[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet, a common herb for treating hepatitis, is indigenous to Europe, Western Asia, and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. This study aims at evaluating the protective activity of different extracts from C. glandulosum seeds against experimental oxidation- and ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage in rat liver mitochondria. The antioxidant property of different extracts from C. glandulosum seeds was investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and reducing power assay. The protective effects of different C. glandulosum seed extracts against UVB-induced phototoxicity in a mitochondria model were also evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glutathione, lipid hydroperoxide, conjugated diene, and 4-hydroxynonenal. The main compounds in C. glandulosum seeds were identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that C. glandulosum seed extracts have strong antioxidant activity, in which the ethyl acetate extract (EE) and n-butanol extract (BE) showed better activity than other extracts. In a UVB-induced mitochondria model, both EE and BE have better antioxidant activity and protective effects against phototoxicity than the petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, and water extract. The differences in antioxidant activity and photoprotective capacity among these five extracts are associated with their phenolic compound content. Therefore, research on this function of C. glandulosum seeds may broaden their applications in the food and medical industry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drosera peltata Smith var. lunata (Buch.-Ham.) C. B. Clarke (DPVL) fractions and plumbagin were tested via broth microdilution techniques on Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium citrinum. All of the test substances [petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fraction and aqueous residue (AR)] except for the AR were active against all the tested strains. The petroleum ether fraction (PEF) was the most active (MIC = 5.86-46.88 μg/ml, MFC = 23.44-93.75 μg/ml) of the five tested substances and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Based on antifungal activity, bioactivity-guided fractionation of the PEF led to the isolation of plumbagin. The structure of plumbagin was elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Using HPLC, DPVL was found to be a new source of plumbagin. Reversed-phase HPLC was performed using a mobile phase of water and methanol, and peaks were detected at 254 nm. Plumbagin showed a good linear relationship at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10 μg/ml. Both the intraday and the interday precision showed that the method was precise, with RSDs of at least 3 % at different concentrations. Recovery rates ranging from 97.86 to 99.94 % were observed, which indicate that the method is accurate. The specificity of the method was established by checking the peak purity of plumbagin. For six independent measurements, the average plumbagin content in DPVL was 11.05 ± 0.31 mg/g of dried material. The validated HPLC method provides a new basis for assessing DPVL quality.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) 09/2013; · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultivated Coptis chinensis inflorescence has been highly valued in Chinese tea production for many years. The main alkaloid compounds in C. chinensis inflorescence ethanolic extracts (CE) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detected compounds included jatrorrhizine (4.87 mg/g), coptisine (17.18 mg/g), palmatine (3.32 mg/g), and berberine (31.81 mg/g), as well as columbamine and epiberberine (tentatively identified). CE protective activity against ultraviolet-B (UVB)-induced phototoxicity in a mitochondria model was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide, conjugated diene, 4-hydroxynonenal, and glutathione. The results showed that CE excellently inhibited UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and glutathione reduction in vitro. This photoprotective effect of CE may be caused by the presence of the abovementioned alkaloid compounds and phenolic compounds that enhances CE antioxidant activity. Therefore, CE possesses potent photoprotective property that may find valuable applications in food industries and in anti-phototoxicity formulations.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 04/2012; 50(7):2584-8. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meconopsis quintuplinervia, a medicinal herb endemic to the Tibetan region, is used to treat hepatitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extract of this herb using different assays.
The antioxidant capacity of Meconopsis quintuplinervia was investigated using various established in vitro systems. An in vivo study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced antioxidant activity in mice was also conducted by examining the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH).
The extract showed strong in vitro antioxidant ability. In the in vivo study, CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress caused significant decreases in the SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and a significant increase in the MDA level, most of which were significantly reversed (except for SOD in the liver.) by treatment with the extract and standard Vitamin E.
This study clearly indicates that the ethanolic extract of Meconopsis quintuplinervia is a valuable source of natural antioxidants. These findings provide scientific support for the traditional use of this herb as a Tibetan medicine for liver diseases.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 02/2012; 141(1):104-10. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil extracted from the bark of Cinnamomum jensenianum Hand.-Mazz was tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. Fifty-five components accounting for 96.66% of the total oil composition were identified by GC–MS. The major components were eucalyptol (17.26%) and α-terpineol (12.52%). Mycelial growth and spore germination was inhibited by the oil in a dose-dependent manner. The oil also exhibited a noticeable inhibition on the dry mycelium weight and the synthesis of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by A. flavus, completely restraining AFB1 production at 6 μl/ml. The possible mode of action of the oil against A. flavus is discussed based on changes in the mycelial ultrastructure. To confirm the target of the oil in the plasma membrane, studies on the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis were performed. Results show that the oil caused a considerable reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Thus, the essential oil from C. jensenianum can be used as a potential source for food preservative.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30147. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Swertia chirayita, a medicinal herb endemic to the Tibetan region, is used as a special remedy for liver disorders. The hepatoprotective activity of its plant extracts has been associated with its antioxidant activity. This paper aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of Swertia chirayita extracts (SCE).
Antioxidant ability of Swertia chirayita was investigated by employing several established in vitro methods. In vivo antioxidant activity was tested against CCl(4)-induced toxicity in mice. The levels and activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH), were then assayed using standard procedures.
SCE exhibited strong antioxidant ability in vitro. The liver and kidney of CCl(4)-intoxicated animals exhibited a significant (p<0.001) decrease in SOD, CAT, and GSH levels. Additionally, these organs exhibited a significant (p<0.001) increase in MDA level. CCl(4) did not exhibit toxicity on mice treated with SCE and Vitamin E. The effects of Swertia chirayita (three dosages) were comparable to those of Vitamin E, except in MDA level in the liver and GSH level in the kidney (p<0.05).
This study suggests that the ethanolic extract of Swertia chirayita possesses in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects. This supports the traditional use of Swertia chirayita in Tibetan medicine to cure liver diseases.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2011; 136(2):309-15. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inflorescence of cultivated Coptis chinensis has been valued for tea production for many years in China. The antioxidant activities of C. chinensis inflorescence extracts prepared by various solvents were investigated by using several established in vitro systems: 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging assays, reducing power assay, and ferrothiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The results showed that the 70% ethanol extract (EE) had the strongest antioxidant activity in vitro among the various extracts. Based on the in vitro results, EE was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of C. chinensis inflorescence in vivo. The liver and kidney of intoxicated animals showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) level showed a significant increase. These changes were significantly reversed after treatment with EE and the standard vitamin E. Thus, the C. chinensis inflorescence may be a valuable natural source that can be applicable to food industries.
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 04/2011; 66(2):175-80. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were γ-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 μL/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 μL/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 μL/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage.
International journal of food microbiology 02/2011; 145(2-3):464-70. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of present study were to determine the antifungal activity in vitro of the essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and to evaluate its antifungal activity in vivo as a potential food preservative. The antifungal activity of this oil was tested by poisoned food technique against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata. The wet and dry mycelium weight of the tested fungi was also determined in a liquid culture to evaluate the antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of oil for the four tested fungi was found to be 2.0 μl/ml, and the mycelial growth inhibition was determined at day 9. Observations on the microstructure of A. niger using light and scanning electron microscopes revealed degenerative alterations in the conidial heads and hyphal morphology after oil treatment, including distorted conidial heads, decreased hyphal diameters, shriveled hyphal aggregates, and swelling of the hyphal wall. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development on cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at 120 μl/ml and 100 μl/ml concentrations, respectively. Thus, the essential oil of dill could be used to control food spoilage as a potential source of food preservative.Highlights► We assessed the effects of dill oil on mycelial growth and the biomass of mycelium. ► We assessed the effects of dill oil on the mycelial morphological and physiological changes of A. niger. ► We assessed the potential application of dill oil to control post harvest spoilage on stored cherry tomatoes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an extensively cultivated vegetable in eastern Asia, particularly in China. Both lotus rhizome knot (LRK) and lotus leaf (LL) are waste products of the lotus industry. Extracts from LRK and LL are proposed as antioxidants for meat. Porcine and bovine ground meat samples were subjected to three treatments: CONTROL (with no additives), LRK (lotus rhizomes knot extract 3% w/w), and LL (lotus leaf extract 3% w/w). Raw and cooked samples were stored at 4°C and the antioxidant activity was determined at 1, 3, 6 and 10 days. Antioxidant activity was significantly increased in all meat samples with the addition of both LRK and LL, but LRK was more effective against lipid oxidation. The results show the potential for using LRK and LL extracts in the meat industry to prolong shelf life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antioxidant properties of different extracts of Halenia elliptica was investigated by employing various established in vitro systems. The results showed that various extracts possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro, and the 70% methanol extract (ME) had the strongest antioxidant activity. Based on our in vitro results, ME was used for investigating the antioxidant properties of H. ellipticain vivo. The liver and kidney of CCl(4)-intoxicated animals exhibited a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels. Additionally, these organs exhibited a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). These changes were significantly reversed, in a dose-dependent manner, after treatment with ME and the standard treatment Vitamin E. Thus, it may be concluded that the ME possesses potent antioxidant properties, and might be valuable natural source of antioxidants that could be applicable to both the medical and food industries.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 10/2010; 49(1):185-90. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Halenia elliptica, a medicinal herb of Tibetan origin, was commonly used in folk medicine to treat hepatitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Halenia elliptica against experimentally induced liver injury.
The antioxidant property of methanolic extract (ME) of Halenia elliptica was investigated by employing various established in vitro systems. The ME of Halenia elliptica was studied here for its hepatoprotective effects against CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin.
The ME possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. The results of CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that rats treated with the ME of Halenia elliptica (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), and also the standard treatment, silymarin (50 mg/kg), showed a significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the CCl(4) group (p<0.01). The results observed after administration of 100 mg/kg ME were comparable to those of silymarin at 50 mg/kg (p>0.05). The ME did not show any mortality at doses up to 2000 g/kg body weight.
These results seem to support the traditional use of Halenia elliptica in pathologies involving hepatotoxicity, and the possible mechanism of this activity may be due to strong free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of ME.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2010; 131(2):276-81. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), an aquatic vegetable, is extensively cultivated in eastern Asia, particularly in China. An ethanolic extract of the leaves was studied for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity was also assessed. The results showed the hepatoprotective activity of lotus leaf extract (LLE) at doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg and in vivo antioxidant activity at 100 mg/kg that was comparable with that of a standard treatment comprising 100 mg/kg of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug. These data were supplemented with histopathological studies of rat liver sections. The main flavonoids and phenolic compounds of LLE were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS methods. Six of the compounds detected were tentatively characterised, one as catechin glycoside and five as flavonoid glycoside derivatives: miricitrin-3-O-glucoside, hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and astragalin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the composition of extracts and essential oil components from Nelumbo nucifera leaves from the principal habitats in China. The amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the lotus leaf extracts varied widely, ranging from 354 to 487 mg/g gallic acid equivalents, from 172 to 236 mg/g rutin equivalents, and from 124 to 179 mg/g catechin equivalents, respectively. All of the extracts had strong antioxidant activity in comparison to the standard compounds butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin C. Wild lotus samples from Baiyangdian Lake and Weishan Lake exhibited a stronger free radical scavenging effect and greater reducing power than the cultural samples, but no such differences were observed in the inhibition of lipid oxidation. Chemical variation in the essential oils from the various samples was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents were l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (0-33.5%), trans-phytol (5.1-24.1%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5.6-15.3%), pentadecyl acrylate (2.2-12.4%), geranyl acetone (1.9-8.0%), and beta-ionone (0-8.0%). The rhizome lotus and seed lotus samples were clustered into separate groups by hierarchical cluster analysis according to the composition of the corresponding essential oils. No significant relationship was found between essential oil composition and geographical distribution of the 11 populations. However, the results indicated that region of origin and growing conditions could significantly affect both the bioactivities of the lotus leaf and the content of bioactive compounds in the leaves. Thus, the existence of chemical polymorphism in the N. nucifera leaf in China was demonstrated.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2009; 58(1):441-8. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnolia officinalis subsp. biloba, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, experienced severe declines in the number of populations and the number of individuals in the late 20th century due to the widespread harvest of the subspecies. A large-scale cultivation program was initiated and cultivated populations rapidly recovered the loss in individual plant numbers, but wild populations remained small as a consequence of cutting. In this study, the levels of genetic variation and genetic structure of seven wild populations and five domestic populations of M. officinalis subsp. biloba were estimated employing an AFLP methodology. The plant exhibited a relatively high level of intra-population genetic diversity (h = 0.208 and H(j) = 0.268). The cultivated populations maintained approximately 95% of the variation exhibited in wild populations, indicating a slight genetic bottleneck in the cultivated populations. The analysis of genetic differentiation revealed that most of the AFLP diversity resided within populations both for the wild group (78.22%) and the cultivated group (85.92%). Genetic differentiation among populations in the wild group was significant (F(ST) = 0.1092, P < 0.005), suggesting wild population level genetic structure. Principal coordinates analysis (PCO) did not discern among wild and cultivated populations, indicating that alleles from the wild population were maintained in the cultivated gene pool. Results from the present study provide important baseline data for effectively conserving the genetic resources of this medicinal subspecies.