[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disorder that can be potentially life-threatening. In Barcelona, Spain, no outbreaks had been reported in the past 25 years. However, in September 2011, two outbreaks occurred involving two different families. A rare case of Clostridium baratii which produced a neurotoxin F outbreak was detected in five family members who had shared lunch, and several days before that another family was affected by C. botulinum toxin A which was probably present in homemade pâté.
Epidemiology and Infection 11/2012; · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acquisition of adequate vaccine-induced humoral immunity is especially important in HIV-infected individuals, who are at increased risk of infections. The aim of the study was to assess the safety of administering a complete vaccination programme to successfully treated HIV-infected adults and to evaluate specific humoral responses and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interruption on these responses.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was designed and 26 HIV-infected adults enrolled. Study participants were randomized to receive either a complete immunization schedule with commercial vaccines or placebo for 12 months. HAART was then discontinued for 6 months. Specific humoral responses were evaluated at baseline, at month 12 and after HAART interruption and compared between groups.
There were neither local nor systemic secondary effects related to vaccination. Specific humoral responses to vaccines were adequate, but a loss of immunoglobulin G titres was observed after HAART interruption in 12 study participants.
HAART interruption may cause impairment of previously acquired vaccine-induced immunity in HIV-infected adults.
HIV Medicine 09/2010; 11(8):535-9. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected patients. Transient increases of viral load (VL) and risk of developing resistance to HAART have been described. In addition, VL rebounds could increase HIV-specific immune responses. Twenty-six successfully treated HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive a vaccination schedule or placebo during 12 months. Afterward, HAART was discontinued. Influences of vaccination over VL, genotypic mutations, different T cell subsets, and HIV-1-specific immune responses were evaluated. Patients did not present any secondary effect. No differences in incidence of detectable VL determinations were detected between groups [relative risk 0.54 (95% CI 0.23-1.26)]. No relevant resistance mutations were detected. The vaccinated group showed a significant drop in CD4(+) T cells (p = 0.046) associated with increases in activated T cells. HIV-1-specific lymphoproliferative responses increased more in the vaccinated group during the vaccination period. Viral rebound dynamics after interrupting HAART were similar in both groups. A vaccination schedule in successfully treated HIV patients was safe, was not associated with an increase in detectable VL, and did not increase the risk of developing resistance mutations. However, it induced an increase in T cell activation and a drop in CD4(+) T cells, although these changes did not influence the VL rebound dynamics after HAART interruption.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 11/2009; 25(12):1249-59. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first case of orbital cellulitis and endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to Proteus mirabilis bacteremia that resulted from a calculus cholecystitis. Despite resolution of the gallbladder infection with antimicrobial therapy, the patient required evisceration of the affected eye. The pathogenesis of hematogenous endophthalmitis due to Gram-negative bacilli is discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few data evaluating the NK cell profile during structured therapy interruption (STI) in chronic HIV-1 infection are available. Changes in NK cell percentages and KIR and NKG2A receptors were analyzed at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up in 121 patients on ART with CD4(+) >450 cells/ml and VL <200 copies/ml randomized in three arms according to the criteria employed to resume ART during STI: virological arm (VA n = 47, VL >30,000 copies/ml or CD4 <350 cells/ml), immunological arm (IA n = 37, CD4< 350 cells/ml), and a control arm (n = 37) in which ART was maintained. After 2 years of follow-up, a decrease in CD3(-)CD56(+) CD16(+) cell percentages in VA and IA patients, but not in CA patients, was observed. Those patients with higher decrease in CD3(-)CD56(+)CD16(+) cells had a higher decrease in CD4(+) cells (r = 0.35, p = 0.001) and higher increase in PVL (r = -0.26, p = 0.02). KIR and NKG2A receptor expression tended to increase in CA and decreased in the other two arms (more in IA than in VA). Patients who displayed a greater decrease in CD4(+) T cells and a greater rise in PVL after 2 years of follow-up had a significantly higher decrease in KIR and NKG2A receptors expressed in CD3(-)CD56(+) cells. Patients who presented the lowest levels of total NK cells and KIR and NKG2A receptor expression after STI showed the poorest virology or immunology outcomes. This finding suggests that STI could decrease the number of NK subsets, which is related to the worst clinical development in these patients.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 12/2008; 24(12):1485-95. · 2.18 Impact Factor