[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 309 resulting in a T or G allele in the promoter of MDM2, the negative regulator of p53, has been suggested to affect cancer predisposition and age of onset, primarily in females. However, findings have been inconsistent in various cancers, and ethnicity appears to be a critical factor influencing the effects of the SNP on cancer risk. An increasing trend has been observed in the prevalence of lung cancers in non-smokers, especially females, though the underlying genetic basis is unclear.
We therefore examined the role of the SNPs in the p53 pathway (p53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP309) on lung cancer risk and prognosis of a life-time non-smoking female Chinese population, in a hospital-based case-control study of 123 cases and 159 age-matched controls, by PCR analysis.
Our findings reveal that the risk of lung cancer among individuals with the MDM2 SNP309 TT genotype was 2.1 (95% CI 1.01-4.36) relative to the GG genotype, contrary to initial expectations that the GG genotype with elevated MDM2 levels will increase cancer risk. Those who had this genotype in combination with the p53 Pro allele had a risk of 2.5 (95% CI 1.2-5.0). There was however no effect of either polymorphism on age at diagnosis of lung cancer or on overall survival.
The results thus demonstrate that the MDM2 SNP309 TT rather than the GG genotype is associated with increased risk of lung cancer in this population, suggesting that other mechanisms independent of increased MDM2 levels can influence cancer susceptibility.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sporadic breast cancer in women <40 years is uncommon in Caucasians, in contrast to a much earlier onset in Chinese Asians. However, the molecular determinants for this earlier onset are unclear. It has been reported that SNP309 in the promoter of MDM2, the negative regulator of p53, affects the onset age of cancers in females. Essentially, the G allele, rather than the T allele, has been suggested to accelerate the age of cancer onset. Hence, we examined if MDM2 and p53 polymorphisms would be determinants of the early onset phenomenon in Chinese women. Our results indicate that the MDM2 SNP309 G allele is more prevalent in the Chinese population compared with reported frequencies in Caucasians, and increases breast cancer risk of both sporadic cases and those with family history. However, it was the T/T genotype that was associated with earlier onset age of sporadic breast cancers in contrast to the G allele that was associated with the familial cases. Though p53 codon 72 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) did not affect general cancer risk or age of onset, arginine homozygozity, in contrast to proline homozygozity, was found to decrease breast cancer risk in the later onset sporadic cases. Both SNP309 and codon 72 polymorphisms did not affect the stage of cancer. Together, the data suggest that though the MDM2 SNP309 G allele is a risk factor for breast cancer, it does not accelerate, but delays the onset of the sporadic disease in Chinese women, highlighting that differences in ethnicity and family history may influence the role of MDM2 SNP309 in cancer susceptibility.