[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 01/2014; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decades, the demand for biomaterials of antimicrobial
quality sensibly increased. The essential properties of these materials
must be the biocompatibility, wettability, durability and their
antibacterial characteristics. One of the most important biomaterial for
medical applications is the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE) that it is used to make components of prosthetic knee, hip and
shoulder. It is well known that the presence in UHMWPE of Ag atoms
increase its antibacterial properties while Cu and its alloys are known
as natural antimicrobial materials. In this work it is proposed a
dedicated laser ion source (LIS) accelerator to perform ion implantation
together with a systematic study of the surface properties of UHMWPE
samples treated with different metals in order to modify their
antibacterial characteristics. The proposed technique consists in the
application of a dose of specific ions inside the first layer of the
sample to be treated. This goal can be effectively achieved if the ions
are preventively accelerated. This technique seems to be interesting,
since it can open the way to an easier realization of antibacterial
materials using various metal ions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, several episodes of mass mortality of sessile epibenthic invertebrates, including sponges, have been recorded worldwide. In the present study, we report a disease event on Ircinia variabilis recorded in September 2009 along the southern Adriatic and Ionian seas (Apulian coast), with the aim to quantify the mortality incidence on the sponge population, to investigate the effect of the disease on the sponge tissues and to assess whether the disease is associated with vibrios proliferation. The injured sponges showed wide necrotic areas on the surface or disruption of the body in several portions. Necrotic areas were whitish and often were covered with a thin mucous coat formed by bacteria. In the most affected specimens, sponge organisation resulted partial or complete loss, with the final exposure of the dense skeletal network of spongine fibres to the environment. The results of microbiological cultural analysis using in parallel Marine Agar 2216 and thiosulphate/citrate/bile salts/sucrose agar demonstrated that, in affected specimens, vibrios represented 15.8 % of the total I. variabilis surface culturable bacteria. Moreover, all the isolated vibrios, grown from the wide whitish areas that characterize the surface of the diseased sponges, were identified, and their assignment to the Vibrio rotiferianus was consistent with phylogenetic analysis and data of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. Studies on V. rotiferianus have shown that its pathogenicity, with respect to various aquatic organisms, is higher than that of Vibrio harveyi. The factors triggering the disease outbreak in Ircinia variabilis populations remain unclear. At present, we can hypothesize the involvement in the disease of a synergetic mechanism that, under stressful physiological conditions (high temperature, elevated nutrients and reduced water flow), induces sponge pathogens, in our case V. rotiferanius, to become virulent, making sponges unable to control their proliferation. Additional studies are needed to understand the etiological processes as well as the factors involved in sponges recovering from this epidemic event allowing them to face mass mortality. A drastic reduction of sponge-specific representatives could have marked a negative impact on the environmental health on account of their role in the sea remediation processes as filter-feeding organisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.
Journal of Applied Physics 05/2011; 109(10):104703-104703-4. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previously unknown association between a luminous Vibrio sp., taxonomically related to the species Vibrio harveyi and a common member of the shallow/mid water communities of the Mediterranean Sea, the hydrozoan Clytia linearis is described. All the specimens of C linearis observed under blue light excitation showed both a natural luminescence appearing as a series of fine dots due to clytin, and a clear fluorescence on the external side of the perisarc around the colonies due to the presence of luminous bacteria. Luminous bacteria were isolated from the surface of C. linearis, their phenotypic characterization as isolates was performed by several morphological, biochemical, and cultural tests, completed with 16S rDNA sequence analysis. All the isolates were referred to a Vibrio sp. taxonomically related to V. harveyi. The association of the V. harveyi-related species with C. linearis, as already suggested for another hydroid, Aglaophenia octodonta, could be explained with the activity of these bacteria of feeding on the chitinous structures present in these hydroids. Moreover, the adhesion of the luminous bacterium (here referred to as Vibrio sp. CL1) on C linearis may contribute to the survival of this Vibrio species in the marine environment providing a suitable growth habitat.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 01/2011; 396:77-82. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the beginning of the idiophase the highly phosphorylated guanylic nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp), collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp, activate stress survival adaptation programmes and trigger secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. The major target of (p)ppGpp is the RNA polymerase, where it binds altering the enzyme activity. In this study analysis of the polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase)-encoding gene pnp mRNA, in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 wild-type, constitutively stringent and relaxed strains, led us to hypothesize that in actinomycetes (p)ppGpp may modulate gene expression at the level of RNA decay also. This hypothesis was supported by: (i) in vitro evidence that ppGpp, at physiological levels, inhibited both polynucleotide polymerase and phosphorolytic activities of PNPase in Nonomuraea sp., but not in Escherichia coli, (ii) in vivo data showing that the pnp mRNA and the A40926 antibiotic cluster-specific dpgA mRNA were stabilized during the idiophase in the wild-type strain but not in a relaxed mutant and (iii) measurement of chemical decay of pulse-labelled bulk mRNA. The results of biochemical tests suggest competitive inhibition of ppGpp with respect to nucleoside diphosphates in polynucleotide polymerase assays and mixed inhibition with respect to inorganic phosphate when the RNA phosphorolytic activity was determined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the species V. harveyi, and the benthic hydrozoan Aglaophenia octodonta. In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility to antibiotics (ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, or co-trimoxazole = mix of sulfamethoxazole and trimetoprim) of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host by using microcosm experiments. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments demonstrated that Vibrio sp. AO1 was highly resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin in pure culture. Nevertheless, these antibiotics, when used at sub-MIC values, significantly reduced the hydroid fluorescence. Co-trimoxazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on fluorescence of A. octodonta. However, in all treatments, the fluorescence was reduced after 48 h, but never disappeared completely around the folds along the hydrocaulus and at the base of the hydrothecae of A. octodonta when the antibiotic was used at concentration completely inhibiting growth in vitro. The apparent discrepancy between the MIC data and the fluorescence patterns may be due to either heterogeneity of the bacterial population in terms of antibiotic susceptibility or specific chemical-physical conditions of the hydroid microenvironment that may decrease the antibiotic susceptibility of the whole population. The latter hypothesis is supported by scanning electron microscope evidence for development of bacterial biofilm on the hydroid surface. On the basis of the results obtained, we infer that A. octodonta might behave as a reservoir of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria, increasing the risk of their transfer into aquaculture farms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence from previous works that bacterial secondary metabolism may be stimulated by genetic manipulation of RNA polymerase (RNAP). In this study we have used rifampicin selection as a strategy to genetically improve the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea.
Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif) mutants were isolated from the parental strain NRRL2338 and two rif mutations mapping within rpoB, S444F and Q426R, were characterized. With respect to the parental strain, S444F mutants exhibited higher respiratory performance and up to four-fold higher final erythromycin yields; in contrast, Q426R mutants were slow-growing, developmental-defective and severely impaired in erythromycin production. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that these rif mutations deeply changed the transcriptional profile of S. erythraea. The expression of genes coding for key enzymes of carbon (and energy) and nitrogen central metabolism was dramatically altered in turn affecting the flux of metabolites through erythromycin feeder pathways. In particular, the valine catabolic pathway that supplies propionyl-CoA for biosynthesis of the erythromycin precursor 6-deoxyerythronolide B was strongly up-regulated in the S444F mutants, while the expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster of erythromycin (ery) was not significantly affected. In contrast, the ery cluster was down-regulated (<2-fold) in the Q426R mutants. These strains also exhibited an impressive stimulation of the nitrogen regulon, which may contribute to lower erythromycin yields as erythromycin production was strongly inhibited by ammonium.
Rifampicin selection is a simple and reliable tool to investigate novel links between primary and secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation in S. erythraea and to improve erythromycin production. At the same time genome-wide analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays allowed information to be gained about the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory/inhibitory effects of the rif mutations on erythromycin production.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vetiver is the only grass cultivated worldwide for the root essential oil, which is a mixture of sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons, used extensively in perfumery and cosmetics. Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of bacteria in the cortical parenchymatous essential oil-producing cells and in the lysigen lacunae in close association with the essential oil. This finding and the evidence that axenic Vetiver produces in vitro only trace amounts of oil with a strikingly different composition compared with the oils from in vivo Vetiver plants stimulated the hypothesis of an involvement of these bacteria in the oil metabolism. We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to analyse the microbial community of the Vetiver root. Results demonstrate a broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacteria, including alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, high-G+C-content Gram-positive bacteria, and microbes belonging to the Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria group. We isolated root-associated bacteria and showed that most of them are able to grow by using oil sesquiterpenes as a carbon source and to metabolize them releasing into the medium a large number of compounds typically found in commercial Vetiver oils. Several bacteria were also able to induce gene expression of a Vetiver sesquiterpene synthase. These results support the intriguing hypothesis that bacteria may have a role in essential oil biosynthesis opening the possibility to use them to manoeuvre the Vetiver oil molecular structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Luminous bacteria are isolated from both Hydrozoa and Bryozoa with chitinous structures on their surfaces. All the specimens of the examined hydroid species (Aglaophenia kirchenpaueri, Aglaophenia octodonta, Aglaophenia tubiformis, Halopteris diaphana, Plumularia setacea, Ventromma halecioides), observed under blue light excitation, showed a clear fluorescence on the external side of the perisarc (chitinous exoskeleton) around hydrocladia. In the bryozoan Myriapora truncata, luminous bacteria are present on the chitinous opercula. All the isolated luminous bacteria were identified on the basis of both phenotypic and genotypic analysis. The isolates from A. tubiformis and H. diaphana were unambiguously assigned to the species Vibrio fischeri. In contrast, the isolates from the other hydroids, phenotypically assigned to the species Vibrio harveyi, were then split into two distinct species by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and results of culture-based and culture-independent approaches enabled us to establish that luminous vibrios represent major constituents of the bacterial community inhabiting the A. octodonta surface suggesting that the interactions between luminous bacteria and the examined hydrozoan and bryozoan species are highly specific. These interactions might have epidemiological as well as ecological implications because of the opportunistic pathogenicity of luminous Vibrio species for marine organisms and the wide-distribution of the hydrozoan and bryozoan functioning as carriers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (UV) lamps are widely used in mutagenesis-selection protocols. Nevertheless, since the eighties, due to the development of excimer lasers, new frontiers in the study of UV applications have been opened. It has been established that the presence of an intact SOS response system is required for the mutagenic effect of UV254 nm. The exposure to UV254 nm radiation is not mutagenic for Escherichia coli mutants lacking the RecA protein, the regulator of the SOS response. We have recently demonstrated that at variance with the UV254 nm mutagenesis, the UV308 nm mutagenesis by XeCl308 nm excimer laser is RecA-independent. This suggests that the UV308 nm might be mutagenic also in microorganisms naturally lacking the SOS response. In this study, we have developed an innovative mutagenesis protocol based on a homemade XeCl308 nm excimer laser and have demonstrated its efficiency on mutagenesis of Nonomuraea American type culture collection 39727, an industrial strain producing an antibiotic, which is relatively refractory to UV254 nm radiation-induced mutagenesis.
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 04/2008; 163(4-6):299-305. · 0.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A psychrotolerant, halotolerant and alkalophilic yeast was isolated from fermented leaves of Camellia sinensis Kuntze, the tea plant. The yeast strain, named Tea-Y1, was both phenotypically and genotypically identified as belonging to the species Debaryomyces hansenii. This assignment was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of growth curves demonstrated the ability this yeast strain to grow in a temperature range between 4°C and 28°C, with an optimum of 23°C. The ecology of this yeast in the C. sinensis phyllosphere, as well as its possible role in tea fermentation and storage, with particular reference to iced tea, are discussed.
Journal of Plant Interactions 09/2007; 2(3):169-174. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Italian cigar manufacturing process includes a fermentation step that leads to accumulation of nitrite and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), undesirable by-products due to their negative impact on health. In this study, growth and biochemical properties of Debaryomyces hansenii TOB-Y7, a yeast strain that predominates during the early phase of fermentation, have been investigated. With respect to other D. hansenii collection strains (Y7426, J26, and CBS 1796), TOB-Y7 was characterized by the ability to tolerate very high nitrite levels and to utilize nitrite, but not nitrate, as a sole nitrogen source in a chemically defined medium, a property that was enhanced in microaerophilic environment. The ability to assimilate nitrite was associated to the presence of YNI1, the gene encoding the assimilatory NAD(P)H:nitrite reductase (NiR), absent in Y7426, J26, and CBS 1796 by Southern blot data. YNI1 from TOB-Y7 was entirely sequenced, and its expression was analyzed in different media by Northern blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The evidence that, in D. hansenii TOB-Y7, YNI1 was transcriptional active also in the presence of high ammonia concentration typical of tobacco fermentation, stimulated the development of an improved process that, on a laboratory scale, was proved to be effective in minimizing nitrite and TSNA accumulation.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2007; 75(3):633-45. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crenothrix polyspora Cohn 1870 and Clonothrix fusca Roze 1896 are two filamentous, sheathed microorganisms exhibiting complex morphological differentiation, whose phylogeny and physiology have been obscure for a long time due to the inability to cultivate them. Very recently, DNA sequencing data from uncultured C. polyspora-enriched material have suggested that Crenothrix is a methane-oxidizing gamma-proteobacterium (39). In contrast, the possible ecological function of C. fusca, originally considered a developmental stage of C. polyspora, is unknown. In this study, temporal succession of two filamentous, sheathed microorganisms resembling Cohn's Crenothrix and Roze's Clonothrix was observed by analyzing the microbial community of an artesian well by optical microscopy. Combined culture-based and culture-independent approaches enabled us to assign C. fusca to a novel subgroup of methane-oxidizing gamma-proteobacteria distinct from that of C. polyspora. This assignment was supported by (i) methane uptake and assimilation experiments, (ii) ultrastructural data showing the presence in C. fusca cytoplasm of an elaborate membrane system resembling that of methanotrophic gamma-proteobacteria, and (iii) sequencing data demonstrating the presence in its genome of a methanol dehydrogenase alpha subunit-encoding gene (mxaF) and a conventional particulate methane mono-oxygenase alpha subunit-encoding gene (pmoA) that is different from the unusual pmoA (u-pmoA) of C. polyspora.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2007; 73(11):3556-65. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actinomadura sp. ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, structurally similar to teicoplanin. Production of A40926 is governed by the stringent response at the transcriptional level. In fact, addition of an amino acid pool prevented the transcription of dbv cluster genes involved in the A40926 biosynthesis and the antibiotic production in chemically defined media, and a thiostrepton-resistant relaxed mutant was severely impaired in its ability to produce the antibiotic. The derivative strain rif19, highly resistant to rifampicin (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC > 200 microg ml(-1)), was isolated from the wild type strain that exhibited low resistance to rifampicin (MIC < 25 microg ml(-1)). In this strain A40926 production started earlier than in the wild type, and reached higher final levels. Moreover, the antibiotic production was not subjected to the stringent control. Molecular analysis led to the identification of two distinct rpoB alleles, rpoBS and rpoBR, in both the wild type and the rif19. rpoBR harboured the H426N missense which is responsible for rifampicin-resistance in bacteria, in addition to other nucleotide substitutions affecting the primary structure of the RNA polymerase beta-chain. Transcript analysis revealed that rpoBR was expressed at a very low level in the wild type strain during the pseudo-exponential growth phase, and that the amount of rpoBR mRNA increased during the transition to the stationary phase. In contrast, expression of rpoBR was constitutive in the rif19. The results of mRNA half-life analysis did not support the hypothesis that post-transcriptional events are responsible for the different rpoB expression patterns in the two strains, suggesting a role of transcriptional mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actinomadura sp. ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, structurally similar to teicoplanin, with significant activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and precursor of the semi-synthetic antibiotic dalbavancin. In this study the production of A40926 by Actinomadura under a variety of growth conditions was investigated. The use of chemically defined mineral media allowed us to analyze the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources, phosphate, ammonium and calcium on the growth and the antibiotic productivity of Actinomadura. We confirm recent data [Gunnarsson et al. (2003) J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 30:150-156] that low initial concentrations of phosphate and ammonium are beneficial for growth and A40926 production, and we provide new evidence that the production of A40926 is depressed by calcium, but promoted when L-glutamine or L-asparagine are used as nitrogen sources instead of ammonium salts.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2004; 65(6):671-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor