[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation may be deleterious to the cardiovascular system, and MR antagonists improve morbidity and mortality of patients with heart failure. However, mineralocorticoid signaling in the heart remains largely unknown. Using a pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis, we identified neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL or lipocalin 2) as a strongly induced gene in the heart of mice with conditional and targeted MR overexpression in cardiomyocytes (whereas induction was low in glucocorticoid receptor-overexpressing mice). NGAL mRNA levels were enhanced after hormonal stimulation by the MR ligand aldosterone in cultured cardiac cells and in the heart of wild-type mice. Mineralocorticoid pathological challenge induced by nephrectomy/aldosterone/salt treatment upregulated NGAL expression in the heart and aorta and its plasma levels. We show evidence for MR binding to an NGAL promoter, providing a mechanism for NGAL regulation. We propose that NGAL may be a marker of mineralocorticoid-dependent injury in the cardiovascular system in mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological aldosterone (aldo)/mineralocorticoid receptor signaling has a major impact on the cardiovascular system, resulting in hypertension and vascular remodeling. Mineralocorticoids induce endothelial dysfunction, decreasing vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine and increasing the response to vasoconstrictors. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is thought to mediate the vascular effects of aldo, but this has yet to be demonstrated in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the molecular and functional vascular consequences of aldo-salt challenge in the waved 2 mouse, a genetic model with a partial loss of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. Deficient EGFR activity is associated with global oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. A decrease in EGFR activity did not affect the arterial wall remodeling process induced by aldo-salt. By contrast, normal EGFR activity was required for the aldo-induced enhancement of phenylephrine- and angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction. In conclusion, this in vivo study demonstrates that EGFR plays a key role in aldosterone-mediated vascular reactivity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence shows that adult metabolic disease may originate from an adverse fetal environment that can alter organ development and function in postnatal life. This study aimed to analyze the effect of exposure in utero to maternal diabetes on the development of the metabolic syndrome in the offspring.
Pregnant rats were made diabetic (blood glucose was 20mM) with a single streptozotocin injection on day 0 of gestation. Offspring from diabetic mothers (DMO) and control mothers (CMO) were followed from birth to 12 months of age. In these animals, metabolic parameters, such as glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid levels, as well as pancreatic insulin and morphology were studied.
Compared with controls, DMO offspring had normal birth weights, but impaired postnatal growth that persisted throughout life. Metabolic tests revealed that DMO offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance at six months associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and low insulin secretion. In older animals (12 months old), this phenotype persisted, but to a lesser extent. The DMO offspring also presented with high blood pressure and decreased levels of fasting plasma triglycerides, but normal plasma NEFA, and HDL and total cholesterol.
Altogether, these results show that our model of exposure in utero to maternal diabetes led to normal birth weights, and induced transient glucose intolerance and increased blood pressure with no major effects on lipid metabolism. It also suggests that a hyperglycaemic fetal environment may be able to 'programme' hypertension and glucose intolerance, but not alter lipid metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate modifications of arterial structure, gene expression, and function in our model of rats exposed to maternal diabetes.
Morphometric analyses of elastic vessels structure and determination of thoracic aortic gene expression profile with oligonucleotide chips (Agilent, G4130, 22k) were performed before the onset of established hypertension (3 months).
Arterial parameters of in situ fixed thoracic aorta were not significantly different between control mother offspring and diabetic mother offspring (DMO). The aortic gene expression profile of DMO is characterized by modifications of several members of the arachidonic acid metabolism including a twofold underexpression of prostacyclin receptor, which could contribute to decreased vasodilatation. This was confirmed by ex vivo experiments on isolated aortic rings. Pharmacological studies on conscious rats showed that systolic blood pressure decline in response to a PGI(2) analog was impaired in DMO rats.
These results suggest an abnormal vascular fetal programming of prostacyclin receptor in rats exposed in utero to maternal hyperglycemia that is associated with impaired vasodilatation and may be involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension in this model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Hypertension and chronic renal failure (CRF) are considered models of accelerated arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness increases further when CRF is associated with hypertension. We hypothesized that, in patients with mild CRF, aortic gene expression profile would include genes involved in arterial calcifications and enlargement.
Method: We analysed human aorta with the 'GeneChip Microarray' technology, in patients with or without CRF, scheduled for a coronary artery bypass graft.
Results: Nine of 25 patients had high-quality RNA and were included in the study. Among the 101 transcripts differentially expressed between CRF patients and controls, 97 transcripts were overexpressed in CRF patients. Two genes had the highest overexpression in CRF patients: lumican (LUM), involved in the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis; and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), involved in polyamine biosynthesis, smooth muscle cell growth and proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increased amount of LUM and ODC1 in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of CRF compared to non-CRF aortic sections. Eight genes were implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton (including capping protein muscle Z-line 1 α and moesin) and cell migration, and five genes were implicated in extracellular matrix function and apoptosis. A trend towards an upregulation of candidate genes involved in arterial calcifications was observed in CRF patients, but did not reach statistical significance. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was not correlated with gene expression level.
Conclusion: In conclusion, these results show that patients at an early stage of CRF have a specific gene expression profile of aortic tissue and suggest that genes implicated in collagen fibrillogenesis, and VSMCs migration and proliferation, particularly LUM and ODC1, may play a role.
Journal of Hypertension 03/2008; 26(4):747-757. · 3.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO)-deficient mice present no alteration in elastin cross-linking processes and carotid mechanical properties. In contrast, previous studies have shown that SSAO inhibitors induced marked anomalies in arterial structure and function. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of semicarbazide (SCZ), an efficient SSAO inhibitor, on the arterial phenotype of the carotid artery in relation to modulation of SSAO and lysyl oxidase activities in growing rats. We first show that after 6 weeks of SCZ treatment (100 mg/kg per day), SSAO activity was reduced by 90%, whereas lysyl oxidase activity was only partially inhibited (<60%) in carotid artery, compared with controls. There was significant growth inhibition and no difference in mean arterial pressure but an increase in pulse pressure with a smaller arterial diameter in SCZ-treated rats. SCZ decreased aortic insoluble elastin without a change in total collagen. In addition, extracellular proteins other than insoluble elastin and collagen were increased in SCZ-treated rats. All of the elastic lamellae presented globular masses along their periphery, and focal disorganization was observed in the ascending aorta. Carotid artery mechanical strength was lower in SCZ-treated rats, and the elastic modulus-wall stress curve was shifted leftward compared with controls, indicating increased stiffness. Thus, SCZ modifies arterial geometry and mechanical properties, alters elastic fiber structure, and reduces the content of cross-linked elastin. Because these abnormalities are essentially absent in SSAO-deficient mice, our results suggest that lysyl oxidase inhibition is responsible for the major part of the vascular phenotype of SCZ-treated rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction causes neurohormonal activation involving aldosterone and angiotensin II (AngII). These hormones may increase arterial stiffness, an independent cardiovascular risk factor contributing to progression of congestive heart failure (CHF). This study aimed to determine the effect of aldosterone and AngII blockade on carotid artery distensibility and collagen density in adult Wistar rats with MI-induced CHF. Five groups were studied: Sham-operated, CHF, CHF + spironolactone, CHF + lisinopril, CHF + Spironolactone + Lisinopril. After echocardiography, in vitro isobaric carotid distensibility (echo-tracking technique) and collagen density were measured, and the incremental elastic modulus (Einc) calculated. In the CHF group, intra-ventricular pressure and cardiac weight were increased; carotid distensibility was reduced (CHF: 0.42 +/- 0.30 per mmHg(3) versus sham: 1.75 +/- 0.50 per mmHg(3); P < 0.001), and collagen content increased by 87% when compared to sham. All treatments reduced intra-ventricular pressure, carotid distensibility and fibrosis when compared to CHF but did not change cardiac weight. However, carotid distensibility and intra-ventricular pressure were not completely restored towards sham values and were significantly and inversely related. Spironolactone, which did not decrease significantly blood pressure, was the only drug reducing Einc independently of wall stress (WS). Thus, MI-induced CHF was associated with carotid artery remodeling. This vascular change, which may contribute to maintain cardiac hypertrophy and CHF, is largely prevented by AngII and aldosterone blockade. Only spironolactone reduced the stiffness of carotid wall material independently of blood pressure and WS.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/2005; 39(3):511-9. · 5.15 Impact Factor