D. Kocevski

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (243)1009.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric redshifts and associated probability distributions for all detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). The work makes use of the most up-to-date data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) in addition to other data. We also revisit multi-wavelength counterparts for published X-ray sources from the 4Ms-CDFS and 250ks-ECDFS surveys, finding reliable counterparts for 1207 out of 1259 sources (∼96%). Data used for photometric redshifts include intermediate-band photometry deblended using the TFIT method, which is used for the first time in this work. Photometric redshifts for X-ray source counterparts are based on a new library of AGN/galaxy hybrid templates appropriate for the faint X-ray population in the CDFS. Photometric redshift accuracy for normal galaxies is 0.010 and for X-ray sources is 0.014, and outlier fractions are 4% and 5.4% respectively. The results within the CANDELS coverage area are even better as demonstrated both by spectroscopic comparison and by galaxy-pair statistics. Intermediate-band photometry, even if shallow, is valuable when combined with deep broad-band photometry. For best accuracy, templates must include emission lines.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV < -21) and faint (M_UV=-18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5<z<8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that it declines as (1+z)^(-4.3 +/- 0.5) at z>4, consistent with observations at z>9. Our observations are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z>10, completes at z>6, and reaches a midpoint (x_HII = 0.5) at 6.7<z<9.4. Finally, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z=9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z~10 galaxies. [abridged]
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 10^42 erg/s < L_X < 10^44 erg/s, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame colour, size, Sersic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the bar fraction in the control sample by more than a factor of two, at 99.7% confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fueling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relationship between the structure and star-formation rate (SFR) of X-ray selected low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the two Chandra Deep Fields, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and deep far-infrared maps from the PEP+GOODS-Herschel survey. We derive detailed distributions of structural parameters and FIR luminosities from carefully constructed control samples of galaxies, which we then compare to those of the AGNs. At z~1, AGNs show slightly diskier light profiles than massive inactive (non-AGN) galaxies, as well as modestly higher levels of gross galaxy disturbance (as measured by visual signatures of interactions and clumpy structure). In contrast, at z~2, AGNs show similar levels of galaxy disturbance as inactive galaxies, but display a red central light enhancement, which may arise due to a more pronounced bulge in AGN hosts or due to extinguished nuclear light. We undertake a number of tests of these alternatives, but our results do not strongly favour one interpretation over the other. The mean SFR and its distribution among AGNs and inactive galaxies are similar at z>1.5. At z<1, however, clear and significant enhancements are seen in the SFRs of AGNs with bulge-dominated light profiles. These trends suggest an evolution in the relation between nuclear activity and host properties with redshift, towards a minor role for mergers and interactions at z>1.5.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a study investigating the sizes and morphologies of redshift 4<z<8 galaxies in the CANDELS GOODS-S, HUDF and HUDF parallel fields. Based on non-parametric measurements and incorporating a careful treatment of measurement biases, we quantify the typical size of galaxies at each redshift as the peak of the log-normal size distribution, rather than the arithmetic mean size. Parameterizing the evolution of galaxy half-light radius as r50\propto(1+z)^n, we find n=-0.34\pm0.29 at bright UV-luminosities (0.3L*(z=3)<L<L*) and n=-0.57\pm0.76 at faint luminosities (0.12L*<L<0.3L*). In a given luminosity range, these measurements are consistent with no evolution in typical galaxy size with redshift. Moreover, simulations based on artificially redshifting our z~4 galaxy sample also confirm that we cannot reject the null hypothesis of no size evolution. This result is caused by the systematic under-estimation of the largest galaxy sizes, such that the build-up in the tail of the log-normal size distribution seen at z~4-5 cannot be distinguished from a scenario where the large, low surface-brightness, galaxies at higher redshifts have their sizes systematically underestimated. To explore the evolution of galaxy morphology we first compare asymmetry measurements to those from a large sample of simulated single Sersic profiles, in order to robustly categorise galaxies as either `smooth' or `disturbed'. Comparing the disturbed fraction amongst bright (MUV<-20) galaxies at each redshift to that obtained by artificially redshifting our z~4 galaxy sample, we find no clear evidence for evolution in galaxy morphology over the redshift interval 4<z<8. Therefore, based on our results, a bright (MUV<-20) galaxy at z~6 is no more likely to be measured as `disturbed' than a comparable galaxy at z~4. (abr.)
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the largest, publicly available, sample of Damped Lyman-$\alpha$ systems (DLAs) along Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) line of sights in order to investigate the environmental properties of long GRBs in the $z=1.8-6$ redshift range. Compared with the most recent quasar DLAs sample (QSO-DLA), our analysis shows that GRB-DLAs probe a more metal enriched environment at $z\gtrsim3$, up to $[X/H]\sim-0.5$. In the $z=2-3$ redshift range, despite the large number of lower limits, there are hints that the two populations may be more similar (only at 90\% significance level). Also at \hiz, the GRB-DLA average metallicity seems to decline at a shallower rate than the QSO-DLAs: GRB-DLA hosts may be polluted with metals at least as far as $\sim 2$kpc from the GRB explosion site, probably due to previous star-formation episodes and/or supernovae explosions. This shallow metallicity trend, extended now up to $z\sim5$, confirms previous results that GRB hosts are star-forming and have, on average, higher metallicity than the general QSO-DLA population. Finally, our metallicity measurements are broadly consistent with the hypothesis of two channels of GRB progenitors, one of which is mildly affected by a metallicity bias. The metallicity evolution of modeled GRB hosts agrees reasonably well with our data up to intermediate redshift, while more data are needed to constrain the models at $z\gtrsim 4$.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We measure new estimates for the galaxy stellar mass function and star formation rates for samples of galaxies at $z \sim 4,~5,~6~\&~7$ using data in the CANDELS GOODS South field. The deep near-infrared observations allow us to construct the stellar mass function at $z \geq 6$ directly for the first time. We estimate stellar masses for our sample by fitting the observed spectral energy distributions with synthetic stellar populations, including nebular line and continuum emission. The observed UV luminosity functions for the samples are consistent with previous observations, however we find that the observed $M_{UV}$ - M$_{*}$ relation has a shallow slope more consistent with a constant mass to light ratio and a normalisation which evolves with redshift. Our stellar mass functions have steep low-mass slopes ($\alpha \approx -1.9$), steeper than previously observed at these redshifts and closer to that of the UV luminosity function. Integrating our new mass functions, we find the observed stellar mass density evolves from $\log_{10} \rho_{*} = 6.64^{+0.58}_{-0.89}$ at $z \sim 7$ to $7.36\pm0.06$ $\text{M}_{\odot} \text{Mpc}^{-3}$ at $z \sim 4$. Finally, combining the measured UV continuum slopes ($\beta$) with their rest-frame UV luminosities, we calculate dust corrected star-formation rates (SFR) for our sample. We find the specific star-formation rate for a fixed stellar mass increases with redshift whilst the global SFR density falls rapidly over this period. Our new SFR density estimates are higher than previously observed at this redshift.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Cl 1604 supercluster at z ~ 0.9 is one of the most extensively studied high-redshift large-scale structures, with more than 500 spectroscopically confirmed members. It consists of eight clusters and groups, with members numbering from a dozen to nearly a hundred, providing a broad range of environments for investigating the large-scale environmental effects on galaxy evolution. Here we examine the properties of 48 post-starburst galaxies in Cl 1604, comparing them to other galaxy populations in the same supercluster. Incorporating photometry from ground-based optical and near-infrared imaging, along with Spitzer mid-infrared observations, we derive stellar masses for all Cl 1604 members. The colors and stellar masses of the K+A galaxies support the idea that they are progenitors of red sequence galaxies. Their morphologies, residual star formation rates, and spatial distributions suggest that galaxy mergers may be the principal mechanism producing post-starburst galaxies. Interaction between galaxies and the dense intracluster medium (ICM) is also effective, but only in the cores of dynamically evolved clusters. The prevalence of post-starburst galaxies in clusters correlates with the dynamical state of the host cluster, as both galaxy mergers and the dense ICM produce post-starburst galaxies. We also investigate the incompleteness and contamination of K+A samples selected by means of Hδ and [O II] equivalent widths. K+A samples may be up to ~50% incomplete due to the presence of LINERs/Seyferts, and up to ~30% of K+A galaxies could have substantial star formation activity.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 792(1):16. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use CANDELS imaging, 3D-HST spectroscopy, and Chandra X-ray data to investigate if active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially fueled by violent disk instabilities funneling gas into galaxy centers at 1.3<z<2.4. We select galaxies undergoing gravitational instabilities using the number of clumps and degree of patchiness as proxies. The CANDELS visual classification system is used to identify 44 clumpy disk galaxies, along with mass-matched comparison samples of smooth and intermediate morphology galaxies. We note that, despite being being mass-matched and having similar star formation rates, the smoother galaxies tend to be smaller disks with more prominent bulges compared to the clumpy galaxies. The lack of smooth extended disks is probably a general feature of the z~2 galaxy population, and means we cannot directly compare with the clumpy and smooth extended disks observed at lower redshift. We find that z~2 clumpy galaxies have slightly enhanced AGN fractions selected by integrated line ratios (in the mass-excitation method), but the spatially resolved line ratios indicate this is likely due to extended phenomena rather than nuclear AGNs. Meanwhile the X-ray data show that clumpy, smooth, and intermediate galaxies have nearly indistinguishable AGN fractions derived from both individual detections and stacked non-detections. The data demonstrate that AGN fueling modes at z~1.85 - whether violent disk instabilities or secular processes - are as efficient in smooth galaxies as they are in clumpy galaxies.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The first quenched galaxies (z>2) are both the most massive, and most compact, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z~2, compared to other LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster outflow velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyman-alpha and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyman-alpha emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral HI fraction is patchy, such that Lyman-alpha photons can escape. We detect stronger CIV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and HeII emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster outflows, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyman-alpha properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z~2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally-sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift $2\leq z \leq2.5$ with star formation rates of SFR$\sim$100M$_{\odot}$ y$^{-1}$ and masses of log(M/M$_{\odot}$)$\sim10.8$. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of $\sigma_{\rm{int}}$=230$^{+40}_{-30}$ km s$^{-1}$, as measured from emission lines of H$_{\alpha}$ and [OIII], and the resultant M$_{\star}-\sigma_{\rm{int}}$ relation and M$_{\star}$$-$M$_{\rm{dyn}}$ all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at $z\sim2$, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M$_{\star}$/M$_{\rm{dyn}}$)$=-0.06\pm0.2$ dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and more evolved, i.e., more depleted in gas and dark matter ($<$13$^{+17}_{-13}$\%) than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than $\sim$300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at $z\gtrsim2$ are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by $z\sim2$.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have constructed a mass-selected sample of Mstar>10^11Msolar galaxies at 1<z<3 in the CANDELS UDS and COSMOS fields and have decomposed these systems into their separate bulge and disk components according to their H(160)-band morphologies. By extending this analysis to multiple bands we have been able to conduct individual bulge and disk component SED fitting which has provided us with stellar-mass and star-formation rate estimates for the separate bulge and disk components. These have been combined with size measurements to explore the evolution of these massive high-redshift galaxies. By utilising the new decomposed stellar-mass estimates, we confirm that the bulge components display a stronger size evolution than the disks. This can be seen from both the fraction of bulge components which lie below the local relation and the median sizes of the bulge components, where the bulges are a median factor of 2.93+/-0.32 times smaller than similarly massive local galaxies at 1<z<2 and 3.41+/-0.58 smaller at 2<z<3; for the disks the corresponding factors are 1.65+/-0.14 and 1.99+/-0.25. Moreover, by splitting our sample into the passive and star-forming bulge and disk sub-populations and examining their sizes as a fraction of their present-day counter-parts, we find that the star-forming and passive bulges are equally compact, star-forming disks are larger, while the passive disks have intermediate sizes. This trend is not evident when classifying galaxy morphology on the basis of single-Sersic fits and adopting the overall star-formation rates. Finally, by evolving the star-formation histories of the passive disks back to the redshifts when the passive disks were last active, we show that the passive and star-forming disks have consistent sizes at the relevant epoch. These trends need to be reproduced by any mechanisms which attempt to explain the morphological evolution of galaxies.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a new and improved study of the morphological and spectral evolution of massive galaxies over the redshift range 1<z<3. Our analysis is based on a bulge-disk decomposition of 396 galaxies with Mstar>10^11 Msolar from the CANDELS WFC3/IR imaging within the COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS survey fields. We find that, by modelling the H(160) image of each galaxy with a combination of a de Vaucouleurs bulge (Sersic index n=4) and an exponential disk (n=1), we can then lock all derived morphological parameters for the bulge and disk components, and successfully reproduce the shorter-wavelength J(125), i(814), v(606) HST images simply by floating the magnitudes of the two components. This then yields sub-divided 4-band HST photometry for the bulge and disk components which, with no additional priors, is well described by spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution. Armed with this information we are able to properly determine the masses and star-formation rates for the bulge and disk components, and find that: i) from z=3 to z=1 the galaxies move from disk-dominated to increasingly bulge-dominated, but very few galaxies are pure bulges/ellipticals by z=1; ii) while most passive galaxies are bulge-dominated, and most star-forming galaxies disk-dominated, 18+/-5% of passive galaxies are disk-dominated, and 11+/-3% of star-forming galaxies are bulge-dominated, a result which needs to be explained by any model purporting to connect star-formation quenching with morphological transformations; iii) there exists a small but significant population of pure passive disks, which are generally flatter than their star-forming counterparts (whose axial ratio distribution peaks at b/a~0.7); iv) flatter/larger disks re-emerge at the highest star-formation rates, consistent with recent studies of sub-mm galaxies, and with the concept of a maximum surface-density for star-formation activity.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a new and improved study of the morphological and spectral evolution of massive galaxies over the redshift range 1
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic + photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift range $0<z<3$. Separating early- and late-type galaxies on the basis of star-formation activity, we confirm that early-type galaxies are on average smaller than late-type galaxies at all redshifts, and find a significantly different rate of average size evolution at fixed galaxy mass, with fast evolution for the early-type population, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto (1+z)^{-1.48}$, and moderate evolution for the late-type population, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto (1+z)^{-0.75}$. The large sample size and dynamic range in both galaxy mass and redshift, in combination with the high fidelity of our measurements due to the extensive use of spectroscopic data, not only fortify previous results, but also enable us to probe beyond simple average galaxy size measurements. At all redshifts the slope of the size-mass relation is shallow, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto M_*^{0.22}$, for late-type galaxies with stellar mass $>3\times 10^{9}~M_{\odot}$, and steep, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto M_*^{0.75}$, for early-type galaxies with stellar mass $>2\times 10^{10}~M_{\odot}$. The intrinsic scatter is $\lesssim$0.2 dex for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric, but skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive ($\sim 10^{11}~M_{\odot}$), compact ($R_{\rm{eff}} < 2$kpc) early-type galaxies increases from $z=3$ to $z=1.5-2$ and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.
    04/2014; 788(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the relationship between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and host galaxy properties using a sample of massive galaxies at z ̃ 2 in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). A sample of 268 galaxies with M* > 1010.5 M☉ at 1.4 < z < 3 are selected from Hubble Space Telescope wide field camera 3 (WFC3) H-band observations in CDFS taken as part of the cosmic assembly near-infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey (CANDELS) survey. We find that a large fraction (22.0 ± 2.5 per cent) are detected in the 4 Ms Chandra/Advanced CCD Image Spectrometer observations in the field, implying a high AGN content in these massive galaxies. To investigate further the relationship between these AGN and their hosts, we create four subsamples, based on their star formation rates (star-forming versus quiescent) and galaxy size (compact versus extended), following Barro et al. and perform X-ray spectral fitting. We find a clear effect whereby the AGN in compact galaxies - be they star forming or quiescent - show significantly higher luminosities and levels of obscuration than the AGN in extended galaxies. These results provide clear evidence for two modes of black hole growth in massive galaxies at high redshift. The dominant growth mode is a luminous, obscured phase which occurs overwhelmingly in compact galaxies while another lower luminosity, unobscured phase is predominantly seen in extended galaxies. Both modes could produce AGN feedback, with violent transformative feedback in the former and a gentler `maintenance mode' produced by the latter.
    03/2014; 440(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Time-resolved spectroscopy is performed on eight bright, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) dominated by single emission pulses that were observed with the {\it Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope}. Fitting the prompt radiation of GRBs by empirical spectral forms such as the Band function leads to ambiguous conclusions about the physical model for the prompt radiation. Moreover, the Band function is often inadequate to fit the data. The GRB spectrum is therefore modeled with two emission components consisting of optically thin nonthermal synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons and, when significant, thermal emission from a jet photosphere, which is represented by a blackbody spectrum. To produce an acceptable fit, the addition of a blackbody component is required in 5 out of the 8 cases. We also find that the low-energy spectral index \alpha is consistent with a synchrotron component with \alpha = -0.81\pm 0.1. This value lies between the limiting values of \alpha = -2/3 and \alpha = -3/2 for electrons in the slow and fast-cooling regimes, respectively, suggesting ongoing acceleration at the emission site. The blackbody component can be more significant when using a physical synchrotron model instead of the Band function, illustrating that the Band function does not serve as a good proxy for a nonthermal synchrotron emission component. The temperature and characteristic emission-region size of the blackbody component are found to, respectively, decrease and increase as power laws with time during the prompt phase. In addition, we find that the blackbody and nonthermal components have separate temporal behaviors.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 748:17. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using new spectroscopic observations obtained as part of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS), we perform a systematic search for overdense environments in the early universe ($z>2$) and report here on the discovery of Cl J0227-0421, a massive proto-cluster at $z=3.29$. This proto-cluster is characterized by both the large overdensity of spectroscopically confirmed members, $\delta_{gal}=10.5\pm2.8$, and a significant overdensity in photometric redshift members. The halo mass of this proto-cluster is estimated, by a variety of methods, to be roughly $3\times10^{14}$ $\mathcal{M}_{\odot}$ at $z\sim3.3$, which, evolved to $z=0$ results in a halo mass rivaling or exceeding that of the Coma cluster. The properties of 19 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies are compared with a large sample of VUDS/VVDS galaxies in lower density field environments at similar redshifts. We find tentative evidence for an excess of redder, brighter, and more massive galaxies within the confines of the proto-cluster relative to the field population, which suggests that we may be observing the beginning of environmentally-induced quenching. The properties of these galaxies are investigated, including a discussion of the brightest proto-cluster galaxy which appears to be undergoing vigorous coeval nuclear and starburst activity. The remaining member galaxies appear to have characteristics which are largely similar to the field population. Though we find weaker evidence of the suppression of the median star formation rates amongst and differences in stacked spectra of member galaxies with respect to the field, we defer any conclusions of these trends to future work with the ensemble of proto-structures that are found in the full VUDS sample.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chandra data in the COSMOS, AEGIS-XD and 4Ms CDFS are combined with optical/near-IR photometry to determine the rest-frame U-V vs V-J colours of X-ray AGN hosts at mean redshifts 0.40 and 0.85. This combination of colours (UVJ) provides an efficient means of separating quiescent from star-forming, including dust reddened, galaxies. Morphological information emphasises differences between AGN split by their UVJ colours. AGN in quiescent galaxies are dominated by spheroids, while star-forming hosts are split between bulges and disks. The UVJ diagram of AGN hosts is then used to set limits on the accretion density associated with evolved and star-forming systems. Most of the black hole growth since z~1 is associated with star-forming hosts. Nevertheless, ~15-20% of the X-ray luminosity density since z~1, is taking place in the quiescent region of the UVJ diagram. For the z~0.40 subsample, there is tentative evidence (2sigma significance), that AGN split by their UVJ colours differ in Eddington ratio. AGN in star-forming hosts dominate at high Eddington ratios, while AGN in quiescent hosts become increasingly important as a fraction of the total population toward low Eddington ratios. At higher redshift, z~0.8, such differences are significant at the 2sigma level only at Eddington ratios >1e-3. These findings are consistent with scenarios in which diverse accretion modes are responsible for the build-up of SMBHs at the centres of galaxies. We compare our results with the GALFORM semi-analytic model, which postulates two black hole fuelling modes, the first linked to star-formation and the second occuring in passive galaxies. GALFORM predicts a larger fraction of black hole growth in quiescent galaxies at z<1, compared to the data. Relaxing the strong assumption of the model that passive AGN hosts have zero star-formation rate could reconcile this disagreement.
    02/2014; 440(1).

Publication Stats

2k Citations
1,009.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2014
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Physics
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • University of Hawai'i System
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2013
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Nottingham
      • • School of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, CA, United States
    • University of Hertfordshire
      • Centre for Astrophysics Research (CAR)
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2012
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Agenzia Spaziale Italiana
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2007–2012
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
      Frascati, Latium, Italy
  • 2006–2009
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2005
    • Rice University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Houston, Texas, United States