Anne Hamik

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

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Publications (23)153.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of endothelial cell biology by the Notch signaling pathway (Notch) is essential to vascular development, homeostasis, and sprouting angiogenesis. While Notch determines cell-fate and differentiation in a wide variety of cells, the molecular basis of upstream regulation of Notch remains poorly understood. Our group and others have implicated the Kruppel-like factor family of transcription factors as critical regulators of endothelial function. Here, we show that Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), is a central regulator of sprouting angiogenesis through regulation of Notch. Using a murine model in which KLF4 is overexpressed exclusively in the endothelium, we found that sustained expression of KLF4 promotes ineffective angiogenesis leading to diminished tumor growth independent of endothelial cell proliferation or cell cycle regulation effects. These tumors feature increased vessel density, yet are hypoperfused, leading to tumor hypoxia. Mechanistically, we show that KLF4 differentially regulates expression of Notch receptors, ligands, and target genes. We also demonstrate that KLF4 limits cleavage-mediated activation of Notch1. Finally, we rescue Notch target gene expression and the KLF4 sprouting angiogenesis phenotype by supplementation of recombinant DLL4 protein. Identification of this hitherto undiscovered role of KLF4 implicates this transcription factor as a critical regulator of Notch, tumor angiogenesis, and sprouting angiogenesis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This invited review summarizes work presented in the Russell Ross lecture delivered at the 2012 proceedings of the American Heart Association. We begin with a brief overview of the structural, cellular, and molecular biology of Krüppel-like factors. We then focus on discoveries during the past decade, implicating Krüppel-like factors as key determinants of vascular cell function in atherosclerotic vascular disease.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor expressed in the vascular endothelium, where it promotes anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant states, and increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. We examined the role of endothelial KLF4 in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Mice with endothelial KLF4 knockdown were exposed to hypoxia for 3 weeks, followed by measurement of right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures, pulmonary vascular muscularization and right ventricular hypertrophy. The effect of KLF4 on target gene expression was assessed in lungs from these mice, verified in-vitro by siRNA knockdown of KLF4, and further studied at the promoter level with co-transfection experiments. KLF4 expression was measured in lung tissue from patients with PAH and normal controls. We found that following hypoxia, right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures were significantly higher in KLF4 knockdown animals than controls. Knockdown animals also had more severe pulmonary vascular muscularization and right ventricular hypertrophy. KLF4 knockdown resulted in increased pulmonary expression of endothelin-1 and decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin receptor subtype B and prostacyclin synthase. Concordant findings were observed in vitro, both with siRNA knockdown of KLF4 and promoter activity assays. Finally, KLF4 expression was reduced in lungs from patients with PAH. In conclusion, endothelial KLF4 regulates the transcription of genes involved in key pathways implicated in pulmonary arterial hypertension, and its loss exacerbates pulmonary hypertension in response to chronic hypoxia in mice. These results introduce a novel transcriptional modulator of pulmonary arterial hypertension, with the potential of becoming a new therapeutic target.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 10/2013; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelium regulates vascular homeostasis, and endothelial dysfunction is a proximate event in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Stimulation of the endothelium with proinflammatory cytokines or exposure to hemodynamic-induced disturbed flow leads to a proadhesive and prothrombotic phenotype that promotes atherothrombosis. In contrast, exposure to arterial laminar flow induces a gene program that confers a largely antiadhesive, antithrombotic effect. The molecular basis for this differential effect on endothelial function remains poorly understood. While recent insights implicate Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) as important regulators of vascular homeostasis, the in vivo role of these factors in endothelial biology remains unproven. Here, we show that endothelial KLF4 is an essential determinant of atherogenesis and thrombosis. Using in vivo EC-specific KLF4 overexpression and knockdown murine models, we found that KLF4 induced an antiadhesive, antithrombotic state. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that KLF4 differentially regulated pertinent endothelial targets via competition for the coactivator p300. These observations provide cogent evidence implicating endothelial KLFs as essential in vivo regulators of vascular function in the adult animal.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 11/2012; · 15.39 Impact Factor
  • Anne Hamik, Mukesh K Jain
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2012; 32(4):839-40. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A complex and diverse vascular system is requisite for the survival of higher organisms. The process of vascular development is highly regulated, involving the de novo formation of vessels (vasculogenesis), followed by expansion and remodeling of the primitive vasculature (angiogenesis), culminating in differentiation of endothelial phenotypes, as found in the mature vascular system. Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular regulation of endothelial cell development and differentiation. Endothelial development, in particular the mechanisms in play during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, is discussed in a sister review to this article. This review highlights the key pathways governing in endothelial differentiation, with a focus on the major molecular mechanisms of endothelial specification and heterogeneity.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2011; 31(7):1476-84. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current paradigms suggest that two macrophage subsets, termed M1 and M2, are involved in inflammation and host defense. While the distinct functions of M1 and M2 macrophages have been intensively studied - the former are considered proinflammatory and the latter antiinflammatory - the determinants of their speciation are incompletely understood. Here we report our studies that identify Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a critical regulator of macrophage polarization. Macrophage KLF4 expression was robustly induced in M2 macrophages and strongly reduced in M1 macrophages, observations that were recapitulated in human inflammatory paradigms in vivo. Mechanistically, KLF4 was found to cooperate with Stat6 to induce an M2 genetic program and inhibit M1 targets via sequestration of coactivators required for NF-κB activation. KLF4-deficient macrophages demonstrated increased proinflammatory gene expression, enhanced bactericidal activity, and altered metabolism. Furthermore, mice bearing myeloid-specific deletion of KLF4 exhibited delayed wound healing and were predisposed to developing diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Collectively, these data identify KLF4 as what we believe to be a novel regulator of macrophage polarization.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2011; 121(7):2736-49. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by thrombosis and/or recurrent pregnancy loss in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs). The majority of APLAs are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins, particularly β₂-glycoprotein I (β₂GPI). Anti-β₂GPI antibodies activate endothelial cells in a β₂GPI-dependent manner through a pathway that involves NF-κB. Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) play a critical role in regulating the endothelial response to inflammatory stimuli. We hypothesized that activation of endothelial cells by APLA/anti-β₂GPI antibodies might be associated with decreased expression of KLFs, which in turn might facilitate cellular activation mediated through NF-κB. Our experimental results confirmed this hypothesis, demonstrating markedly decreased expression of KLF2 and KLF4 after incubation of cells with APLA/anti-β₂GPI antibodies. Restoration of KLF2 or KLF4 levels inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity and blocked APLA/anti-β₂GPI-mediated endothelial activation despite NF-κB p65 phosphorylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity by KLFs reflects sequestration of the cotranscriptional activator CBP/p300, making this cofactor unavailable to NF-κB. These findings suggest that the endothelial response to APLA/anti-β₂GPI antibodies reflects competition between KLFs and NF-κB for their common cofactor, CBP/p300. Taken together, these observations are the first to implicate the KLFs as novel participants in the endothelial proinflammatory response to APLA/anti-β₂GPI antibodies.
    Blood 06/2011; 117(23):6383-91. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1), a scaffolding adaptor protein, plays an important role in transmitting key signals that control cell growth, differentiation, and function from multiple tyrosine kinase receptors. The study was designed to investigate the role of endothelial Gab1 in angiogenesis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Using Cre-Lox recombination technology, we generated endothelial-specific Gab1 knockout (Gab1-ecKO) mice. Gab1-ecKO mice are viable and showed no obvious developmental defects in the vascular system. To analyze the role of Gab1 in postnatal angiogenesis, we used hindlimb ischemia and Matrigel plug models. We found that loss of endothelial Gab1 in mice dramatically impaired postnatal angiogenesis. Gab1-ecKO mice had impaired ischemia-initiated blood flow recovery, exhibited reduced angiogenesis, and were associated with marked limb necrosis. We further observed significant endothelial cell (EC) death in the ischemic hindlimb of Gab1-ecKO mice. Matrigel plug assay showed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated angiogenesis was inhibited in Gab1-ecKO mice. In vitro studies showed that Gab1 was required for HGF-induced EC migration, tube formation, and microvessel sprouting. Mechanistically, HGF stimulated Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation in ECs, leading to activation of extracellular regulated MAP kinase 1/2 and Akt, which are angiogenic and survival signaling. Gab1 is essential for postnatal angiogenesis through mediating angiogenic and survival signaling.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 03/2011; 31(5):1016-23. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Anne Hamik, Mukesh K Jain
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    ABSTRACT: In this issue of Blood, Ni et al use an in vivo mouse model of disturbed flow that results in accelerated atherosclerosis to identify novel mechanosensitive genes.
    Blood 10/2010; 116(15):2625-6. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium plays a fundamental role in the health and disease of the cardiovascular system. The molecular mechanisms regulating endothelial homeostasis, however, remain incompletely understood. CCN3, a member of the CCN (Cyr61, Ctgf, Nov) family of cell growth and differentiation regulators, has been shown to play an important role in numerous cell types. The function of CCN3 in endothelial cells has yet to be elucidated. Immunohistochemical analysis of CCN3 expression in mouse tissues revealed robust immunoreactivity in the endothelium of large arteries, small resistance vessels, and veins. We found that CCN3 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is transcriptionally induced by laminar shear stress (LSS) and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins). Promoter analyses identified the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a direct regulator of CCN3 expression. In contrast to LSS, proinflammatory cytokines reduced CCN3 expression. Adenoviral overexpression of CCN3 in HUVEC markedly inhibited the cytokine-mediated induction of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Consistent with this observation, CCN3 significantly reduced monocyte adhesion. Conversely, CCN3 knockdown in HUVECs resulted in enhancement of cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression. Concordant effects were observed on monocyte adhesion. Gain and loss-of-function mechanistic studies demonstrated that CCN3 negatively regulates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity by reducing its translocation into the nucleus and subsequent binding to the VCAM-1 promoter, suggesting that CCN3's anti-inflammatory effects occur secondary to inhibition of NF-κB nuclear accumulation. This study identifies CCN3 as a novel regulator of endothelial proinflammatory activation.
    Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 10/2010; 4(3):141-53.
  • Anne Hamik, Mukesh K Jain
    Blood 08/2010; 116(8):1194-6. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cited2 is an important transcriptional cofactor involved in multiple organ development. Gene profile analysis has identified Cited2 as one of the transcription factors expressed at high levels in adult mouse cornea. To address the function of Cited2 in corneal morphogenesis, we deleted Cited2 in surface ectoderm derived ocular structures including cornea by crossing Cited2-floxed mice with Le-Cre transgenic mice. Cited2(flox/flox);Le-Cre(+) eyes invariably displayed corneal opacity and developed spontaneous corneal neovascularization at older age. Fewer layers of corneal epithelial cells and the absence of cytokeratin 12 (K12) expression featured Cited2 deficient postnatal and adult eyes. Cited2 deficient cornea exhibited impaired healing in response to corneal epithelial debridement by manifesting abnormal histology, lack of K12 expression and corneal neovascularization. Moreover, mechanistic studies suggest that Cited2 may play a role in corneal morphogenesis in part through modulating the expression of Pax6 and Klf4. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a novel function of Cited2 in postnatal corneal morphogenesis and maintenance. Our study will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in corneal biology, and more importantly, it may provide a valuable animal model for testing therapeutics in the treatment of corneal disorders, especially blindness as a result of corneal epithelial cell deficiency.
    Developmental Biology 08/2009; 334(1):243-52. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a central regulator of the hypoxic response in many cell types. In endothelial cells, HIF-1 induces the expression of key proangiogenic factors to promote angiogenesis. Recent studies have identified Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. However, the role of KLF2 in regulating HIF-1 expression and function has not been evaluated. KLF2 expression was induced acutely by hypoxia in endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and its target genes such as interleukin 8, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. Conversely, knockdown of KLF2 increased expression of HIF-1α and its targets. Furthermore, KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced endothelial tube formation, whereas endothelial cells from mice with haploinsufficiency of KLF2 showed increased tube formation in response to hypoxia. Consistent with this ex vivo observation, KLF2 heterozygous mice showed increased microvessel density in the brain. Mechanistically, KLF2 promoted HIF-1α degradation in a von Hippel-Lindau protein-independent but proteasome-dependent manner. Finally, KLF2 disrupted the interaction between HIF-1α and its chaperone Hsp90, suggesting that KLF2 promotes degradation of HIF-1α by affecting its folding and maturation. These observations identify KLF2 as a novel inhibitor of HIF-1α expression and function. Therefore, KLF2 may be a target for modulating the angiogenic response in disease states.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2009; 284(31):20522-20530. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a central regulator of the hypoxic response in many cell types. In endothelial cells, HIF-1 induces the expression of key proangiogenic factors to promote angiogenesis. Recent studies have identified Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. However, the role of KLF2 in regulating HIF-1 expression and function has not been evaluated. KLF2 expression was induced acutely by hypoxia in endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1alpha and its target genes such as interleukin 8, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. Conversely, knockdown of KLF2 increased expression of HIF-1alpha and its targets. Furthermore, KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced endothelial tube formation, whereas endothelial cells from mice with haploinsufficiency of KLF2 showed increased tube formation in response to hypoxia. Consistent with this ex vivo observation, KLF2 heterozygous mice showed increased microvessel density in the brain. Mechanistically, KLF2 promoted HIF-1alpha degradation in a von Hippel-Lindau protein-independent but proteasome-dependent manner. Finally, KLF2 disrupted the interaction between HIF-1alpha and its chaperone Hsp90, suggesting that KLF2 promotes degradation of HIF-1alpha by affecting its folding and maturation. These observations identify KLF2 as a novel inhibitor of HIF-1alpha expression and function. Therefore, KLF2 may be a target for modulating the angiogenic response in disease states.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2009; 284(31):20522-30. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Anne Hamik, Mukesh K Jain
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 02/2008; 44(1):44-6. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell phenotypes markedly differ, depending upon function and vascular bed of origin. Differences might account for specific susceptibility to pathological conditions. As leukocyte adhesion to activated endothelium is the initiating event in a range of diseases, we compared the influence of vascular bed-specific flow patterns on adhesion molecule expression in human saphenous vein (HSVEC) and coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). In vitro, immune cell attachment was increased 1.6-fold when tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-stimulated HSVEC were exposed to coronary artery flow in place of physiological venous flow and 1.9-fold higher compared with attachment to cytokine-stimulated HCAEC exposed to coronary artery flow. This was associated with increased concentrations of soluble E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in supernatants of HSVEC exposed to coronary artery flow compared with HCAEC exposed to the same flow pattern. Venous and coronary artery flow both increased TNF-alpha-induced E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression on HSVEC, but only coronary artery flow increased VCAM-1 expression. In marked contrast to HSVEC, venous and coronary artery flow attenuated TNF-alpha-induced E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression on HCAEC, whereas coronary artery flow further induced ICAM-1 on cytokine-stimulated HCAEC. With the exception of cytokine-induced ICAM-1, adhesion molecule expression on HSVEC exposed to coronary artery flow exceeded expression on HCAEC. Thus ICAM-1 expression involves complex flow-dependent and -independent pathways with marked dissimilarities between the two endothelial cell types studied. Interestingly, Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 4 overexpression in HCAEC and HSVEC significantly reduced TNF-alpha-induced E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression in static conditions, while ICAM-1 expression remained constant. Furthermore, both flow patterns induced KLF2 and KLF4 expression in HCAEC and HSVEC. Venous and coronary artery flow differentially influence endothelial adhesion molecule and transcription factor expression, depending on the vascular bed of origin. Differences in adhesion molecule expression and subsequent immune cell adhesion between HSVEC and HCAEC may contribute to different susceptibility to pathological conditions.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2007; 292(5):H2167-75. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium plays a critical role in vascular homeostasis. Inflammatory cytokines and non-laminar blood flow induce endothelial dysfunction and confer a pro-adhesive and pro-thrombotic phenotype. Therefore, identification of factors that mediate the effects of these stimuli on endothelial function is of considerable interest. Kruppel-like factor 4 expression has been documented in endothelial cells, but a function has not been described. In this communication we describe the expression in vitro and in vivo of Kruppel-like factor 4 in human and mouse endothelial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that endothelial Kruppel-like factor 4 is induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli and shear stress. Overexpression of Kruppel-like factor 4 induces expression of multiple anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic factors including endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and thrombomodulin, whereas knockdown of Kruppellike factor 4 leads to enhancement of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and tissue factor expression. The functional importance of Kruppel-like factor 4 is verified by demonstrating that Kruppel-like factor 4 expression markedly decreases inflammatory cell adhesion to the endothelial surface and prolongs clotting time under inflammatory states. Kruppel-like factor 4 differentially regulates the promoter activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in a manner consistent with its anti-inflammatory function. These data implicate Kruppel-like factor 4 as a novel regulator of endothelial activation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2007; 282(18):13769-79. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Anne Hamik, Baiqiu Wang, Mukesh K Jain
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels develop from a pre-existing vascular network, is essential for normal development and in certain physiological states. Inadequate or excessive angiogenesis has been incriminated in a number of pathologic states. For example, vaso-occlusive disease arising from atherosclerosis can lead to ischemia, a situation in which enhanced angiogenesis would be beneficial. Conversely, overzealous angiogenesis can contribute to tumor development and in this case inhibition of angiogenesis is desirable. Thus, strategies to induce or inhibit angiogenesis are of considerable therapeutic interest.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2006; 26(9):1936-47. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serine protease thrombin can dramatically alter endothelial gene expression in a manner that confers a proinflammatory phenotype. Recent studies have identified the Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a critical regulator of endothelial gene expression. Herein, we provide evidence that KLF2 inhibits thrombin-mediated endothelial activation via alterations in expression of its principal receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Forced expression of KLF2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells potently inhibited the ability of thrombin to induce multiple prothrombotic factors (tissue factor, CD40L, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), cytokines/chemokines (eg, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8), and matrix degrading enzymes (eg, matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 9). Mechanistically, KLF2 inhibits PAR-1 expression and, as a consequence, thrombin-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear accumulation and DNA binding. Conversely, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of KLF2 increases PAR-1 expression and thrombin-mediated induction of NF-kappaB activation. These studies identify KLF2 as a novel regulator of PAR-1 expression and thrombin action in endothelial cells.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/2006; 26(5):1185-9. · 6.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

471 Citations
153.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Medicine (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States