[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the impact of alpha-lipoic acid on superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase
activity as well as on the expression of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in key organs of obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.
Methods: Superoxide anion production was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence. Kinin B1 and B2
receptors expression was measured at protein and mRNA levels by western blot and qRT-PCR in key organs of
Zucker Diabetic Fatty and Zucker lean control rats treated for a period of 6 weeks with a standard diet or a diet
containing the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (1 g/kg).
Results: Superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity were significantly enhanced in aorta and
adipose tissue of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors expression levels were also significantly
increased in the liver and the gastrocnemius muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Expression of both receptors
was not altered in the pancreas of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and was undetectable in white retroperitoneal adipose
tissue. Alpha-lipoic acid prevented the rise in NADPH oxidase activity in aorta and epididymal adipose tissue of
Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and the upregulation of kinin B1 receptor in liver and gastrocnemius muscle and that of
kinin B2 receptor in the liver. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment was found to prevent the final body weight increase without
affecting significantly hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance index in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.
Conclusion: Findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is implicated in the induction of kinin B1
receptor in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. The ability of α-lipoic acid to blunt the body weight gain appears to be mediated
in part by preventing NADPH oxidase activity rise in adipose tissue and reversing the hepatic upregulation of kinin
B1 receptor in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism 05/2015; 6(6):556. DOI:10.4172/2155-6156.1000556
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While brain kinin B(1) receptor (B(1)R) is virtually absent in control rats, it contributes to hypertension via a midbrain dopaminergic (DA) mechanism in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. This study aims at determining whether B(1)R can also affect stereotypic nocifensive behavior through DA and/or other neuromediators in the same models. The selective B(1)R agonist Sar[D-Phe(8)][des-Arg(9)]BK was injected i.c.v. (1μg/site) to freely behaving SHR (16 weeks), Ang II-hypertensive rats (200ng/kg/min x 2 weeks, s.c.) and control Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Behavioral activity to the agonist was measured before and after treatment with receptor antagonists (10μg/site i.c.v. or otherwise stated) for B(1) (SSR240612), tachykinin NK(1) (RP67580), glutamate NMDA (DL-AP5), DA D(1) (SCH23390, 0.2mg/kg s.c.) and D(2) (Raclopride, 0.16mg/kg s.c.). Other studies included inhibitors (10μg/site) of NOS (L-NNA) and iNOS (1400W). The possible desensitisation of B(1)R upon repeated intracerebral stimulation was also excluded. B(1)R expression was measured by qRT-PCR in selected areas and by immunohistochemistry in the ventral tegmental area. Results showed that the B(1)R agonist had no effect in WKY, yet it induced nocifensive behavioral manifestations in both models of hypertension (face washing, sniffing, head scratching, rearing, teeth chattering, grooming, digging, licking, wet-dog shakes). These responses were prevented by all antagonists and inhibitors tested, but 1400W had a less inhibitory effect on most behaviors. Compared with WKY, B(1)R mRNA levels were markedly enhanced in hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of SHR and Ang II-treated rats. B(1)R was detected on DA neuron of the ventral tegmental area in SHR. Data suggest that kinin B(1)R is upregulated in midbrain DA system in hypertensive rats and its i.c.v. activation induced stereotypic nocifensive behavior that is mediated by several mediators, notably substance P, glutamate, DA and NO.
Behavioural brain research 12/2012; 241(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.11.032 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinins are mediators of pain and inflammation. Their role in thermoregulation is, however, unknown despite the fact the B1 receptor (B1R) was found implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which peripheral B1R affects body core temperature in a rat model known to show up-regulated levels of B1R.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg; i.p.) to enhance B1R expression. Control rats received the vehicle only. One week later, rectal temperature was measured in awake rats after i.p. injection of increasing doses (0.01 to 5 mg/kg) of des-Arg9-Bradykinin (BK) and Sar-[D-Phe8]des-Arg9-BK (B1R agonists) or BK (B2R agonist). The mechanism of B1R-induced hyperthermia was addressed using specific inhibitors and in rats subjected to subdiaphragmatic vagal nerve ligation. B1R mRNA level was measured by quantitative Real Time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and B1R was localized by confocal microscopy.
B1R agonists (0.1 to 5 mg/kg) showed transient (5- to 30-minute) and dose-dependent increases of rectal temperature (+1.5°C) in STZ-treated rats, but not in control rats. BK caused no effect in STZ and control rats. In STZ-treated rats, B1R agonist-induced hyperthermia was blocked by antagonists/inhibitors of B1R (SSR240612), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (niflumic acid) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (L-NAME), and after vagal nerve ligation. In contrast, COX-1 inhibition (indomethacin) had no effect on B1R agonist-induced hyperthermia. In STZ-treated rats, B1R mRNA was significantly increased in the hypothalamus and the vagus nerve where it was co-localized with calcitonin-gene-related peptide in sensory C-fibers.
B1R, which is induced in inflammatory diseases, could contribute to hyperthermia through a vagal sensory mechanism involving prostaglandins (via COX-2) and nitric oxide.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 09/2012; 9:214. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-9-214 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinin B(1) receptor (B(1)R) is upregulated in retina of Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats and contributes to vasodilation of retinal microvessels and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier. Systemic treatment with B(1)R antagonists reversed the increased retinal plasma extravasation in STZ rats. The present study aims at determining whether ocular application of a water soluble B(1)R antagonist could reverse diabetes-induced retinal inflammation and oxidative stress.
Wistar rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p.) and 7 days later, they received one eye drop application of LF22-0542 (1% in saline) twice a day for a 7 day-period. The impact was determined on retinal vascular permeability (Evans blue exudation), leukostasis (leukocyte infiltration using Fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-coupled Concanavalin A lectin), retinal mRNA levels (by qRT-PCR) of inflammatory (B(1)R, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, VEGF-A, VEGF receptor type 2, IL-1β and HIF-1α) and anti-inflammatory (B(2)R, eNOS) markers and retinal level of superoxide anion (dihydroethidium staining).
Retinal plasma extravasation, leukostasis and mRNA levels of B(1)R, iNOS, COX-2, VEGF receptor type 2, IL-1β and HIF-1α were significantly increased in diabetic retinae compared to control rats. All these abnormalities were reversed to control values in diabetic rats treated with LF22-0542. B(1)R antagonist also significantly inhibited the increased production of superoxide anion in diabetic retinae.
B(1)R displays a pathological role in the early stage of diabetes by increasing oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators involved in retinal vascular alterations. Hence, topical application of kinin B(1)R antagonist appears a highly promising novel approach for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33864. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033864 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a rat lung slice model, this study compared the stress responses induced by cigarette whole smoke (WS) to that induced by the vapor phase (VP) of the smoke. Following a 3-day exposure, lung slices exposed to 4, 10 and 20% WS retained 85, 42 and 16% relative survival respectively in comparison to the air-exposed ones. Consistently, histological observations revealed concentration-related alveolar damages in the lung slices. Expression of 5 stress-response genes was examined following a single 30 min exposure to 4% WS or VP. WS exposure resulted in 4, 11 and 50-fold induction of IL-1β, kinin type I receptor (B₁R) and CYP1A1 genes, respectively, while CYP1B1 and TNF-α genes expression was found only two times higher in comparison to VP group. Since cigarette WS consists of particulate and vapor phases, these results highlight the preferential or synergistic role of the particulate phase in the induction of IL-1β, B₁R and CYP1A1 genes and that VP did not have comparable effects on expression of these genes. However, both phases fairly contributed to the induction of CYP1B1 and TNF-α genes. VP was the fraction responsible for the toxic effect since WS did not produce further toxicity. The 4% whole smoke deposited about 7.1 μg/cm² of total particulate matter (TPM) to the exposure chamber which may account for observed differential stress responses in the lung slices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinin B(1) receptor (B(1)R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxydative stress, which are enhanced by transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) activation. To examine the link between TRPV1 and B(1)R in inflammatory pain, this study aimed to determine the ability of TRPV1 to regulate microglial B(1)R expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn, and the underlying mechanism.
B(1)R expression (mRNA, protein and binding sites) was measured in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord in response to TRPV1 activation by systemic capsaicin (1-50 mg/kg, s.c) in rats pre-treated with TRPV1 antagonists (capsazepine or SB-366791), the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), or vehicle. B(1)R function was assessed using a tail-flick test after intrathecal (i.t.) injection of a selective B(1)R agonist (des-Arg(9)-BK), and its microglial localization was investigated by confocal microscopy with the selective fluorescent B(1)R agonist, [Nα-bodipy]-des-Arg(9)-BK. The effect of i.t. capsaicin (1 μg/site) was also investigated.
Capsaicin (10 to 50 mg/kg, s.c.) enhanced time-dependently (0-24h) B(1)R mRNA levels in the lumbar spinal cord; this effect was prevented by capsazepine (10 mg/kg, i.p.; 10 μg/site, i.t.) and SB-366791 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; 30 μg/site, i.t.). Increases of B(1)R mRNA were correlated with IL-1β mRNA levels, and they were significantly less in cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Intrathecal capsaicin (1 μg/site) also enhanced B(1)R mRNA in lumbar spinal cord. NAC (1 g/kg/d × 7 days) prevented B(1)R up-regulation, superoxide anion production and NF-kB activation induced by capsaicin (15 mg/kg). Des-Arg(9)-BK (9.6 nmol/site, i.t.) decreased by 25-30% the nociceptive threshold at 1 min post-injection in capsaicin-treated rats (10-50 mg/kg) while it was without effect in control rats. Des-Arg(9)-BK-induced thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by capsazepine, SB-366791 and by antagonists/inhibitors of B(1)R (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg, p.o.), glutamate NMDA receptor (DL-AP5, 10 μg/site, i.t.), substance P NK-1 receptor (RP-67580, 10 μg/site, i.t.) and nitric oxide synthase (L-NNA, 10 μg/site, i.t.). The B(1)R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with an immunomarker of microglia (Iba-1) in spinal cord dorsal horn of capsaicin-treated rats.
This study highlights a new mechanism for B(1)R induction via TRPV1 activation and establishes a link between these two pro-nociceptive receptors in inflammatory pain.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 01/2012; 9(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-9-16 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nowadays diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic level and is considered as the primary cause of foot amputation and pain neuropathy. The classical theories explaining the development of diabetic pain neuropathy include the imbalance of neuronal biochemical pathways (Polyol pathway, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump, AGE, ROS) and microangiopathy which promote nerve fibers depolarization, sensitization, ectopic discharges, demyelization and ultimately neuronal death. However, the current pharmacotherapy targeting those pathways brings variable, not always satisfactory and temporal relief in patients experiencing diabetic pain neuropathy. Interestingly, recent research in animal models yielded compelling evidence that glial cells, mainly microglia, play a critical role in the mediation of diabetic pain facilitation mechanisms. Preventing microglia activation could therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic target. The lack of specific agents inhibiting microglia activity remains, however, a major obstacle for further treatment in diabetic patients. An alternative and new strategy would be the targeting of key mediators involved in microglia activation, migration and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory substances contributing to neuronal hyperexitability. The present review summarizes recent evidence that the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) may represent such a target of potential value for new medicines in the treatment of chronic pain. A few selective B1R antagonists have been fully characterized in animal models although small molecules orally active are urgently needed for targeting human B1R on CNS microglia. Thus far, the pharmacological blockade of kinin B1R in various animal paradigms or its genetic deletion in B1R knock-out mice failed to cause unwanted side effects, making this approach feasible. This is consistent with the highly inducible feature of this atypical G-protein coupled receptor whose expression can be seen as the alarming signature of immune and inflammatory diseases, notably diabetes mellitus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary inflammation is an important pathological feature of tobacco smoke-related lung diseases. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is up-regulated in the rat trachea chronically exposed to cigarette-smoke. This study aimed at determining (1) whether exposure to total particulate matter of the cigarette smoke (TPM) can induce B1R in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, (2) the mechanism of B1R induction, (3) the functionality of de novo synthesized B1R, and (4) the role of B1R in TPM-induced increase of superoxide anion (O₂(●⁻)) level. Results show that A549 cells exposed to 10 μg/ml TPM increased O₂(●⁻) level along with B1R (protein and mRNA) and IL-1β mRNA. In contrast, B2R and TNF-α mRNA were not affected by TPM. The increasing effect of TPM on O₂(●⁻) level was not significantly affected by the B1R antagonist SSR240612. TPM-increased B1R mRNA was prevented by co-treatments with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (potent antioxidant), diphenyleneiodonium (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), IL-1Ra (interleukin-1R antagonist) and SN-50 (specific inhibitor of NF-kB activation) but not by pentoxifylline (TNF-α release inhibitor), indomethacin and niflumic acid (COX-1 and -2 inhibitors). Stimulation of B1R with a selective agonist (des-Arg⁹-BK, 10 μM; 30 min) increased O₂(●⁻)production which was prevented by apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium (NADPH oxidase inhibitors). Data suggest that the increased expression of B1R by TPM in A549 cells is mediated by oxidative stress, IL-1β and NF-kB but not by cyclooxygenases or TNF-α. The amplification of O₂(●⁻) levels via the activation of B1R-NADPH oxidase may exacerbate pulmonary inflammation and contribute to the chronicity of tobacco smoke-related lung diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary inflammation is an important pathological feature of tobacco smoke related lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Kinin type 1 and type 2 receptors (B(1)R, B(2)R) are known to be associated with inflammatory responses of the lungs and other organs. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation could up-regulate B(1)R and B(2)R in correlation with IL-1β and TNF-α. Rat lung slices treated with 5 μg/ml total particulate matter (TPM) of cigarette smoke for 24 h showed an enhanced expression of B(1)R and IL-1β by 5-fold and 30-fold, respectively, in comparison to vehicle treatment (dimethyl sulfoxide). However, higher concentrations of TPM failed to induce B(1)R. No significant increase of B(2)R or TNF-α gene induction was observed. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 2 ng/ml) significantly blocked B(1)R gene induction by TPM, while 500 μM pentoxifylline, TNF-α inhibitor, reduced it partially. Western blot analysis showed a 2-fold enhanced expression of B(1)R in rat lung slices treated with 5 μg/ml TPM for 24 h and such protein expression was totally blocked by a co-treatment with IL-1Ra but not with pentoxifylline. In addition to the lower airways, rat trachea subchronically exposed to cigarette whole smoke exhibited 11-fold B(1)R gene induction in comparison with those exposed only to air. Our results demonstrate the involvement of B(1)R in cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation through a mechanism which is mediated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinin B(1) receptor (B(1)R) is induced by the oxidative stress in models of diabetes mellitus. This study aims at determining whether B(1)R activation could perpetuate the oxidative stress which leads to diabetic complications.
Young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 10% D-Glucose or tap water (controls) for 8-12 weeks. A selective B(1)R antagonist (SSR240612) was administered acutely (3-30 mg/kg) or daily for a period of 7 days (10 mg/kg) and the impact was measured on systolic blood pressure, allodynia, protein and/or mRNA B(1)R expression, aortic superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)) production and expression of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. SSR240612 reduced dose-dependently (3-30 mg/kg) high blood pressure in 12-week glucose-fed rats, but had no effect in controls. Eight-week glucose-fed rats exhibited insulin resistance (HOMA index), hypertension, tactile and cold allodynia and significant increases of plasma levels of glucose and insulin. This was associated with higher aortic levels of O(2)(*-), NADPH oxidase activity, MnSOD and catalase expression. All these abnormalities including B(1)R overexpression (spinal cord, aorta, liver and gastrocnemius muscle) were normalized by the prolonged treatment with SSR240612. The production of O(2)(*-) in the aorta of glucose-fed rats was also measured in the presence and absence of inhibitors (10-100 microM) of NADPH oxidase (apocynin), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol) or nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME) with and without Sar[D-Phe(8)]des-Arg(9)-BK (20 microM; B(1)R agonist). Data show that the greater aortic O(2)(*-) production induced by the B(1)R agonist was blocked only by apocynin.
Activation of kinin B(1)R increased O(2)(*-) through the activation of NADPH oxidase in the vasculature. Prolonged blockade of B(1)R restored cardiovascular, sensory and metabolic abnormalities by reducing oxidative stress and B(1)R gene expression in this model.
PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9):e12622. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012622 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy.
Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p.), and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR) of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I)-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140) were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK) and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715) were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations.
STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TRPV1) and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%.
The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 06/2010; 7(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-7-36 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. This study aims at defining the cellular localization of B1R in thoracic spinal cord of type 1 diabetic rats by confocal microscopy with the use of a fluorescent agonist, [Nalpha-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-BK (BdABK) and selective antibodies.
Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg, i.p.). Four days post-STZ treatment, B1R expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and autoradiography. The B1R selectivity of BdABK was determined by assessing its ability to displace B1R [125I]-HPP-desArg10-Hoe140 and B2R [125I]-HPP-Hoe 140 radioligands. The in vivo activity of BdABK was also evaluated on thermal hyperalgesia.
B1R was increased by 18-fold (mRNA) and 2.7-fold (binding sites) in the thoracic spinal cord of STZ-treated rats when compared to control. BdABK failed to displace the B2R radioligand but displaced the B1R radioligand (IC50 = 5.3 nM). In comparison, IC50 values of B1R selective antagonist R-715 and B1R agonist des-Arg9-BK were 4.3 nM and 19 nM, respectively. Intraperitoneal BdABK and des-Arg9-BK elicited dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in STZ-treated rats but not in control rats. The B1R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with immunomarkers of microglia, astrocytes and sensory C fibers in the spinal cord of STZ-treated rats.
The induction and up-regulation of B1R in glial and sensory cells of the spinal cord in STZ-diabetic rats reinforce the idea that kinin B1R is an important target for drug development in pain processes.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 04/2009; 6(1):11. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-6-11 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
The kinin B<sub>1 </sub>receptor (B<sub>1</sub>R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. This study aims at defining the cellular localization of B<sub>1</sub>R in thoracic spinal cord of type 1 diabetic rats by confocal microscopy with the use of a fluorescent agonist, [Nα-Bodipy]-des-Arg<sup>9</sup>-BK (BdABK) and selective antibodies.
Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg, i.p.). Four days post-STZ treatment, B<sub>1</sub>R expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and autoradiography. The B<sub>1</sub>R selectivity of BdABK was determined by assessing its ability to displace B<sub>1</sub>R [<sup>125</sup>I]-HPP-desArg<sup>10</sup>-Hoe140 and B<sub>2</sub>R [<sup>125</sup>I]-HPP-Hoe 140 radioligands. The in vivo activity of BdABK was also evaluated on thermal hyperalgesia.
B<sub>1</sub>R was increased by 18-fold (mRNA) and 2.7-fold (binding sites) in the thoracic spinal cord of STZ-treated rats when compared to control. BdABK failed to displace the B<sub>2</sub>R radioligand but displaced the B<sub>1</sub>R radioligand (IC<sub>50 </sub>= 5.3 nM). In comparison, IC<sub>50 </sub>values of B<sub>1</sub>R selective antagonist R-715 and B<sub>1</sub>R agonist des-Arg<sup>9</sup>-BK were 4.3 nM and 19 nM, respectively. Intraperitoneal BdABK and des-Arg<sup>9</sup>-BK elicited dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia in STZ-treated rats but not in control rats. The B<sub>1</sub>R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with immunomarkers of microglia, astrocytes and sensory C fibers in the spinal cord of STZ-treated rats.
The induction and up-regulation of B<sub>1</sub>R in glial and sensory cells of the spinal cord in STZ-diabetic rats reinforce the idea that kinin B<sub>1</sub>R is an important target for drug development in pain processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the mechanisms and the impact of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril (P) in a model of doxorubicin (D)-induced cardiotoxicity, male Wistar rats received D (1 mg/kg/d, IP for 10 days), P (2 mg/kg/d by gavage from day 1 to day 18), D (for 10 days) + P (for 18 days) or saline. D decreased systolic blood pressure and body and heart weights. Left ventricular diastolic diameter was increased by D (P < 0.01), but it was not attenuated by P. D decreased plasma vitamin C (P < 0.05) and increased the ascorbyl radical/vitamin C ratio (P < 0.01). This ratio was attenuated by P. No difference was found among groups in cardiac troponin I, brain natriuretic peptide concentrations, and tissue oxidative stress (OS). Myocardial MCP-1 expression was higher in the D group. Cardiac kinin receptor (B1R and B2R) expression was not affected by D, yet binding sites for B2R and B1R were increased in D+P and P groups, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, D induced cardiac functional alterations, inflammation and plasma OS whereas tissue OS, and cardiac kinin receptors expression were not modified. P did not improve cardiac performance, but it modulated kinin receptor expression and enhanced antioxidant defense.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose-fed rat is a model of insulin resistance that displays sensory polyneuropathy and hypertension. This study aimed at comparing the beneficial effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, antioxidant) and ramipril (angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitor) on tactile and cold allodynia induced by chronic glucose feeding. Impact of these treatments was also assessed on hypertension, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin resistance and kinin B(1) receptor expression. Male Wistar rats (50-75 g) were given 10% d-glucose in their drinking water for 11 weeks or tap water (controls). Glucose-fed rats were treated either with NAC (1 g/kg/day, gavage), ramipril (1 mg/kg/day in drinking water) or no drug during the last 5 weeks. Glucose feeding for 6 weeks induced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure and hyperglycaemia which was accompanied by tactile and cold allodynia. At 11 weeks, plasma insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA index), kinin B(1) receptor mRNA in spinal cord and renal cortex and B(1) receptor binding sites in spinal cord were enhanced in glucose-fed rats. NAC and ramipril caused a progressive to complete inhibition of tactile and cold allodynia from 6 to 11 weeks. High systolic blood pressure, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and kinin B(1) receptor expression were also normalized or attenuated in glucose-fed rats by either treatment. Results suggest that chronic treatment with an antioxidant or an ACE inhibitor provides similar beneficial effects on sensory polyneuropathy, hypertension and insulin resistance in glucose-fed rats. Both therapies were associated with a reduction of the expression of the pro-nociceptive kinin B(1) receptor.
European Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 589(1-3):66-72. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.05.006 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether or not kinin receptors play a role in diabetic blood-retinal barrier breakdown, which is a leading cause of vision loss.
Blood-retinal barrier breakdown was quantified using Evans blue, and expression of kinin B(1) receptor mRNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcrition-PCR. Diabetic rats (streptozotocin (STZ), 65 mg kg(-1)) received a single intraocular injection of bradykinin (BK) or des-Arg(9)-BK, alone, or in combination with antagonists for B(1) (des-Arg(10)-Hoe140, R-715) and/or B(2) (Hoe140) receptors, given intraocularly or intravenously (i.v.).
In control rats, BK (0.1-10 nmol) dose-dependently increased plasma extravasation, which was inhibited by Hoe140 (0.2 nmol), whereas des-Arg(9)-BK (0.1 and 1 nmol) was without effect. B(1) receptor mRNA was markedly increased in retinas of diabetic rats, and this was prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (1 g kg(-1) day(-1) for 7 days). Plasma extravasation in retinas of STZ-diabetic rats was higher than in controls and enhanced by des-Arg(9)-BK. Response to des-Arg(9)-BK was inhibited by intraocular or i.v. injection of B(1) receptor antagonists. Diabetes-induced plasma extravasation was inhibited only by a combination of des-Arg(10)-Hoe140 and Hoe 140 (100 nmol kg(-1), i.v. 15 min earlier) or by R-715 (1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) injected daily for 7 days.
Kinin B(1) receptors are upregulated in retinas of STZ-diabetic rats through a mechanism involving oxidative stress. Both kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors contribute to increased plasma extravasation in diabetic retinopathy. Chronic inhibition of both kinin receptors, possibly with antioxidant adjuvants, may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic retinopathy.
British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 154(1):136-43. DOI:10.1038/bjp.2008.48 · 4.84 Impact Factor