[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TP53 represents a suitable candidate for a colorectal cancer susceptibility locus. The polymorphism in the p53 72nd codon involves a proline to arginine substitution, leading to changes in gene transcription activity, interaction with other proteins and modulation of apoptosis. Studies evaluating the association between this polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results, and none have evaluated the mRNA status of TP53. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between this SNP expression at the mRNA level in CRC samples and patient clinicopathological variables and prognosis, p53 protein expression and TP53 mutation. This is the first report to describe the mRNA expression of p53 codon 72 alleles in CRC. We evaluated 101 non-related patients with CRC treated at the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center in Brazil. RNA was isolated from frozen tumor tissues using a trizol-based protocol. The polymorphism was detected using RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Associations were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, logistic regression and Cox. This polymorphism was significantly associated with clinicopathological variables related to increased tumor aggressiveness. The expression of Arg72 (OR, 3.83; CI 1.02-14.35; P=0.046) and the TNM stage (OR, 7.15; CI 1.45-35.29; P=0.016) were found to be independent predictors for recurrence. These data suggest that the mRNA expression of the Pro72 allele is associated with less favorable tumor features. The allele frequency of the p53 Pro72 was 0.26. The analysis of mRNA is important to determine the specific contribution of the allele expressed. These results suggest that this polymorphism may play a role in CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is one of the most frequently mutated in different types of human cancer. Particularly in colorectal cancer (CRC), it is believed that TP53 mutations play a role in the adenoma-carcinoma transition of tumors during pathological process. In order to analyze TP53 expressed alleles in CRC, we examined TP53 mRNA in tumor samples from 101 patients with sporadic CRC. Samples were divided in two groups defined according to whether they exhibit positive or negative P53 protein expression as detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The presence of TP53 mutation was a common event in tumors with an overall frequency of 54.5%. By direct sequencing, we report 42 different TP53 sequence changes in 55 CRC patients, being two of them validated polymorphisms. TP53 mutations were more frequent in positive than in negative P53 detection group (p<0.0001), being the precise figures 79.6% and 30.8%, respectively. In addition, the mutation profiles were also different between the two groups of samples; while most of the mutations detected in P53 positive group were missense (38 out of 39), changes in P53 negative detection group include 7 insertions/deletions, 6 missense, 2 nonsense and 1 silent mutation. As previously observed, most mutations were concentrated in regions encoding P53 DNA binding domain (DBD). Codons 175, 248 and 273 together account for 36.7% of point mutations, in agreement with previous observations provided that these codons are considered mutation hotspots. Interestingly, we detected two new deletions and two new insertions. In addition, in three samples we detected two deletions and one insertion that could be explained as putative splicing variants or splicing errors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kras mutations are negative predictors of anti-EGFR therapy, occurring in 40% of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs). Point substitutions in codon 12 or 13 are the most frequent mutations in Kras, but multiple mutations (MMs) in other codons can also develop. Few data exist on MMs with regard to their frequency and the codons and amino acids that are affected. We report two cases of Kras double mutations in codons 12 and 13 and review Kras MMs in primary CRC in PubMed databases.
A 53-year-old woman and a 70-year-old man presented with deep, invasive, moderately differentiated CRC at an advanced clinical stage. The former had regional lymph node involvement and vaginal wall neoplastic implantation, and the latter had liver metastasis. Primary tumors were examined for Kras mutations by pyrosequencing, which were confirmed by direct sequencing. Both tumors had a mutation in codons 12 and 13, wherein codon 12 was mutated to GAT, and codon 13 became GAC.
We identified 69 reported cases of Kras MMs and reported two other cases, representing 2.1% of all mutated tumors; the incidence of such mutations is 1.0% in CRC patients. In most cases (59%), MMs develop in a single codon, usually codon 12. Codons 12 and 13 are affected simultaneously in only 27% of cases. These findings add information about the impact of specific amino acid changes in the Kras gene.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 05/2011; 26(10):1241-8. DOI:10.1007/s00384-011-1238-0 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ezrin protein acts in the regulation of cytoskeletal and directly influences survival and tumor progression; there is an increase in its expression in metastatic cells and tissues in several types of cancer including colorectal cancer. 250 Patients with colorectal cancer submitted to surgery from 1995 to 2002. Protein expression was carried through by Tissue Micro Array immunohistochemical tests of paraffined neoplasic tissues and associated with clinical variables. Differentiation degree, lymph node invasion, metastasis at diagnosis, and palliative surgery were associated to a higher expression of the protein and survival. Higher expression of the Ezrin correlates with tumor aggressiveness and worse prognosis for colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cortactin gene, mapped at 11q13, has been associated with an aggressive clinical course in many cancers because of its function of invasiveness. This study evaluated CTTN protein and its prognostic value in the deep invasive front and superficial areas of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The transcript expression levels were evaluated in a subset of cases. Overexpression of CTTN cytoplasmatic protein (80% of cases in both the deep invasive front and superficial areas) and transcript (30% of samples) was detected in a significant number of cases. In more than 20% of cases, observation verified membrane immunostaining in the deep invasive front and superficial areas. Perineural invasion was significantly associated with N stage and recurrence (P = .0058 and P = .0037, respectively). Higher protein expression levels were correlated with perineural invasion (P = .004) in deep invasive front cells, suggesting that this area should be considered a prognostic tool in laryngeal carcinomas. Although most cases had moderate to strong CTTN expression on the tumor surface, 2 sets of cases revealed a differential expression pattern in the deep invasive front. A group of cases with absent to weak expression of CTTN in the deep invasive front showed good prognosis parameters, and a second group with moderate to strong expression of CTTN were associated with an unfavorable prognosis, suggesting an association with worse outcome. Taken together, these results suggest that the deep invasive front might be considered a grading system in laryngeal carcinomas and that cortactin is a putative marker of worse outcome in the deep invasive front of laryngeal carcinomas.
Human pathology 03/2011; 42(9):1221-9. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2010.05.030 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we compared the proteomes of primary fibroblast cultures derived from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with those obtained from unaffected controls. The expression signature of about 19% of total fibroblast proteins separates FAP mutation carriers from unaffected controls (P < 0.01). More than 4,000 protein spots were quantified by 2D PAGE analysis, identifying 368 non-redundant proteins and 400 of their isoforms. Specifically, all three classes of cytoskeletal filaments and their regulatory proteins were altered as were oxidative stress response proteins. Given that FAP fibroblasts showed heightened sensitivity to transformation by KiMSV and SV40 including elevated levels of the p53 protein, events controlled in large measure by the Ras suppressor protein-1 (RSU-1) and oncogenic DJ-1, here we show decreased RSU1 and augmented DJ-1 expression in both fibroblasts and crypt-derived epithelial cells from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of FAP gene-carriers. The results indicate that heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteomes of both colon-derived normal fibroblasts in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a "one-hit" effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigate ErbB family expression in colorectal cancer patients with higher risk of recurrence after surgical treatment.
We studied 109 individuals with high risk stage II and stage III patients submitted to radical surgery. ErbB expression was assessed by tissue microarray technique.
The immunohistochemical expression was considered positive for EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4 membrane, and ErbB4 cytoplasmic in respectively 57.8%, 8.3%, 69.7%, 11%, and 19.3% of patients. ErbB3 negative expression was associated with lymphovascular invasion. EGFR, ErbB2, and cytoplasmic ErbB4 expression was not associated with prognosis. Membranous positive ErbB4 expression was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. ErbB3 negative expression was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence and survival in the multivariate analysis.
The immunohistochemical expression of ErbB3 and ErbB4 may identify a subgroup with stage II and III colorectal cancer at higher risk of recurrence.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 05/2009; 24(9):1059-68. DOI:10.1007/s00384-009-0702-6 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) because they are virtually certain to develop colon cancer, and because much is known about the causative APC gene. We hypothesized that the inherited heterozygous mutation itself leads to changes in the proteome of morphologically normal crypts and the proteins that changed may represent targets for preventive and therapeutic agents. We determined the differential protein expression of morphologically normal colon crypts of FAP patients versus those of individuals without the mutation, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and validation by two-dimensional gel Western blotting. Approximately 13% of 1,695 identified proteins were abnormally expressed in the morphologically normal crypts of APC mutation carriers, indicating that a colon crypt cell under the one-hit state is already abnormal. Many of the expression changes affect pathways consistent with the function of the APC protein, including apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and biogenesis, mitosis, transcription, and oxidative stress response. Thus, heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteome of normal-appearing crypt cells in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a detectable one-hit event. These changes may represent the earliest biomarkers of colorectal cancer development, potentially leading to the identification of molecular targets for cancer prevention.
Cancer Research 10/2008; 68(18):7579-86. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0856 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions and PTEN deletions are the most common genomic aberrations in prostate cancer. Recent work has suggested that the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion is associated with a more aggressive phenotype. Similarly, PTEN deletion has been associated with biochemical recurrence and lymph node metastasis. To date, there has been no systematic analysis of the combined influence of genomic PTEN deletion with TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions on clinical parameters of prostate cancer progression. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 125 prostate cancers with known clinical outcome using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the relative prevalence of TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangements and/or PTEN genomic deletions. TMPRSS2:ERG rearrangement was found in 60 of 125 (48%) prostate cancers. Duplication of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion was observed in seven (6%) tumors. Gleason grade (P=0.0002)/score (P=0.001), median tumor volume (P=0.0024), preoperative PSA (P=0.001) and perineural invasion (P=0.0304) were significantly associated with biochemical recurrence by univariate analysis with TMPRSS2:ERG approaching significance (P=0.0523). By multivariate analysis, relevant factors associated with recurrence were Gleason scores 7 (P=0.001) and 8–10 (P=0.015), PTEN homozygous deletion (P=0.013) and concurrent TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PTEN deletion (P=0.036). Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that the presence of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion was marginally less favorable in comparison to no fusion. Duplication of fusion gene showed worse prognosis. It was possible to determine the relative frequencies of PTEN deletion and/or TMPRSS2:ERG fusions in 82 of 125 prostate cancers. With biochemical recurrence as an endpoint, the genomic biomarkers identified three patient groups: (1) ‘poor genomic grade’ characterized by both PTEN deletion and TMPRSS2:ERG fusions (23/82, 28%); (2) ‘intermediate genomic grade’ with either PTEN deletion or TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (35/82, 43%) and (3) ‘favorable genomic grade’ in which neither rearrangement was present (24/82, 29%). Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analysis indicate that TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PTEN loss together are a predictor of earlier biochemical recurrence of disease.Keywords: interphase FISH, PTEN haploinsufficiency, prognosis, biomarker, biochemical recurrence
Modern Pathology 05/2008; 21(12):1451-1460. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2008.96 · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser capture microdissection (LCM) permits isolation of pure cell populations from which RNA can be extracted, amplified, and subjected to microarray analysis, allowing information to be obtained on the gene expression profile of defined cell types. To avoid amplification artifacts and detect genes expressed at different levels, it is important to optimize the choice of both RNA amplification step and microarray platform. We captured by LCM the same colon cancer biopsy and conducted a cross comparison of distinct RNA amplification methods and different chip platforms. We tested two RNA amplification methods with different chemistry: the one-cycle Ovation system (NuGEN) and the two-cycle Ribo OA method (Arcturus). We also compared two different whole genome platforms, based on Affymetrix technology: the U133 plus 2.0 and the X3P array, with probe sets closer to the 3' end of transcripts. After RNA amplification, microarray analysis, and data normalization, we investigated reproducibility and correlation of different methods and arrays. Our results indicate that the Arcturus Ribo OA method is superior for both array choices, especially in combination with X3P arrays, showing the lowest variance and Spearman correlation of 0.986. The quicker NuGEN procedure, when coupled with X3P arrays, also yielded excellent results (correlation of 0.951). These observations will be useful for planning large-scale analyses of LCM-dissected clinical samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of p53 function is an early event in colitis-associated neoplasia in humans. We assessed the role of p53 in a mouse model of colitis-associated neoplasia. Colitis was induced in p53-/-, p53+/- and p53+/+ mice using three or four cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) followed by 120 days of water. Mice were examined for incidence, multiplicity and types of neoplastic lesions. Lesions were examined for mutations in beta-catenin (exon 3), K-ras (codons 12/13) and p53 (exons 5-8) by sequencing and for cellular localization of beta-catenin by immunohistochemistry. The incidence of neoplastic lesions was 57, 20 and 20% in p53-/-, p53+/- and p53+/+ mice, respectively (P = 0.013). p53-/- mice had a greater number of total lesions (P < 0.0001), cancers (P = 0.001) and dysplasias (P = 0.009) per mouse than either p53+/- or p53+/+ mice. Flat lesions were associated with the p53-/- genotype, whereas polypoid lesions were associated with the p53+/- and p53+/+ genotypes (P < 0.0001). beta-Catenin mutations were present in 75% of lesions of p53+/+ mice and absent in lesions from p53-/- mice (P = 0.055). Nuclear expression of beta-catenin was seen only in polypoid lesions (91%). No K-ras or p53 mutations were detected. These data indicate that loss of p53 enhances the induction of colitis-associated neoplasia, particularly flat lesions, and dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling plays an important role in the formation of polypoid lesions in this mouse model. As observed in humans, p53 plays a protective role in colitis-associated neoplasia in the DSS model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The establishment of a reliable method for using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue would provide an opportunity to obtain novel gene expression data from the vast amounts of archived tissue. A custom-designed 22,000 oligonucleotide array was used in the present study to compare the gene expression profile of colonic epithelial cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from FFPE-archived samples with that of the same cell population from matched frozen samples, the preferred source of RNA. Total RNA was extracted from FFPE tissues, amplified, and labeled using the Paradise Reagent System. The quality of the input RNA was assessed by the Bioanalyzer profile, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain reliable microarray data from FFPE samples using RNA acquired by laser capture microdissection. The concordance between matched FFPE and frozen samples was evaluated and expressed as a Pearson's correlation coefficient, with values ranging from 0.80 to 0.97. The presence of ribosomal RNA peaks in FFPE-derived RNA was reflected by a high correlation with paired frozen samples. A set of practical recommendations for evaluating the RNA integrity and quality in FFPE samples is reported.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relevance of the Apc(+/Min) mouse model in the study of human colorectal cancer remains uncertain due to the predominance of small intestinal adenomas and few, if any, colorectal adenomas. A new strain of Apc(+/Min) mice (Apc(+/Min-FCCC)) with significantly greater numbers of colorectal adenomas has been generated and characterized. Male C57BL/6J-Apc(+/Min) mice (the Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) were crossed with wild-type (Apc(+/+)) C57BL/6J females from an independent colony at this institution (offspring=Apc(+/Min-FCCC)) and 233 animals were evaluated over 20 generations. In order to determine the contribution of genetics to the enhanced colorectal adenoma phenotype, breeding pairs (Apc(+/Min) male x wild type female C57BL/6J) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory and offspring (Apc(+/Min-JAX)) were maintained in our facility under identical conditions (n=98). Animals were fed Purina Rodent chow (#5013) diet containing 5% fat. The entire intestinal tract was examined histopathologically in both strains. Both the Apc and Pla2g2a (candidate for Mom1) genes were sequenced and found to be identical for both the Apc(+/Min-FCCC) and Apc(+/Min-JAX) mouse strains. The multiplicity of colorectal adenomas in the Apc(+/Min-FCCC) mice was much higher than reported in the literature and significantly greater than the multiplicity of colorectal adenomas in Apc(+/Min-JAX) mice maintained in our facility (P=0.01). Apc(+/Min-FCCC) had a significantly greater incidence of rectal prolapse (P = 0.02) and small intestinal adenocarcinomes (P=0.001), and multiplicity of small intestinal adenocarcinomas (P=0.001) compared to Apc(+/Min-JAX) mice. Male Apc(+/Min-FCCC) mice had significantly greater numbers of colorectal adenomas compared to female Apc(+/Min-FCCC) mice (P=0.0002), as did male Apc(+/Min-JAX) mice vs. female Apc(+/Min-JAX) mice (P< 0.0001). These results allow us to conclude: (1) Apc(+/Min-FCCC) mice are unique in that they develop significantly greater numbers of colorectal adenomas and small intestinal cancers, and a significantly greater incidence of small intestinal cancers and rectal prolapse than Apc(+/Min-JAX) mice. (2) This study represents the first report of a significant gender difference in multiplicity of colorectal adenomas. (3) Differences between Apc(+/Min-FCCC) and Apc(+/Min-JAX) mice in currently undefined genetic modifiers may contribute to the enhanced colorectal phenotype. (4) The Apc(+/Min-FCCC) strain is highly suited for the investigation of colorectal neoplastic disease and chemoprevention studies.