[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2',3'-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-ITP (MANT-ITP) is the most potent inhibitor of mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclase (mAC) 5 (AC5, K(i), 1 nM) yet discovered and surpasses the potency of MANT-GTP by 55-fold (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:1156-1165, 2009). AC5 inhibitors may be valuable drugs for treatment of heart failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structural basis for the high-affinity inhibition of mAC by MANT-ITP. MANT-ITP was a considerably more potent inhibitor of the purified catalytic domains VC1 and IIC2 of mAC than MANT-GTP (K(i), 0.7 versus 18 nM). Moreover, there was considerably more efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Trp1020 of IIC2 and the MANT group of MANT-ITP compared with MANT-GTP, indicating optimal interaction of the MANT group of MANT-ITP with the hydrophobic pocket. The crystal structure of MANT-ITP in complex with the G(s)α- and forskolin-activated catalytic domains VC1:IIC2 compared with the existing MANT-GTP crystal structure revealed only subtle differences in binding mode. The higher affinity of MANT-ITP to mAC compared with MANT-GTP is probably due to fewer stereochemical constraints upon the nucleotide base in the purine binding pocket, allowing a stronger interaction with the hydrophobic regions of IIC2 domain, as assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Stronger interaction is also achieved in the phosphate-binding site. The triphosphate group of MANT-ITP exhibits better metal coordination than the triphosphate group of MANT-GTP, as confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. Collectively, the subtle differences in ligand structure have profound effects on affinity for mAC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membranous adenylyl cyclases play a major role in G-protein-coupled receptor signalling and regulate various cellular responses, such as cardiac contraction. Cardiac apoptosis and development of cardiac dysfunction is prevented in mice lacking AC 5, a predominant isoform in the heart. In the search for a potent and selective AC 5 inhibitor, we recently identified 2'(3')-methylanthraniloyl-inosine-5'-triphosphate(MANT-ITP) as the most potent AC 5 inhibitor with a K ( i ) of 13 nM. Therefore, AC inhibition of MANT-ITP was assessed in ventricular cardiomyocytes and compared to three other MANT-nucleotides to evaluate its effect on cardiac signalling. Basal and isoproterenol-induced L-type calcium currents (I (Ca,L)) in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique, using four different MANT-nucleotides. The effects of the MANT-nucleotides on I (Ca,L) were unexpectedly complex. All MANT-nucleotides exhibited an inhibitory effect on basal I (Ca,L). Additionally, several MANT-nucleotides, i.e., MANT-ITPγS, MANT-ATP, and MANT-ITP, caused a strong initial increase in basal I (Ca,L) within the first 2.5 min that appeared to be unrelated to AC 5 inhibition. However, we detected a significant reduction on isoproterenol-induced I (Ca,L) with MANT-ITP, supporting the notion that AC 5 plays an important role in agonist-stimulated activation of I (Ca,L). Collectively, MANT-nucleotides are useful tools for the characterization of recombinant ACs, for fluorescence studies and crystallography, but in intact cardiomyocytes, caution must be exerted since MANT-nucleotides apparently possess additional effects than AC 5 inhibition, limiting their usefulness as tools for intact cell studies.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 06/2011; 383(6):573-83. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diterpene forskolin (FS) binds to, and activates, mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms I-VIII. Diterpenes without C(1)-OH group do not activate ACs. The C(1)-OH group forms a hydrogen bond with the backbone oxygen of Val506 of the C1 catalytic subunit of AC (isoform V numbering). To better understand the mechanism of AC activation we examined the interactions of FS and eight FS analogs with purified catalytic AC subunits C1 (AC V) and C2 (AC II) by fluorescence spectroscopy, using 2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (MANT-GTP) as fluorescent reporter probe, and by enzymatic activity. FS analogs induced C1/C2 assembly as assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Trp1020 of C2 to MANT-GTP and by increased direct MANT-GTP fluorescence in the order of efficacy FS approximately 7-deacetyl-FS approximately 6-acetyl-7-deacetyl-FS approximately 9-deoxy-FS>7-deacetyl-7-(N-methylpiperazino-gamma-butyryloxy)-FS>1-deoxy-FS approximately 1,9-dideoxy-FS approximately 7-deacetyl-1-deoxy-FS approximately 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-FS. In contrast, FS analogs activated catalysis in the order of efficacy FS>7-deacety-FS approximately 6-acetyl-7-deacetyl-FS approximately 9-deoxy-FS>7-deacetyl-7-(N-methylpiperazino-gamma-butyryloxy)-FS>1-deoxy-FS, 1,9-dideoxy-FS, 7-deacetyl-1-deoxy-FS and 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-FS (all ineffective). 1-Deoxy-FS analogs inhibited FS-stimulated catalysis by an apparently non-competitive mechanism. Our data suggest a two-step mechanism of AC activation by diterpenes. In the first step, diterpenes, regardless of their substitution pattern, promote C1/C2 assembly. In the second and yet poorly understood step, diterpenes that form a hydrogen bond between C(1)-OH and Val506 promote a conformational switch that results in activation of catalysis. The apparent non-competitive interaction of FS with 1-deoxy-FS analogs is explained by impaired ligand exchange due to strong hydrophobic interactions with C1/C2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the conversion of ATP into the second messenger cAMP and play a key role in signal transduction. In a recent study (Mol Pharmacol 70:878-886, 2006), we reported that 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-substituted nucleoside 5'-triphosphates (TNP-NTPs) are potent inhibitors (K(i) values in the 10 nM range) of the purified catalytic subunits VC1 and IIC2 of membranous AC (mAC). The crystal structure of VC1:IIC2 in complex with TNP-ATP revealed that the nucleotide binds to the catalytic site with the TNP-group projecting into a hydrophobic pocket. The aims of this study were to analyze the interaction of TNP-nucleotides with VC1:IIC2 by fluorescence spectroscopy and to analyze inhibition of mAC isoforms, soluble AC (sAC), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and G-proteins by TNP-nucleotides. Interaction of VC1:IIC2 with TNP-NDPs and TNP-NTPs resulted in large fluorescence increases that were differentially reduced by a water-soluble forskolin analog. TNP-ATP turned out to be the most potent inhibitor for ACV (K(i), 3.7 nM) and sGC (K(i), 7.3 nM). TNP-UTP was identified as the most potent inhibitor for ACI (K(i), 7.1 nM) and ACII (K(i), 24 nM). TNP-NTPs inhibited sAC and GTP hydrolysis by G(s)- and G(i)-proteins only with low potencies. Molecular modeling revealed that TNP-GTP and TNP-ATP interact very similarly, but not identically, with VC1:IIC2. Collectively, our data show that TNP-nucleotides are useful fluorescent probes to monitor conformational changes in VC1:IIC2 and that TNP-NTPs are a promising starting point to develop isoform-selective AC and sGC inhibitors. TNP-ATP is the most potent sGC inhibitor known so far.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2009; 330(3):687-95. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New tetracyclic analogues of forskolin have been prepared by derivatization of the natural product. Treatment of a forskolin-derived cyclic thionocarbonate with 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,3,2-diazaphospholidine resulted in the formation of a seven-membered cyclic carbonate derivative by an unprecedented rearrangement of an intermediate dialkoxycarbene or 1,3-dipole, whereas radical deoxygenation was followed by intramolecular cyclization with the double bond to form a third analogue. Two of the new analogues were investigated for their ability to activate adenylyl cyclases 1, 2 and 5. The introduction of another ring into the forskolin skeleton did not lead to a loss of binding affinity to the enzyme. Although the new compounds are much more spacious than forskolin, they still seem to fit into the binding pocket and were found to be partial agonists.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms 1 to 9 are differentially expressed in tissues and constitute an interesting drug target. ACs 1 to 8 are activated by the diterpene, forskolin (FS). It is unfortunate that there is a paucity of AC isoform-selective activators. To develop such compounds, an understanding of the structure/activity relationships of diterpenes is necessary. Therefore, we examined the effects of FS and nine FS analogs on ACs 1, 2, and 5 expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Diterpenes showed the highest potencies at AC1 and the lowest potencies at AC2. We identified full agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists, i.e., diterpenes that reduced basal AC activity. Each AC isoform exhibited a distinct pharmacological profile. AC2 showed the highest basal activity of all AC isoforms and highest sensitivity to inverse agonistic effects of 1-deoxy-forskolin, 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-forskolin, and, particularly, BODIPY-forskolin. In contrast, BODIPY-forskolin acted as partial agonist at the other ACs. 1-Deoxy-forskolin analogs were devoid of agonistic activity at ACs but antagonized the effects of FS in a mixed competitive/noncompetitive manner. At purified catalytic AC subunits, BODIPY-forskolin acted as weak partial agonist/strong partial antagonist. Molecular modeling revealed that the BODIPY group rotates promiscuously outside of the FS-binding site. Collectively, ACs are not uniformly activated and inhibited by FS and FS analogs, demonstrating the feasibility to design isoform-selective FS analogs. The two- and multiple-state models, originally developed to conceptualize ligand effects at G-protein-coupled receptors, can be applied to ACs to explain certain experimental data.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2008; 325(1):27-36. · 3.89 Impact Factor