Lori M. Lubin

University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (118)418.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Cl 1604 supercluster at z ~ 0.9 is one of the most extensively studied high-redshift large-scale structures, with more than 500 spectroscopically confirmed members. It consists of eight clusters and groups, with members numbering from a dozen to nearly a hundred, providing a broad range of environments for investigating the large-scale environmental effects on galaxy evolution. Here we examine the properties of 48 post-starburst galaxies in Cl 1604, comparing them to other galaxy populations in the same supercluster. Incorporating photometry from ground-based optical and near-infrared imaging, along with Spitzer mid-infrared observations, we derive stellar masses for all Cl 1604 members. The colors and stellar masses of the K+A galaxies support the idea that they are progenitors of red sequence galaxies. Their morphologies, residual star formation rates, and spatial distributions suggest that galaxy mergers may be the principal mechanism producing post-starburst galaxies. Interaction between galaxies and the dense intracluster medium (ICM) is also effective, but only in the cores of dynamically evolved clusters. The prevalence of post-starburst galaxies in clusters correlates with the dynamical state of the host cluster, as both galaxy mergers and the dense ICM produce post-starburst galaxies. We also investigate the incompleteness and contamination of K+A samples selected by means of Hδ and [O II] equivalent widths. K+A samples may be up to ~50% incomplete due to the presence of LINERs/Seyferts, and up to ~30% of K+A galaxies could have substantial star formation activity.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 792(1):16. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of nine $z'$-band dropouts highly magnified (2<mu<12) by the Bullet Cluster. We combine archival imaging with our Exploratory program (SURFS UP), which results in a total integration time of ~30 hr per IRAC band. We detect (>3sigma) in both IRAC bands the brightest of these high-redshift galaxies, with [3.6]=23.80+-0.28 mag, [4.5]=23.78+-0.25 mag, and (H-[3.6])=1.17+-0.32 mag. The remaining eight galaxies are undetected to [3.6]~26.4 mag and [4.5]~26.0 mag with stellar masses of ~5x10^7 M_sol. The detected galaxy has an estimated magnification of mu=12+-4, which implies this galaxy has an ultraviolet luminosity of L_1500~0.3 L*_{z=7} --- the lowest luminosity individual source detected in IRAC at z>7. By modeling the broadband photometry, we estimate the galaxy has an intrinsic star-formation rate of SFR~1.3 M_sol/yr and stellar mass of M~2x10^9 M_sol, which gives a specific star-formation rate of sSFR~0.7 Gyr^-1. If this galaxy had sustained this star-formation rate since z~20, it could have formed the observed stellar mass (to within a factor of ~2), we also discuss alternate star-formation histories and argue the exponentially-increasing model is unlikely. Finally, based on the intrinsic star-formation rate, we estimate this galaxy has a likely [C II] flux of <f_[C II]> = 10^{-17} erg/s/cm2.
    04/2014; 786(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Using new spectroscopic observations obtained as part of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS), we perform a systematic search for overdense environments in the early universe ($z>2$) and report here on the discovery of Cl J0227-0421, a massive proto-cluster at $z=3.29$. This proto-cluster is characterized by both the large overdensity of spectroscopically confirmed members, $\delta_{gal}=10.5\pm2.8$, and a significant overdensity in photometric redshift members. The halo mass of this proto-cluster is estimated, by a variety of methods, to be roughly $3\times10^{14}$ $\mathcal{M}_{\odot}$ at $z\sim3.3$, which, evolved to $z=0$ results in a halo mass rivaling or exceeding that of the Coma cluster. The properties of 19 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies are compared with a large sample of VUDS/VVDS galaxies in lower density field environments at similar redshifts. We find tentative evidence for an excess of redder, brighter, and more massive galaxies within the confines of the proto-cluster relative to the field population, which suggests that we may be observing the beginning of environmentally-induced quenching. The properties of these galaxies are investigated, including a discussion of the brightest proto-cluster galaxy which appears to be undergoing vigorous coeval nuclear and starburst activity. The remaining member galaxies appear to have characteristics which are largely similar to the field population. Though we find weaker evidence of the suppression of the median star formation rates amongst and differences in stacked spectra of member galaxies with respect to the field, we defer any conclusions of these trends to future work with the ensemble of proto-structures that are found in the full VUDS sample.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SURFS UP is a joint Spitzer and HST Exploration Science program using 10 galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes to study z>~7 galaxies at intrinsically lower luminosities, enabled by gravitational lensing, than blank field surveys of the same exposure time. Our main goal is to measure stellar masses and ages of these galaxies, which are the most likely sources of the ionizing photons that drive reionization. Accurate knowledge of the star formation density and star formation history at this epoch is necessary to determine whether these galaxies indeed reionized the universe. Determination of the stellar masses and ages requires measuring rest frame optical light, which only Spitzer can probe for sources at z>~7, for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. Our program consists of 550 hours of Spitzer/IRAC imaging covering 10 galaxy clusters with very well-known mass distributions, making them extremely precise cosmic telescopes. We combine our data with archival observations to obtain mosaics with ~30 hours exposure time in each 3.6$\mu$m and 4.5$\mu$m in the central 4 arcmin x 4 arcmin field and ~15 hours in the flanking fields. This results in 3-sigma sensitivity limits of ~26.6 and ~26.2 AB magnitudes for SURFS UP in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5$\mu$m bands, respectively. To illustrate the survey strategy and characteristics we introduce the sample, present the details of the data reduction and demonstrate that these data are sufficient for in-depth studies of z>~7 sources (using a z=9.5 galaxy behind MACSJ1149.5+2223 as an example). For the first cluster of the survey (the Bullet Cluster) we have released all high-level data mosaics and IRAC empirical PSF models. In the future we plan to release these data products for the entire survey.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 785(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate of the properties of approximately 2000 Herschel/SPIRE-selected galaxies from 0<z<4 using a combination of extensive spectroscopy from the VVDS and ORELSE surveys, deep imaging from CFHT, VLA, Spitzer, XMM-Newton, and Herschel, and well-calibrated SED fitting. Herschel galaxies are observed to span a range of stellar masses, colors, and absolute magnitudes equivalent to galaxies undetected in SPIRE. Though many Herschel galaxies appear to be in transition, such galaxies are largely consistent with normal star-forming galaxies when rest-frame colors are utilized. The nature of the star-forming "main sequence" is studied and we warn against adopting this framework unless the main sequence is determined precisely. Herschel galaxies at different total infrared luminosities (LTIR) are compared. Bluer colors, larger nebular extinctions, and larger contributions from younger stellar populations are observed for galaxies with larger LTIR, suggesting that low-LTIR galaxies are undergoing rejuvenated starbursts while galaxies with higher LTIR are forming a larger percentage of their stellar mass. A variety of methods are used to select powerful active galactic nuclei (AGN). Galaxies hosting all types of AGN are observed to be undergoing starbursts more commonly and vigorously than a matched sample of galaxies without powerful AGN and, additionally, the fraction of galaxies with an AGN increases with increasing SFR at all redshifts. At all redshifts (0<z<4) the most prodigious star-forming galaxies are found to contain the highest fraction of powerful AGN. For redshift bins that allow a comparison (z>0.5), the highest LTIR galaxies in a given redshift bin are unobserved by SPIRE at subsequently lower redshifts, a trend linked to downsizing. In conjunction with other results, this evidence is used to argue for prevalent AGN-driven quenching in starburst galaxies across cosmic time.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Cl1604 supercluster at $z \sim 0.9$ consists of 8 clusters and groups, with spectroscopically confirmed members numbering from a dozen to nearly a hundred, providing a broad range of environments for investigating the large scale environmental effects on galaxy evolution. Incorporating photometry from ground-based optical and near-infrared imaging, along with $Spitzer$ mid-infrared observations, we derive stellar masses for the Cl1604 members. We select 48 post-starburst galaxies in the Cl1604 supercluster, which is the largest sample from a single structure at this redshift to date. Their colors and stellar masses support the idea that they are progenitors of red sequence galaxies. Their morphologies, residual star-formation rates, and spatial distributions suggest galaxy mergers may be the principal mechanism producing post-starburst galaxies. Interaction between galaxies and the dense intra-cluster medium is also effective, but only in the cores of dynamically evolved clusters. The prevalence of post-starburst galaxies in clusters correlates with the dynamical state of the host cluster, as both galaxy mergers and the dense intra-cluster medium produce post-starburst galaxies. We also investigate the incompleteness and contamination of K+A samples selected by means of H$\delta$ and [OII] equivalent widths. K+A samples may be up to $\sim50\%$ incomplete due to the presence of LINER/Seyferts and up to $\sim30\%$ of K+A galaxies could have substantial star formation activity.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigate the formation and evolution mechanisms of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) over cosmic time. At high redshift (z~0.9) we selected the BCGs and most massive cluster galaxies (MMCGs) from the Cl1604 supercluster, a complex structure of clusters and groups spanning a wide range in mass. These galaxies were compared to low-redshift (z~0.1) counterparts drawn from the MCXC catalog and supplemented by SDSS imaging and spectroscopy. We observed striking differences in the morphological, color, spectral, and stellar mass properties of the BCGs and MMCGs from low to high redshift. Specifically, those housed in the high-z clusters/groups were, in many cases, star-forming, late-type galaxies, with broadband colors that were bluer than the red sequence, properties that were largely absent at low-z. The stellar mass was found to increase by a factor of $2.51\pm 0.71$, further indicating significant evolution in these galaxies. The content of stellar mass from spectroscopically confirmed members surrounding the BCGs/MMCGs was compared between the two samples. We conclude that a combination of major merging (mainly wet or mixed) and in situ star formation are the main mechanisms that build stellar mass in BCGs/MMCGs from z~0.9 to z~0.1. The stellar mass growth of the BCGs also appears to grow in lockstep with both the stellar baryonic and total mass of the cluster. Through comparisons of structural parameters we found that BCGs/MMCGs grow in size, on average, by a factor of ~3 and the average Sersic index increases by ~0.45 from z~0.9 to z~0.1. This analysis also supports a picture involving major merging events, though some adiabatic expansion is needed. These observational results are compared to both semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations to further explore the implications of processes which shape and evolve BCGs/MMCGs over the past ~7 Gyr. (Abridged)
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We use Chandra observations of nine optically and X-ray selected clusters in five different structures at z ~ 0.7-1.1 from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey to study diffuse X-ray emission from galaxy clusters. X-ray gas temperatures and bolometric rest-frame luminosities are measured for each cluster in the sample. We present new redshift measurements, derived from dataobtained using the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Keck 10-m telescope, for two clusters in the RX J0910 supercluster at z ~ 1.1, from which velocity dispersions are measured. Dispersions for all clusters are combined with X-ray luminosities and gas temperatures to evaluate how the cluster properties compare to low-redshift scaling relations. We also measure the degree of substructure in each cluster by examining the velocity histograms, performing Dressler-Shectman tests, and computing the offsets between the X-ray emission center and optically-derived centroids. We find that only two clusters show clear indications of being unrelaxed, based on their scaling relations and other dynamical state diagnostics. Using our sample, we evaluate the redshift evolution of the L_x-T relation and investigate the implications of our results for precision cosmology surveys.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 763(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • pasp. 10/2012; 124:1135-1136.
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    ABSTRACT: In spite of recent progress, the role of distant galaxies in cosmic reionization has been difficult to pin down. A powerful way to make progress is to move beyond counting high redshift sources and study the stellar properties of the population instead. Accurate knowledge of the average star formation density and its recent history in the universe at this epoch is necessary to determine whether these galaxies emit enough hard photons to reionize the Universe. This requires measuring rest frame optical light, which only Spitzer can probe at these redshifts, for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. At least 50 typical sources with Spitzer imaging are needed to determine the star formation rate (SFR) density directly from stellar mass measurement (rather than estimated from the luminosity function) to 25% accuracy. Unfortunately, the depth needed to reach typical z>~7 galaxies is impractical in a blank field survey. To address this cosmic puzzle, we will obtain ultra-deep Spitzer imaging of the fields behind 10 of the most powerful and well calibrated cosmic telescopes. Cluster-scale gravitational lenses acting as cosmic telescopes enable the study of intrinsically lower luminosity galaxies than would otherwise be possible. This will be a crucial Legacy complement to the existing IRAC deep surveys and shallower cluster studies, and will open up new parameter space parameter space by probing intrinsically fainter objects than existing cluster surveys and much improved sample variance over deep field surveys. It will allow us to study the properties (e.g. star formation rates and stellar masses) of a large number of galaxies (50 at z~7 and 10 at z~8) for the first time, thus meeting our goal of reconstructing the cosmic SFR with sufficient accuracy. Presence (or absence) of established stellar population will be measured by Spitzer for the largest sample to date. Together these findings will allow us to identify the dominant sources of the bulk of ionizing photons necessary to drive reionization.
    Spitzer Proposal. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), an 18 square degrees medium-deep survey at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope to ~2 microJy (AB=23.1) depth of five highly observed astronomical fields (ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-S1, Lockman Hole, Chandra Deep Field South and XMM-LSS). SERVS is designed to enable the study of galaxy evolution as a function of environment from z~5 to the present day, and is the first extragalactic survey both large enough and deep enough to put rare objects such as luminous quasars and galaxy clusters at z>1 into their cosmological context. SERVS is designed to overlap with several key surveys at optical, near- through far-infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths to provide an unprecedented view of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies. In this paper, we discuss the SERVS survey design, the data processing flow from image reduction and mosaicing to catalogs, as well as coverage of ancillary data from other surveys in the SERVS fields. We also highlight a variety of early science results from the survey.
    06/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a submillimetre survey of seven high-redshift galaxy clusters (0.64 < z < 1.0) using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) at 850 and 450 m. The targets, of similar richness and redshift, are selected from the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS). We use this sample to investigate the apparent excess of submillimetre source counts in the direction of cluster fields compared to blank fields, as seen in the literature. The sample consists of three galaxy clusters that exhibit multiple optical arcs due to strong gravitational lensing, and a control group of four clusters with no apparent strong lensing. A tentative excess of 2.7σ is seen in the number density of submillimetre sources within the lensing cluster fields compared to that in the control group. Ancillary observations at radio, mid-infrared, optical and X-ray wavelengths allow for the identification of counterparts to many of the submillimetre luminous galaxies (SMGs), and provide improved astrometry and redshift constraints. Utilizing photometric redshifts, we conclude that at least three of the galaxies within the lensing fields have redshifts consistent with the clusters and implied infrared luminosities of ∼1012 L⊙. The existence of submillimetre cluster members may therefore be boosting source counts in the lensing cluster fields, which might be an effect of the dynamical state of those clusters. However, we find that the removal of potential cluster members from the counts analysis does not entirely eliminate the difference between the cluster samples. We also investigate possible occurrences of lensing between background submillimetre sources and lower redshift optical galaxies, though further observations are required to make any conclusive claims. Although the excess counts between the two cluster samples have not been unambiguously accounted for, these results warrant caution for interpreting submillimetre source counts in cluster fields and point source contamination for Sunyaev–Zel’dovich surveys.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2012; 419(3):1983 - 2013. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey and augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the GOODS fields, we search for correlations between the properties of SNe and their host galaxies at high redshift. We use galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters and develop a model to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, we identify six SN Ia hosts that are early-type cluster members and eleven SN Ia hosts that are early-type field galaxies. We confirm for the first time at z>0.9 that SNe Ia hosted by early-type galaxies brighten and fade more quickly than SNe Ia hosted by late-type galaxies. We also show that the two samples of hosts produce SNe Ia with similar color distributions. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions (SEDs) expected for passive galaxies enable us to measure stellar masses of early-type SN hosts. In combination with stellar mass estimates of late-type GOODS SN hosts from Thomson & Chary (2011), we investigate the correlation of host mass with Hubble residual observed at lower redshifts. Although the sample is small and the uncertainties are large, a hint of this relation is found at z>0.9. By simultaneously fitting the average cluster galaxy formation history and dust content to the red-sequence scatters, we show that the reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely E(B-V) <~ 0.06. The similarity of the field and cluster early-type host samples suggests that field early-type galaxies that lie on the red sequence may also be minimally affected by dust. Hence, the early-type hosted SNe Ia studied here occupy a more favorable environment to use as well-characterized high-redshift standard candles than other SNe Ia.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 750(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate out to z ~ 1.6 from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. In observations spanning 189 orbits with the Advanced Camera for Surveys we discovered 29 SNe, of which approximately 20 are SNe Ia. Twelve of these SNe Ia are located in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. Using these new data, we derive the volumetric SN Ia rate in four broad redshift bins, finding results consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthening the case for a SN Ia rate that is equal to or greater than ~0.6 x 10^-4/yr/Mpc^3 at z ~ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. We provide SN candidates and efficiency calculations in a form that makes it easy to rebin and combine these results with other measurements for increased statistics. Finally, we compare the assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements, finding that different assumptions may induce significant systematic differences between measurements.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2011; 745(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use deep Chandra imaging and an extensive optical spectroscopy campaign on the Keck 10-m telescopes to study the properties of X-ray point sources in five large-scale structures at redshifts of z ~ 0.7-0.9. We first study X-ray point sources using the statistical measure of cumulative source counts, finding that the measured overdensities are consistent with previous results, but we recommend caution in overestimating the precision of the technique. Optical spectroscopy of objects matched to X-ray point sources confirms a total of 27 AGN within the five structures, and we find that their host galaxies tend to be located away from dense cluster cores. More than 36% of host galaxies are located in the `green valley', which suggests they are a transitional population. Based on analysis of OII and Hd line strengths, the average spectral properties of the AGN host galaxies in all structures indicate either on-going star formation or a starburst within ~ 1 Gyr, and the host galaxies are younger than the average galaxy in the parent population. These results indicate a clear connection between starburst and nuclear activity. We use composite spectra of the spectroscopically confirmed members in each structure to separate them based on a measure of the overall evolutionary state of their constituent galaxies. We define structures as having more evolved populations if their average galaxy has lower EW(OII) and EW(Hd). The AGN in the more evolved structures have lower rest-frame 0.5-8 keV X-ray luminosities (all below 10^43.3 erg s^-1) and longer times since a starburst than those in the less evolved structures, suggesting that the peak of both star formation and AGN activity has occurred at earlier times. With the wide range of evolutionary states and timeframes in the structures, we use our results to analyze the evolution of X-ray AGN and evaluate potential triggering mechanisms.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2011; 746(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the properties of the 525 spectroscopically confirmed members of the Cl1604 supercluster at z~0.9 as part of the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey. Using extensive Keck LRIS/DEIMOS spectroscopy in conjunction with ten-band ground-based, Spitzer, and HST imaging, we investigate the buildup of the red sequence in groups and clusters at high redshift. Nearly all of the brightest and most massive red-sequence galaxies are found within the bounds of the clusters and groups. Despite the prevalence of these red-sequence galaxies, we find that the average cluster galaxy has a spectrum indicative of a star-forming galaxy, with a star formation rate between those of z~1 field galaxies and moderate redshift cluster galaxies. The average group galaxy is even more active, exhibiting properties indicative of a starburst. The presence of massive, red galaxies and the high fraction of starbursting galaxies suggest that significant processing is occurring in the group environment at z~1 and earlier. There is a deficit of low-luminosity red-sequence galaxies in all Cl1604 clusters and groups, suggesting that such galaxies transition to the red sequence at later times. Extremely massive (10^12) red sequence galaxies are also absent from the Cl1604 clusters and groups. We suggest that such galaxies form at later times through merging processes. There are also large populations of transition galaxies at intermediate stellar masses present in the groups and clusters, suggesting that such masses are important in the buildup of the red-sequence mass function at z~1. Through a comparison of the transitional populations present in the Cl1604 clusters and groups, we find evidence that massive blue cloud galaxies are quenched earliest in the most dynamically relaxed systems and at progressively later times in dynamically unrelaxed systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2011; 745(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have employed emission-line diagnostics derived from DEIMOS and NIRSPEC spectroscopy to determine the origin of the [O II] emission line observed in six active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts at z ~ 0.9. These galaxies are a subsample of AGN hosts detected in the Cl1604 supercluster that exhibit strong Balmer absorption lines in their spectra and appear to be in a post-starburst or post-quenched phase, if not for their [O II] emission. Examining the flux ratio of the [N II] to Hα lines, we find that in five of the six hosts the dominant source of ionizing flux is AGN continuum emission. Furthermore, we find that four of the six galaxies have over twice the [O II] line luminosity that could be generated by star formation alone given their Hα line luminosities. This strongly suggests that AGN-excited narrow-line emission is contaminating the [O II] line flux. A comparison of star formation rates calculated from extinction-corrected [O II] and Hα line luminosities indicates that the former yields a five-fold overestimate of the current activity in these galaxies. Our findings reveal the [O II] line to be a poor indicator of star formation activity in a majority of these moderate-luminosity Seyferts. This result bolsters our previous findings that an increased fraction of AGN at high redshifts is hosted by galaxies in a post-starburst phase. The relatively high fraction of AGN hosts in the Cl1604 supercluster that show signs of recently truncated star formation activity may suggest that AGN feedback plays an increasingly important role in suppressing ongoing activity in large-scale structures at high redshift.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 08/2011; 737(2):L38. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present weak gravitational lensing analysis of 22 high-redshift (z 1) clusters based on Hubble Space Telescope images. Most clusters in our sample provide significant lensing signals and are well detected in their reconstructed two-dimensional mass maps. Combining the current results and our previous weak-lensing studies of five other high-z clusters, we compare gravitational lensing masses of these clusters with other observables. We revisit the question whether the presence of the most massive clusters in our sample is in tension with the current ΛCDM structure formation paradigm. We find that the lensing masses are tightly correlated with the gas temperatures and establish, for the first time, the lensing mass-temperature relation at z 1. For the power-law slope of the M-TX relation (MT α), we obtain α = 1.54 ± 0.23. This is consistent with the theoretical self-similar prediction α = 3/2 and with the results previously reported in the literature for much lower redshift samples. However, our normalization is lower than the previous results by 20%-30%, indicating that the normalization in the M-TX relation might evolve. After correcting for Eddington bias and updating the discovery area with a more conservative choice, we find that the existence of the most massive clusters in our sample still provides a tension with the current ΛCDM model. The combined probability of finding the four most massive clusters in this sample after the marginalization over cosmological parameters is less than 1%.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2011; 737(2):59. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 μm imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy, we examine the nature of the obscured star-forming population in three clusters and three groups at z ~ 0.9. These six systems are the primary components of the Cl1604 supercluster, the largest structure imaged by Spitzer at redshifts approaching unity. We find that the average density of 24 μm detected galaxies within the Cl1604 clusters is nearly twice that of the surrounding field and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24 μm bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [O II] line emission due to severe obscuration. Their spatial distribution suggests that they are an infalling population, but an examination of their spectral properties, morphologies, and optical colors indicates that they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked composite spectra, we find that the 24 μm detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared with galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the 24 μm detected cluster and group members and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the Cl1604 groups, while a mix of harassment and mergers are likely driving the activity of the cluster galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2011; 736(1):38. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present ACS, NICMOS, and Keck AO-assisted photometry of 20 Type Ia supernovae SNe Ia from the HST Cluster Supernova Survey. The SNe Ia were discovered over the redshift interval 0.623 < z < 1.415. Fourteen of these SNe Ia pass our strict selection cuts and are used in combination with the world's sample of SNe Ia to derive the best current constraints on dark energy. Ten of our new SNe Ia are beyond redshift $z=1$, thereby nearly doubling the statistical weight of HST-discovered SNe Ia beyond this redshift. Our detailed analysis corrects for the recently identified correlation between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy mass and corrects the NICMOS zeropoint at the count rates appropriate for very distant SNe Ia. Adding these supernovae improves the best combined constraint on the dark energy density \rho_{DE}(z) at redshifts 1.0 < z < 1.6 by 18% (including systematic errors). For a LambdaCDM universe, we find \Omega_\Lambda = 0.724 +0.015/-0.016 (68% CL including systematic errors). For a flat wCDM model, we measure a constant dark energy equation-of-state parameter w = -0.985 +0.071/-0.077 (68% CL). Curvature is constrained to ~0.7% in the owCDM model and to ~2% in a model in which dark energy is allowed to vary with parameters w_0 and w_a. Tightening further the constraints on the time evolution of dark energy will require several improvements, including high-quality multi-passband photometry of a sample of several dozen z>1 SNe Ia. We describe how such a sample could be efficiently obtained by targeting cluster fields with WFC3 on HST.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2011; 746(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
418.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Dark Cosmology Centre (DARK)
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2003–2014
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 1998–2008
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 2001
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1992–1995
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States