagement rates and health outcomes.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 07/2008; 50(6):633-41. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e31817e7c1c · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LEARNING OBJECTIVES: • The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that (1) the use of incentives for health assessment participation is a recommended element of worksite health management programs, (2) financial incentives are superior to nonfinancial incentives, (3) integration of incentive strategies within a health plan design is an innovative way to reduce the organizational cost of an incentive while increasing the perceived value to employees, and (4) a supportive organizational culture and effective communication strategy may increase the effectiveness of incentives in driving participation.
    ACSM s Health & Fitness Journal 06/2008; 12(4):18-22. DOI:10.1249/FIT.0b013e31817bf643 · 0.27 Impact Factor
  • Troy B Adams · Sarah M Keup · David R Anderson · April M Brockmann
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the characteristics of the articles reviewed in the DataBase section of the American Journal of Health Promotion and to summarize this review in tabular format. All 350 entries in the American Journal of Health Promotion DataBase section beginning with issue 1:3 (Winter 1987) through issue 17:3 (January/February 2003) were included in this review. Every study summarized in the DataBase section was included. Five duplicate sets of entries existed in the DataBase section. One entry from each set was excluded based upon author consensus. Thus, this review includes 345 unique entries. All data reported in the DataBase section (e.g., sample sizes, measurement tools, study duration), as well as additional data derived directly from the studies (i.e., cross-sectional versus longitudinal study design, unit of analysis, and study topic) were entered in SPSS 11.5 for PC (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Illinois). Data were synthesized to identify the frequency of entry by research question, research design and internal validity rating, unit of analysis, measurement tool(s), and health topics addressed. The majority of articles included in the DataBase received the highest research design rating, had robust sample sizes, and were of a meaningful duration. Additionally, a wide variety of topics were addressed. Overall, these strengths indicate that a solid foundation of research has been established on many of the most critical issues facing the health promotion field.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 03/2004; 18(4):328-32. DOI:10.4278/0890-1171-18.4.328 · 2.37 Impact Factor