[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to its role in the regulation of artery contraction, Rho kinase (ROCK) was reported to be involved in the cytosolic calcium response to vasoconstrictor agonists in rat aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). However, it remains to be determined whether ROCK also contributes to calcium signaling in resistance arteries, which play a major role in blood pressure regulation. The investigation of the effect of ROCK inhibition on the calcium and contractile responses of rat resistance mesenteric artery (RMA), in comparison with aorta and SMA, indicated that the calcium response to noradrenaline was inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in aorta and SMA but not in RMA. The effect of Y-27632 on the calcium signal was unaffected by cytochalasin-D. ROCK activation in noradrenaline-stimulated arteries was confirmed by the inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation by Y-27632. Moreover, noradrenaline-induced calcium signaling was similarly inhibited by nimodipine in aorta, SMA and RMA, but nimodipine sensitivity of the contraction increased from the aorta to the RMA, suggesting that the contraction was controlled by different sources of calcium. In pressurized RMA, Y-27632 and H-1152 depressed pressure-induced calcium responses and abolished myogenic contraction. These results stress the important differences in calcium signaling between conductance and resistance arteries.
Journal of Vascular Research 09/2012; 49(6):522-33. DOI:10.1159/000341230 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the impact of hypoxia-reoxygenation on endothelial relaxation and aimed to clarify the role of transient receptor potential cation channels V4 (TRPV4) and gap junctions in the protective effect associated with hypoxic preconditioning on the vascular function.
By mimicking ischemia-reperfusion in C57BL/6 male mice in vivo, we documented a reduced NO-mediated relaxation and an increased endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH[F])-mediated relaxation. Hypoxic preconditioning, however, restored NO relaxation and further improved the EDH(F) response. We also examined specifically 2 major effectors of the EDH(F) pathway, transient receptor potential cation channels V4 and connexins. We found that in endothelial cells, expression and activity of transient receptor potential cation channels V4 were increased by hypoxic stimuli independently of preconditioning which was interestingly associated with an increase of structural caveolar component caveolin-1 at membrane locations. Gap junctions, however, seemed to directly support EDH(F)-driven preconditioning as connexin 40 and connexin 43 expression increased and as in vivo carbenoxolone treatment completely inhibited the EDH(F) pathway and significantly reduced the protection afforded by preconditioning for the concomitant NO-mediated relaxation.
Our work provides evidence on how transient receptor potential cation channels V4 and connexins might participate in preserving vasorelaxation under hypoxia and restoring the NO-mediated pathway in hypoxic preconditioning conditions pointing out caveolae as a common signaling location.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor control. This review will focus on the mechanisms underlying beta-blocker-evoked vasorelaxation with a specific emphasis on agonist properties of beta(3)-adrenergic receptors.
Current Hypertension Reports 05/2012; 14(4):310-7. DOI:10.1007/s11906-012-0278-3 · 3.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in the cross-talk between NADPH oxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling in endothelial caveolae.
In intact endothelial cells, angiotensin II (AII) concurrently increased NO and O(2)(-·) production (to 158±12% and 209±5% of control). NO production was sensitive to inhibition of NADPH oxidase and small interfering RNA downregulation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase cAbl. Reciprocally, N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor, partly inhibited O(2)(-·) stimulated by AII (by 47±11%), indicating eNOS uncoupling, as confirmed by increased eNOS monomer/dimer ratio (by 35%). In endothelial cell fractions separated by isopycnic ultracentrifugation, AII promoted colocalization of cAbl and the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox with eNOS to Cav-1-enriched fractions, as confirmed by proximity ligation assay. Downregulation of Cav-1 by small interfering RNA (to 50%), although it preserved eNOS confinement, inhibited AII-stimulated p47phox translocation and NADPH oxidase activity in Cav-1-enriched fractions and reversed eNOS uncoupling. AII infusion produced hypertension and decreased blood hemoglobin-NO in Cav-1(+/+) mice but not in heterozygote Cav-1(+/-) mice with similar Cav-1 reduction.
Cav-1 critically regulates reactive oxygen species-dependent eNOS activation but also eNOS uncoupling in response to AII, underlining the possibility to treat endothelial dysfunction by modulating Cav-1 abundance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since tumor growth is highly dependent on the formation of new blood vessels, angiogenesis inhibitors have become important players in anticancer treatments. Although less cytotoxic than conventional chemotherapy, most of the available antiangiogenic agents may provoke severe adverse effects which can limit their use. The design of new antiangiogenic strategies therefore requires integrating an early evaluation of possible interference with quiescent endothelial cells and nontumor angiogenesis. Here, we describe such a novel antiangiogenic approach based on the in vivo delivery by gene electrotransfer of a negative regulator of angiogenesis, namely, sFlt1. We found that this soluble variant of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (Flt1, also known as VEGFR1), which acts as a VEGF trap, differentially influences tumor and postischemic hind limb angiogenesis in mice. sFlt1 gene electrotransfer in tibial cranial muscle leads to high sFlt1 protein expression and secretion, leading to a significant delay in the growth of syngeneic tumors but not altering the revascularization of ischemic peripheral tissue. The higher sensitivity of tumor-bearing animals toward sFlt1 trapping effects (vs ischemia-recovering animals) might be explained by a distinct pattern of VEGF release, as shown by VEGF measurements in plasma and tissue. In conclusion, our data support sFlt1 gene electrotransfer as a novel and safe modality to target VEGF-driven tumor angiogenesis and to maintain unaltered the recovery potential of ischemic tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood coagulation starts immediately after damage to the vascular endothelium. This system is essential for minimizing blood loss from an injured blood vessel but also contributes to vascular thrombosis. Although it has long been thought that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo, recent data obtained with genetically altered mice indicate that contact phase proteins seem to be essential for thrombus formation. We show that recombinant Ixodes ricinus contact phase inhibitor (Ir-CPI), a Kunitz-type protein expressed by the salivary glands of the tick Ixodes ricinus, specifically interacts with activated human contact phase factors (FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein) and prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in vitro. The effects of Ir-CPI were also examined in vivo using both venous and arterial thrombosis models. Intravenous administration of Ir-CPI in rats and mice caused a dose-dependent reduction in venous thrombus formation and revealed a defect in the formation of arterial occlusive thrombi. Moreover, mice injected with Ir-CPI are protected against collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Remarkably, the effective antithrombotic dose of Ir-CPI did not promote bleeding or impair blood coagulation parameters. To conclude, our results show that a contact phase inhibitor is an effective and safe antithrombotic agent in vivo.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2009; 206(11):2381-95. DOI:10.1084/jem.20091007 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelium plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the release of vasoactive factors. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF) are the two major actors controlling the vasomotor tone. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was reported in the mid 90ies to be under the control of caveolin, the structural protein of caveolae. Nowadays, a large body of evidence has confirmed that the caveolin/eNOS interaction was needed to prevent inadequate NO production under basal conditions but also to facilitate the integration of extracellular stimuli to intracellular NO signals. Compartmentation of key actors in the EDHF signaling pathway is now also proposed to take place into caveolae. Accordingly, caveolin-deficient animals revealed both an unopposed NO production promoting vessel dilation and a lack of EDHF-driven vasorelaxation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are the link between caveolae and EDHF. Different TRP channels involved in the capacitative calcium entry were found to directly interact with caveolin-1 in endothelial cells. TRPC1 and TRPC4 form a complex with the endoplasmic reticulum IP3 receptor thereby optimizing calcium signaling. EDHF-driven vasodilation was documented to be altered in a TRPV4-deficient mouse model. The close vicinity between TRPV4 and SKCa channels in caveolae together with the gap-junctions subunits connexins support a role of these microdomains in the generation and propagation of EDHF to vascular smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, caveolae and caveolin are important control points in the control of blood pressure by the endothelium. This also highlights how any alteration in the caveolae integrity or caveolin abundance may lead to and/or exacerbate endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular diseases.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 10/2009; 60 Suppl 4:105-9. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological status of nitrite recently evolved from an inactive end product of nitric oxide catabolism to the largest intravascular and tissue storage of nitric oxide (NO). Although low partial O(2) pressure favors enzymatic reconversion of nitrite into NO, low pH supports a nonenzymatic pathway. Because hypoxia and acidity are characteristics of the tumor microenvironment, we examined whether nitrite injection could preferentially lead to NO production in tumors and influence response to treatments.
The effects of nitrite were evaluated on arteriole vasorelaxation, tumor cell respiration and tumor blood flow, oxygenation, and response to radiotherapy.
We first showed that a small drop in pH (-0.6 pH unit) favored the production of bioactive NO from nitrite by documenting a higher cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent arteriole vasorelaxation. We then documented that an i.v. bolus injection of nitrite to tumor-bearing mice led to a transient increase in partial O(2) pressure in tumor but not in healthy tissues. Blood flow measurements failed to reveal an effect of nitrite on tumor perfusion, but we found that O(2) consumption by nitrite-exposed tumor cells was decreased at acidic pH. Finally, we showed that low dose of nitrite could sensitize tumors to radiotherapy, leading to a significant growth delay and an increase in mouse survival (versus irradiation alone).
This study identified low pH condition (encountered in many tumors) as an exquisite environment that favors tumor-selective production of NO in response to nitrite systemic injection. This work opens new perspectives for the use of nitrite as a safe and clinically applicable radiosensitizing modality.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2008; 14(9):2768-74. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4001 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In endothelial cells, caveolin-1, the structural protein of caveolae, acts as a scaffolding protein to cluster lipids and signaling molecules within caveolae and, in some instances, regulates the activity of proteins targeted to caveolae. Specifically, different putative mediators of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated relaxation are located in caveolae and/or regulated by the structural protein caveolin-1, such as potassium channels, calcium regulatory proteins, and connexin 43, a molecular component of gap junctions.
Comparing relaxation in vessels from caveolin-1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates, we observed a complete absence of EDHF-mediated vasodilation in isolated mesenteric arteries from caveolin-1 knockout mice. The absence of caveolin-1 is associated with an impairment of calcium homeostasis in endothelial cells, notably, a decreased activity of Ca2+-permeable TRPV4 cation channels that participate in nitric oxide- and EDHF-mediated relaxation. Moreover, morphological characterization of caveolin-1 knockout and wild-type arteries showed fewer gap junctions in vessels from knockout animals associated with a lower expression of connexins 37, 40, and 43 and altered myoendothelial communication. Finally, we showed that TRPV4 channels and connexins colocalize with caveolin-1 in the caveolar compartment of the plasma membrane.
We demonstrated that expression of caveolin-1 is required for EDHF-related relaxation by modulating membrane location and activity of TRPV4 channels and connexins, which are both implicated at different steps in the EDHF-signaling pathway.