Marnie Robinson

The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (11)65.29 Total impact

  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2015; 135(2):AB156. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.12.1448 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coadministration of a bacterial adjuvant with oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been suggested as a potential treatment for food allergy. To evaluate a combined therapy comprising a probiotic together with peanut OIT. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC 1.3724 and peanut OIT (probiotic and peanut oral immunotherapy [PPOIT]) in children (1-10 years) with peanut allergy. The primary outcome was induction of sustained unresponsiveness 2 to 5 weeks after discontinuation of treatment (referred to as possible sustained unresponsiveness). Secondary outcomes were desensitization, peanut skin prick test, and specific IgE and specific IgG4 measurements. Sixty-two children were randomized and stratified by age (≤5 and >5 years) and peanut skin test wheal size (≤10 and >10 mm); 56 reached the trial's end. Baseline demographics were similar across groups. Possible sustained unresponsiveness was achieved in 82.1% receiving PPOIT and 3.6% receiving placebo (P < .001). Nine children need to be treated for 7 to achieve sustained unresponsiveness (number needed to treat, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.59). Of the subjects, 89.7% receiving PPOIT and 7.1% receiving placebo were desensitized (P < .001). PPOIT was associated with reduced peanut skin prick test responses and peanut-specific IgE levels and increased peanut-specific IgG4 levels (all P < .001). PPOIT-treated participants reported a greater number of adverse events, mostly with maintenance home dosing. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the novel coadministration of a probiotic and peanut OIT and assessing sustained unresponsiveness in children with peanut allergy. PPOIT was effective in inducing possible sustained unresponsiveness and immune changes that suggest modulation of the peanut-specific immune response. Further work is required to confirm sustained unresponsiveness after a longer period of secondary peanut elimination and to clarify the relative contributions of probiotics versus OIT. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 01/2015; 135(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.11.034 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is a paucity of data examining the natural history of and risk factors for egg allergy persistence, the most common IgE-mediated food allergy in infants. Objective: We aimed to assess the natural history of egg allergy and identify clinical predictors for persistent egg allergy in a population-based cohort. Methods: The HealthNuts study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of 5276 infants who underwent skin prick tests to 4 allergens, including egg. Infants with a detectable wheal were offered hospital-based oral food challenges (OFCs) to egg, irrespective of skin prick test wheal sizes. Infants with challenge-confirmed raw egg allergy were offered baked egg OFCs at age 1 year and follow-up at age 2 years, with repeat OFCs to raw egg. Results: One hundred forty infants with challenge-confirmed egg allergy at age 1 year participated in the follow-up. Egg allergy resolved in 66 (47%) infants (95% CI, 37% to 56%) by 2 years of age; however, resolution was lower in children with baked egg allergy at age 1 year compared with baked egg tolerance (13% and 56%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 5.27; 95% CI, 1.36-20.50; P=.02). In the subgroup of infants who were tolerant to baked egg at age 1 year, frequent ingestion of baked egg (>= 5 times per month) compared with infrequent ingestion (0-4 times per month) increased the likelihood of tolerance (adjusted odds ratio, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.38-8.98; P=.009). Mutation in the filaggrin gene was not associated with the resolution of either egg allergy or egg sensitization at age 2 years. Conclusion: Phenotyping of egg allergy (baked egg tolerant vs allergic) should be considered in the management of this allergy because it has prognostic implications and eases dietary restrictions. Randomized controlled trials for egg oral immunotherapy should consider stratifying at baseline by the baked egg subphenotype to account for the differential rate of tolerance development.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2014; 133(2):485-491.e6. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.032 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has shown that pediatric food allergy is more prevalent in regions further from the equator, suggesting that vitamin D insufficiency may play a role in this disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of vitamin D status in infantile food allergy. METHODS: A population sample of 5276 one-year-old infants underwent skin prick testing to peanut, egg, sesame, and cow's milk or shrimp. All those with a detectable wheal and a random sample of participants with negative skin prick test results attended a hospital-based food challenge clinic. Blood samples were available for 577 infants (344 with challenge-proven food allergy, 74 sensitized but tolerant to food challenge, 159 negative on skin prick test and food challenge). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and food allergy were examined by using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for potential risk and confounding factors. RESULTS: Infants of Australian-born parents, but not of parents born overseas, with vitamin D insufficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were more likely to be peanut (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 11.51; 95% CI, 2.01-65.79; P = .006) and/or egg (aOR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.19-12.08; P = .025) allergic than were those with adequate vitamin D levels independent of eczema status. Among those with Australian-born parents, infants with vitamin D insufficiency were more likely to have multiple food allergies (≥2) rather than a single food allergy (aOR, 10.48; 95% CI, 1.60-68.61 vs aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.38-8.77, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first direct evidence that vitamin D sufficiency may be an important protective factor for food allergy in the first year of life.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 02/2013; 131(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.017 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of whole peanut-specific IgE (sIgE) is often used to confirm sensitization but does not reliably predict allergy. Ara h 2 is the dominant peanut allergen detected in 90% to 100% of patients with peanut allergy and could help improve diagnosis. We sought to determine whether Ara h 2 testing might improve the accuracy of diagnosing peanut allergy and therefore circumvent the need for an oral food challenge (OFC). Infants from the population-based HealthNuts study underwent skin prick tests to determine peanut sensitization and subsequently underwent a peanut OFC to confirm allergy status. In a stratified random sample of 200 infants (100 with peanut allergy and 100 with peanut tolerance), whole peanut sIgE and Ara h 2 sIgE levels were quantified by using fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. By using the previously published 95% positive predictive value of 15 kU(A)/L for whole peanut sIgE, a corresponding specificity of 98% (95% CI, 93% to 100%) was found in this study cohort. At the equivalent specificity of 98%, the sensitivity of Ara h 2 sIgE is 60% (95% CI, 50% to 70%), correctly identifying 60% of subjects with true peanut allergy compared with only 26% correctly identified by using whole peanut sIgE. We report that when using a combined approach of plasma sIgE testing for whole peanut followed by Ara h 2 for the diagnosis of peanut allergy, the number of OFCs required is reduced by almost two thirds. Ara h 2 plasma sIgE test levels provide higher diagnostic accuracy than whole peanut plasma sIgE levels and could be considered a new diagnostic tool to distinguish peanut allergy from peanut tolerance, which might reduce the need for an OFC.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 02/2012; 129(4):1056-63. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.01.056 · 11.25 Impact Factor
  • EAACI; 01/2010
  • EAACI; 01/2010
  • Mimi L K Tang · Marnie Robinson
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of allergic disease has increased considerably in recent decades and Australia has one of the highest rates of allergic disease in the world. As there is currently no cure for allergic diseases, prevention offers a logical approach to addressing the rising burden of disease. The factors responsible for this escalation in prevalence remain unclear, and strategies for allergy prevention remain limited. This article discusses current recommendations for allergy prevention and highlights new insights into allergic disease. History of allergic disease in a first degree relative is currently the only useful indicator for increased risk of developing allergic disease in a child. Prevention strategies should be directed to these high risk individuals. Currently, maternal dietary restriction during pregnancy or lactation and aeroallergen avoidance are not recommended. Breastfeeding is recommended, and where not possible or insufficient, a partially hydrolysed formula should be used in high risk infants. Introduction of solids should be delayed to 4-6 months of age. There is no evidence that delaying solids beyond this age is of benefit. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics for allergy prevention.
    Australian family physician 05/2008; 37(4):204-8. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    Marnie Robinson · Joanne Smart
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and food allergy) are the commonest chronic diseases of childhood. General practitioners commonly encounter children with allergic diseases and need to be aware of when referral to a paediatric allergist should be considered. An understanding of what diagnostic tests the allergist may use in confirming the diagnosis is also necessary. This article discusses the criteria for referral to a specialist paediatric allergist and also details the tests that may be used by the allergist as part of the diagnostic work up. Management of allergic diseases requires accurate diagnosis and avoidance of offending allergens where possible. The diagnosis of an IgE mediated allergy requires both a history of symptoms on exposure to the allergen and detection of allergen specific IgE. The most commonly employed diagnostic methods in clinical allergy assessment are skin prick testing, RAST and clinical oral food challenge procedures. The use of alternative or unorthodox tests may provide misleading results and delay correct diagnosis and therefore should not be used.
    Australian family physician 05/2008; 37(4):210-3. · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • Sam Mehr · Marnie Robinson · Mimi Tang
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    ABSTRACT: Parents and children who have been prescribed an Epipen are often unable to demonstrate its correct administration. One contributory factor may be that doctors are unfamiliar with the EpiPen and are unable to demonstrate the correct administration of the pen to the family. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of correct EpiPen demonstration by junior and Senior Medical Staff at a major tertiary paediatric Hospital. Junior and Senior medical staff were scored on their ability to correctly use the EpiPen trainer. A 6 step scoring system was used. One-hundred doctors were recruited (Residents n = 31, Senior Residents n = 39, Fellow/Consultants n = 30). Junior and Senior Medical staff had similar scores for EpiPen demonstration, the number that needed to read the EpiPen instructions prior to use and the frequancy of accidental self-injection into the thumb. Only two doctors (2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps correctly. The most frequent errors made were not holding the pen in place for >5 seconds (57%), failure to apply pressure to activate (21%), and self-injection into the thumb (16%). Ninety five doctors needed to read the instructions, and of these, only 39 (41%) then proceeded to correctly demonstrate the remaining 5 steps. Forty-five doctors had previously dispensed an EpiPen, but only three demonstrated its use to parents/children with a trainer. The majority of doctors do not know how to use an Epipen and are unable to provide appropriate education to parents/children. In 37% of cases, the demonstration would not have delivered adrenaline to a patient.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 09/2007; 18(5):448-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2007.00529.x · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Sam Mehr · Marnie Robinson · Mimi Tang
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    ABSTRACT: Parents and children who have been prescribed an Epipen are often unable to demonstrate its correct administration. One contributory factor may be that doctors are unfamiliar with the EpiPen and are unable to demonstrate the correct administration of the pen to the family. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of correct EpiPen demonstration by junior and Senior Medical Staff at a major tertiary paediatric Hospital. Junior and Senior medical staff were scored on their ability to correctly use the EpiPen trainer. A 6 step scoring system was used. One-hundred doctors were recruited (Residents n = 31, Senior Residents n = 39, Fellow/Consultants n = 30). Junior and Senior Medical staff had similar scores for EpiPen demonstration, the number that needed to read the EpiPen instructions prior to use and the frequancy of accidental self-injection into the thumb. Only two doctors (2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps correctly. The most frequent errors made were not holding the pen in place for > 5 seconds (57%), failure to apply pressure to activate (21%), and self-injection into the thumb (16%). Ninety five doctors needed to read the instructions, and of these, only 39 (41%) then proceeded to correctly demonstrate the remaining 5 steps. Forty-five doctors had previously dispensed an EpiPen, but only three demonstrated its use to parents/children with a trainer. The majority of doctors do not know how to use an Epipen and are unable to provide appropriate education to parents/children. In 37% of cases, the demonstration would not have delivered adrenaline to a patient.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 08/2007; 18(5):448-452. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2006.00529.x · 3.86 Impact Factor