[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural products, and their derivatives and mimics, have contributed to the development of important therapeutics to combat diseases such as infections and cancers over the past decades. The value of natural products to modern drug discovery is still considerable. However, its development is hampered by a lack of a mechanistic understanding of their molecular action, as opposed to the emerging molecule-targeted therapeutics that are tailored to a specific protein target(s). Recent advances in the mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches have the potential to offer unprecedented insights into the molecular action of natural products. Chemical proteomics is established as an invaluable tool for the identification of protein targets of natural products. Small-molecule affinity selection combined with mass spectrometry is a successful strategy to "fish" cellular targets from the entire proteome. Mass spectrometry-based profiling of protein expression is also routinely employed to elucidate molecular pathways involved in the therapeutic and possible toxicological responses upon treatment with natural products. In addition, mass spectrometry is increasingly utilized to probe structural aspects of natural products-protein interactions. Limited proteolysis, photoaffinity labeling, and hydrogen/deuterium exchange in conjunction with mass spectrometry are sensitive and high-throughput strategies that provide low-resolution structural information of non-covalent natural product-protein complexes. In this review, we provide an overview on the applications of mass spectrometry-based techniques in the identification and characterization of natural product-protein interactions, and we describe how these applications might revolutionize natural product-based drug discovery.
Mass Spectrometry Reviews 01/2009; 29(1):126-55. DOI:10.1002/mas.20235 · 7.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to find out new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 45 selected medicinal plants were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, respectively, and the total phenolic contents of these plants were measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Most of these plants were analyzed for the first time for their antioxidant activities. It was found that the plants Sargentodoxa cuneata Rehd. Et Wils, Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance, Paeonia lactiflora Pall, Paeonia suffruticosa Andr and Scutellaria baicalensis Ceorgi possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and thus could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. A strong correlation between TEAC values and those obtained from FRAP assay implied that antioxidants in these plants were capable of scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidants. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor of antioxidant activity of these plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to identify new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants, the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of 23 microalgae were evaluated, using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. The microalgae were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate and water by a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Most of these microalgae were evaluated for the first time for their antioxidant activities. It was found that the microalgae Synechococcus sp. FACHB 283, Chlamydomonas nivalis and Nostoc ellipsosporum CCAP 1453/17 possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and thus could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. In addition, the correlation coefficients between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic contents were very small in hexane (R2 = 0.0075), ethyl acetate (R2 = 0.5851) and water (R2 = 0.3599) fractions. Thus, phenolic compounds were not a major contributor to the antioxidant capacities of these microalgae. This was very different from many other plant species like fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. The microalgae could contain different antioxidant compounds from other plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives.
Relation and comparison of extraction efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods with the reference method
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of 30 Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. The Chinese medicinal plants were extracted by the traditional method, boiling in water and also in 80% methanol. A significant and linear correlation coefficient between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content was found in both aqueous (R2 = 0.7917) and methanol (R2 = 0.7584) extracts. Phenolic compounds are thus a major contributor of antioxidant activity. Comparing the extraction efficiency of the two methods, the boiling water method extracted phenolic compounds more efficiently, and antioxidant activity of the extract was higher. It was found that the Chinese medicinal plants Rhodiola sacra Fu, the stem of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and the root of P. multiflorum Thunb. possessed the highest antioxidant activities and thus could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants.