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Publications (5)26.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) target multiple epitopes on the same molecular target or different targets. Although interest in BsAbs has persisted for decades, production of stable and active BsAbs has hindered their clinical evaluation. Here, we describe the production and characterization of tetravalent IgG-like BsAbs that combine the activities of allosteric and competitive inhibitors of the type-I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). The BsAbs, which were engineered for thermal stability, express well, demonstrate favorable biophysical properties, and recognize both epitopes on IGF-1R. Only one BsAb with a unique geometry, denoted BIIB4-5scFv, was capable of engaging all four of its binding arms simultaneously. All the BsAbs (especially BIIB4-5scFv) demonstrated enhanced ligand blocking over the single monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), particularly at high ligand concentrations. The pharmacokinetic profiles of two IgG-like BsAbs were tested in nude mice and shown to be comparable with that of the parental mAbs. The BsAbs, especially BIIB4-5scFv, demonstrated an improved ability to reduce the growth of multiple tumor cell lines and to inhibit ligand-induced IGF-1R signaling in tumor cells over the parental mAbs. BIIB4-5scFv also led to superior tumor growth inhibition over its parental mAbs in vivo. In summary, BsAbs that bridge multiple inhibitory mechanisms against a single target may generally represent a more effective strategy for intervention in oncology or other indications compared with traditional mAb therapy.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(6):4703-4717. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) target multiple epitopes on the same molecular target or different targets. Although interest in BsAbs has persisted for decades, production of stable and active BsAbs has hindered their clinical evaluation. Here, we describe the production and characterization of tetravalent IgG-like BsAbs that combine the activities of allosteric and competitive inhibitors of the type-I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). The BsAbs, which were engineered for thermal stability, express well, demonstrate favorable biophysical properties, and recognize both epitopes on IGF-1R. Only one BsAb with a unique geometry, denoted BIIB4-5scFv, was capable of engaging all four of its binding arms simultaneously. All the BsAbs (especially BIIB4-5scFv) demonstrated enhanced ligand blocking over the single monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), particularly at high ligand concentrations. The pharmacokinetic profiles of two IgG-like BsAbs were tested in nude mice and shown to be comparable with that of the parental mAbs. The BsAbs, especially BIIB4-5scFv, demonstrated an improved ability to reduce the growth of multiple tumor cell lines and to inhibit ligand-induced IGF-1R signaling in tumor cells over the parental mAbs. BIIB4-5scFv also led to superior tumor growth inhibition over its parental mAbs in vivo. In summary, BsAbs that bridge multiple inhibitory mechanisms against a single target may generally represent a more effective strategy for intervention in oncology or other indications compared with traditional mAb therapy.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(6):4703-17. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein function is dictated by protein conformation. For the protein biopharmaceutical industry, therefore, it is important to have analytical tools that can detect changes in protein conformation rapidly, accurately, and with high sensitivity. In this paper we show that hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) can play an important role in fulfilling this need within the industry. H/DX-MS was used to assess both global and local conformational behavior of a recombinant monoclonal IgG1 antibody, a major class of biopharmaceuticals. Analysis of exchange into the intact, glycosylated IgG1 (and the Fab and Fc regions thereof) showed that the molecule was folded, highly stable, and highly amenable to analysis by this method using less than a nanomole of material. With improved chromatographic methods, peptide identification algorithms and data-processing steps, the analysis of deuterium levels in peptic peptides produced after labeling was accomplished in 1-2 days. On the basis of peptic peptide data, exchange was localized to specific regions of the antibody. Changes to IgG1 conformation as a result of deglycosylation were determined by comparing exchange into the glycosylated and deglycosylated forms of the antibody. Two regions of the IgG1 (residues 236-253 and 292-308) were found to have altered exchange properties upon deglycosylation. These results are consistent with previous findings concerning the role of glycosylation in the interaction of IgG1 with Fc receptors. Moreover, the data clearly illustrate how H/DX-MS can provide important characterization information on the higher order structure of antibodies and conformational changes that these molecules may experience upon modification.
    Analytical Chemistry 08/2009; 81(14):5966. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike small-molecule drugs, the conformational properties of protein biopharmaceuticals in solution are influenced by a variety of factors that are not solely defined by their covalent chemical structure. Since the conformation (or higher order structure) of a protein is a major modulator of its biological activity, the ability to detect changes in both the higher order structure and conformational dynamics of a protein, induced by an array of extrinsic factors, is of central importance in producing, purifying, and formulating a commercial biopharmaceutical with consistent therapeutic properties. In this study we demonstrate that two complementary mass spectrometry-based approaches (analysis of ionic charge-state distribution and hydrogen/deuterium exchange) can be a potent tool in monitoring conformational changes in protein biopharmaceuticals. The utility of these approaches is demonstrated by detecting and characterizing conformational changes in the biopharmaceutical product interferon beta-1a (IFN-beta-1a). The protein degradation process was modeled by inducing a single chemical modification of IFN-beta1a (alkylation of its only free cysteine residue with N-ethylmaleimide), which causes significant reduction in its antiviral activity. Analysis of IFN-beta1a ionic charge-state distributions unequivocally reveals a significant decrease of conformational stability in the degraded protein, while hydrogen/deuterium exchange measurements provide a clear indication that the higher order structure is affected well beyond the covalent modification site. Importantly, neither technique required that the location or indeed the nature of the chemical modification be known prior to or elucidated in the process of the analysis. In contrast, application of the standard armamentarium of biophysical tools, which are commonly employed for quality control of protein pharmaceuticals, met with very limited success in detection and characterization of conformational changes in the modified IFN-beta1a. This work highlights the role mass spectrometry can and should play in the biopharmaceutical industry beyond the presently assigned task of primary structure analysis.
    Analytical Chemistry 09/2008; 80(19):7473-81. · 5.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phosphorylation of IkappaB by the IKK complex targets it for degradation and releases NF-kappaB for translocation into the nucleus to initiate the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, or cell differentiation. The IKK complex is composed of the catalytic IKKalpha/beta kinases and a regulatory protein, NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO; IKKgamma). NEMO associates with the unphosphorylated IKK kinase C termini and activates the IKK complex's catalytic activity. However, detailed structural information about the NEMO/IKK interaction is lacking. In this study, we have identified the minimal requirements for NEMO and IKK kinase association using a variety of biophysical techniques and have solved two crystal structures of the minimal NEMO/IKK kinase associating domains. We demonstrate that the NEMO core domain is a dimer that binds two IKK fragments and identify energetic hot spots that can be exploited to inhibit IKK complex formation with a therapeutic agent.
    Structure 06/2008; 16(5):798-808. · 5.99 Impact Factor